T cell receptors recognize foreign antigens which have been processed as small peptides and bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules at the surface of antigen presenting cells (APC). Each T cell receptor is a dimer consisting of one alpha and one beta chain or one delta and one gamma chain. In a single cell, the T cell receptor loci are rearranged and expressed... See more...

Aliases for TRAC Gene

Aliases for TRAC Gene

  • T Cell Receptor Alpha Constant 2 3 4 5
  • TCRA 3 4
  • IMD7 3
  • TRCA 3
  • TRA 3

External Ids for TRAC Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for TRAC Gene

  • GC14U990391
  • GC14P021006
  • GC14P022086
  • GC14P022539
  • GC14P003134
  • GC14P023255
  • GC14P023318
  • GC14P023387
  • GC14P023463
  • GC14P023543
  • GC14P023636
  • GC14P023790
  • GC14P022282
  • GC14P024454
  • GC14P024565
  • GC14P022713
  • GC14P022203
  • GC14P023863
  • GC14P023998
  • GC14P024108
  • GC14P024224
  • GC14P024339

Summaries for TRAC Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for TRAC Gene

  • T cell receptors recognize foreign antigens which have been processed as small peptides and bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules at the surface of antigen presenting cells (APC). Each T cell receptor is a dimer consisting of one alpha and one beta chain or one delta and one gamma chain. In a single cell, the T cell receptor loci are rearranged and expressed in the order delta, gamma, beta, and alpha. If both delta and gamma rearrangements produce functional chains, the cell expresses delta and gamma. If not, the cell proceeds to rearrange the beta and alpha loci. This region represents the germline organization of the T cell receptor alpha and delta loci. Both the alpha and delta loci include V (variable), J (joining), and C (constant) segments and the delta locus also includes diversity (D) segments. The delta locus is situated within the alpha locus, between the alpha V and J segments. During T cell development, the delta chain is synthesized by a recombination event at the DNA level joining a D segment with a J segment; a V segment is then joined to the D-J gene. The alpha chain is synthesized by recombination joining a single V segment with a J segment. For both chains, the C segment is later joined by splicing at the RNA level. Recombination of many different V segments with several J segments provides a wide range of antigen recognition. Additional diversity is attained by junctional diversity, resulting from the random additional of nucleotides by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase. Five variable segments can be used in either alpha or delta chains and are described by TRAV/DV symbols. Several V and J segments of the alpha locus are known to be incapable of encoding a protein and are considered pseudogenes. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2016]

GeneCards Summary for TRAC Gene

TRAC (T Cell Receptor Alpha Constant) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with TRAC include T-Cell Receptor-Alpha/Beta Deficiency. Among its related pathways are TCR signaling (REACTOME) and G-protein signaling N-RAS regulation pathway. An important paralog of this gene is TRAV10.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for TRAC Gene

  • Constant region of T cell receptor (TR) alpha chain (PubMed:24600447). Alpha-beta T cell receptors are antigen specific receptors which are essential to the immune response and are present on the cell surface of T lymphocytes. Recognize peptide-major histocompatibility (MH) (pMH) complexes that are displayed by antigen presenting cells (APC), a prerequisite for efficient T cell adaptive immunity against pathogens (PubMed:25493333). Binding of alpha-beta TR to pMH complex initiates TR-CD3 clustering on the cell surface and intracellular activation of LCK that phosphorylates the ITAM motifs of CD3G, CD3D, CD3E and CD247 enabling the recruitment of ZAP70. In turn, ZAP70 phosphorylates LAT, which recruits numerous signaling molecules to form the LAT signalosome. The LAT signalosome propagates signal branching to three major signaling pathways, the calcium, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase and the nuclear factor NF-kappa-B (NF-kB) pathways, leading to the mobilization of transcription factors that are critical for gene expression and essential for T cell growth and differentiation (PubMed:23524462). The T cell repertoire is generated in the thymus, by V-(D)-J rearrangement. This repertoire is then shaped by intrathymic selection events to generate a peripheral T cell pool of self-MH restricted, non-autoaggressive T cells. Post-thymic interaction of alpha-beta TR with the pMH complexes shapes TR structural and functional avidity (PubMed:15040585).

