Aliases for TOX Gene
External Ids for TOX Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for TOX Gene
The protein encoded by this gene contains a HMG box DNA binding domain. HMG boxes are found in many eukaryotic proteins involved in chromatin assembly, transcription and replication. This protein may function to regulate T-cell development.[provided by RefSeq, Apr 2009]
GeneCards Summary for TOX Gene
TOX (Thymocyte Selection Associated High Mobility Group Box) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with TOX include Cutaneous Diphtheria and Polycystic Echinococcosis. Among its related pathways are Development and heterogeneity of the ILC family and Mesodermal Commitment Pathway. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include chromatin binding. An important paralog of this gene is TOX3.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for TOX Gene
Transcriptional regulator with a major role in neural stem cell commitment and corticogenesis as well as in lymphoid cell development and lymphoid tissue organogenesis (By similarity). Binds to GC-rich DNA sequences in the proximity of transcription start sites and may alter chromatin structure, modifying access of transcription factors to DNA. During cortical development, controls the neural stem cell pool by inhibiting the switch from proliferative to differentiating progenitors. Beyond progenitor cells, promotes neurite outgrowth in newborn neurons migrating to reach the cortical plate. May activate or repress critical genes for neural stem cell fate such as SOX2, EOMES and ROBO2 (By similarity). Plays an essential role in the development of lymphoid tissue-inducer (LTi) cells, a subset necessary for the formation of secondary lymphoid organs: peripheral lymph nodes and Peyer's patches. Acts as a developmental checkpoint and regulates thymocyte positive selection toward T cell lineage commitment. Required for the development of various T cell subsets, including CD4-positive helper T cells, CD8-positive cytotoxic T cells, regulatory T cells and CD1D-dependent natural killer T (NKT) cells. Required for the differentiation of common lymphoid progenitors (CMP) to innate lymphoid cells (ILC) (By similarity). May regulate the NOTCH-mediated gene program, promoting differentiation of the ILC lineage. Required at the progenitor phase of NK cell development in the bone marrow to specify NK cell lineage commitment (PubMed:21126536) (By similarity). Upon chronic antigen stimulation, diverts T cell development by promoting the generation of exhaustive T cells, while suppressing effector and memory T cell programming. May regulate the expression of genes encoding inhibitory receptors such as PDCD1 and induce the exhaustion program, to prevent the overstimulation of T cells and activation-induced cell death (By similarity).