Additional gene information for TRAC Gene

No data available for CIViC Summary , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for TRAC Gene

Genomics for TRAC Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for TRAC Gene

Promoters and enhancers for TRAC Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
Score
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH14J022472 Promoter/Enhancer 2 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas dbSUPER 13.8 -25.4 -25445 99 ZNF24 SP1 ZBTB40 CTCF ZBTB6 LCORL RBPJ SMARCE1 POLR2A TCF7L2 TRAJ21 TRAJ22 TRAJ23 ACIN1 RBM23 ABHD4 C14orf93 NGDN MMP14 PRMT5
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around TRAC on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Locations for TRAC Gene

Genomic Locations for TRAC Gene
chr14:22,547,506-22,552,156
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
4,651 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand
chr14:23,016,447-23,021,097
(GRCh37/hg19)
Size:
4,651 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for TRAC Gene

Genes around TRAC on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
TRAC Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for TRAC Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for TRAC Gene

Proteins for TRAC Gene

  • Protein details for TRAC Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P01848-TRAC_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    T cell receptor alpha constant
    Protein Accession:
    P01848
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A0A087WWC6

    Protein attributes for TRAC Gene

    Size:
    140 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    15717 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Alpha-beta TR is a heterodimer composed of an alpha and beta chain; disulfide-linked. The alpha-beta TR is associated with the transmembrane signaling CD3 coreceptor proteins to form the TR-CD3 (TcR or TCR). The assembly of alpha-beta TR heterodimers with CD3 occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum where a single alpha-beta TR heterodimer associates with one CD3D-CD3E heterodimer, one CD3G-CD3E heterodimer and one CD247 homodimer forming a stable octomeric structure. CD3D-CD3E and CD3G-CD3E heterodimers preferentially associate with TR alpha and TR beta chains, respectively. The association of the CD247 homodimer is the last step of TcR assembly in the endoplasmic reticulum and is required for transport to the cell surface.
    SequenceCaution:
    • Sequence=CAA26435.1; Type=Miscellaneous discrepancy; Note=Chimeric mRNA corresponding to regions V, J and C of T cell receptor (TR) alpha chain.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for TRAC Gene

neXtProt entry for TRAC Gene

Post-translational modifications for TRAC Gene

  • Glycosylation at Asn32, Asn66, Asn77, and Asn113
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for TRAC Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for TRAC Gene

Domains & Families for TRAC Gene

Gene Families for TRAC Gene

Protein Domains for TRAC Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for TRAC Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • T-cell receptor alpha chain C region (TCA_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P01848

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

TRAC_HUMAN :
  • The connecting peptide (CP) domain contributes to the TR-CD3 assembly and signal transduction.
Domain:
  • The connecting peptide (CP) domain contributes to the TR-CD3 assembly and signal transduction.
  • The TM domain mediates the interaction with the CD3 subunits.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with TRAC: view

Function for TRAC Gene

Molecular function for TRAC Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Constant region of T cell receptor (TR) alpha chain (PubMed:24600447). Alpha-beta T cell receptors are antigen specific receptors which are essential to the immune response and are present on the cell surface of T lymphocytes. Recognize peptide-major histocompatibility (MH) (pMH) complexes that are displayed by antigen presenting cells (APC), a prerequisite for efficient T cell adaptive immunity against pathogens (PubMed:25493333). Binding of alpha-beta TR to pMH complex initiates TR-CD3 clustering on the cell surface and intracellular activation of LCK that phosphorylates the ITAM motifs of CD3G, CD3D, CD3E and CD247 enabling the recruitment of ZAP70. In turn, ZAP70 phosphorylates LAT, which recruits numerous signaling molecules to form the LAT signalosome. The LAT signalosome propagates signal branching to three major signaling pathways, the calcium, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase and the nuclear factor NF-kappa-B (NF-kB) pathways, leading to the mobilization of transcription factors that are critical for gene expression and essential for T cell growth and differentiation (PubMed:23524462). The T cell repertoire is generated in the thymus, by V-(D)-J rearrangement. This repertoire is then shaped by intrathymic selection events to generate a peripheral T cell pool of self-MH restricted, non-autoaggressive T cells. Post-thymic interaction of alpha-beta TR with the pMH complexes shapes TR structural and functional avidity (PubMed:15040585).

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for TRAC Gene

Human Phenotype Ontology for TRAC Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function , Phenotypes , Animal Models , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for TRAC Gene

Localization for TRAC Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TRAC Gene

Cell membrane.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for TRAC Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane IEA --
GO:0042101 T cell receptor complex IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TRAC: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS and Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for TRAC Gene

Pathways & Interactions for TRAC Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with TRAC: view

Interacting Proteins for TRAC Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for TRAC Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0002250 adaptive immune response IEA --
GO:0050776 regulation of immune response TAS --
GO:0050852 T cell receptor signaling pathway TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TRAC: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for TRAC Gene

Drugs & Compounds for TRAC Gene

(1) Drugs for TRAC Gene - From: DrugBank

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
3-Indolebutyric acid Experimental Pharma Target 0
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with TRAC: view

Transcripts for TRAC Gene

mRNA/cDNA for TRAC Gene

(1) Additional mRNA sequences :
(144) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(1) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

CRISPR Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TRAC Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for TRAC Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
TRAC
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
TRAC

Expression for TRAC Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for TRAC Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for TRAC Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Whole Blood (x17.3) and Spleen (x4.5).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for TRAC Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (40.8) and CD8 Tcells (14.6).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for TRAC Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for TRAC Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of TRAC Gene:

TRAC

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for TRAC Gene

Germ Layers:
  • mesoderm
Systems:
  • immune
  • lymphatic
Regions:
General:
  • blood
  • lymph node
  • white blood cell
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with TRAC: view

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for TRAC Gene

Orthologs for TRAC Gene

Evolution for TRAC Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for TRAC (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for TRAC (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for TRAC: view image

No data available for Orthologs for TRAC Gene

Paralogs for TRAC Gene

(2) SIMAP similar genes for TRAC Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

  • TCA_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with TRAC: view

Variants for TRAC Gene

Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TRAC Gene

TRAC_HUMAN-P01848
There are several alleles. The sequence shown is that of IMGT allele TRAC*01.

Additional Variant Information for TRAC Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
TRAC
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
TRAC

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar , Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) and Variation tolerance for TRAC Gene

Disorders for TRAC Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(1) MalaCards diseases for TRAC Gene - From: OMIM, ClinVar, GTR, and Orphanet

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
t-cell receptor-alpha/beta deficiency
  • tcr-alpha/beta deficiency
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search TRAC in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

TRAC_HUMAN
  • Immunodeficiency 7 (IMD7) [MIM:615387]: A primary immunodeficiency disorder manifesting with recurrent respiratory infections, candidiasis, diarrhea, and failure to thrive. Patients show a clear predisposition to herpes viral infections, and features of immune dysregulation, including hypereosinophilia, vitiligo, and alopecia areata. Other features include lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly. CD3+ T-cells express TCR-gamma/delta, but little or no TCR-alpha/beta. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:21206088}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Additional Disease Information for TRAC

Genetic Association Database
(GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
(HuGE)
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with TRAC: view

No data available for Genatlas for TRAC Gene

Publications for TRAC Gene

  1. The chromosomal location of T-cell receptor genes and a T cell rearranging gene: possible correlation with specific translocations in human T cell leukaemia. (PMID: 3875483) Rabbitts TH … Goodfellow PN (The EMBO journal 1985) 2 3 4 56
  2. Mutation in the TCRα subunit constant gene (TRAC) leads to a human immunodeficiency disorder characterized by a lack of TCRαβ+ T cells. (PMID: 21206088) Morgan NV … Maher ER (The Journal of clinical investigation 2011) 3 4 56
  3. Mass-spectrometric identification and relative quantification of N-linked cell surface glycoproteins. (PMID: 19349973) Wollscheid B … Watts JD (Nature biotechnology 2009) 3 4 56
  4. TRAC variants associate with IgA nephropathy. (PMID: 19470682) Li R … Wang Y (Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN 2009) 3 43 56
  5. Structure of a human autoimmune TCR bound to a myelin basic protein self-peptide and a multiple sclerosis-associated MHC class II molecule. (PMID: 16079912) Li Y … Mariuzza RA (The EMBO journal 2005) 3 4 56

Products for TRAC Gene

Sources for TRAC Gene