The protein encoded by this gene is a cytokine that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ligand family. This cytokine is a ligand for receptor TNFRSF18/AITR/GITR. It has been shown to modulate T lymphocyte survival in peripheral tissues. This cytokine is also found to be expressed in endothelial cells, and is thought to be important for interaction between T lymphocytes a... See more...

Aliases for TNFSF18 Gene

Aliases for TNFSF18 Gene

  • TNF Superfamily Member 18 2 3 5
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor (Ligand) Superfamily, Member 18 2 3
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor Ligand Superfamily Member 18 3 4
  • Glucocorticoid-Induced TNF-Related Ligand 3 4
  • Activation-Inducible TNF-Related Ligand 3 4
  • HGITRL 3 4
  • AITRL 3 4
  • GITRL 3 4
  • TL6 3 4
  • Glucocorticoid-Induced TNFR-Related Protein Ligand 3
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor Superfamily Member 18 3
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor Ligand 2A 3
  • AITR Ligand 3
  • GITR Ligand 3
  • TNLG2A 3

External Ids for TNFSF18 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for TNFSF18 Gene

  • GC01M170574
  • GC01M168639
  • GC01M169591
  • GC01M170249
  • GC01M170248
  • GC01M169740
  • GC01M171275
  • GC01M144235

Summaries for TNFSF18 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for TNFSF18 Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene is a cytokine that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ligand family. This cytokine is a ligand for receptor TNFRSF18/AITR/GITR. It has been shown to modulate T lymphocyte survival in peripheral tissues. This cytokine is also found to be expressed in endothelial cells, and is thought to be important for interaction between T lymphocytes and endothelial cells. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for TNFSF18 Gene

TNFSF18 (TNF Superfamily Member 18) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are ERK Signaling and Akt Signaling. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include signaling receptor binding and tumor necrosis factor receptor binding.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for TNFSF18 Gene

  • Cytokine that binds to TNFRSF18/AITR/GITR. Regulates T-cell responses. Can function as costimulator and lower the threshold for T-cell activation and T-cell proliferation. Important for interactions between activated T-lymphocytes and endothelial cells. Mediates activation of NF-kappa-B. Triggers increased phosphorylation of STAT1 and up-regulates expression of VCAM1 and ICAM1 (PubMed:23892569). Promotes leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells (PubMed:23892569). Regulates migration of monocytes from the splenic reservoir to sites of inflammation (By similarity).

Gene Wiki entry for TNFSF18 Gene

Additional gene information for TNFSF18 Gene

No data available for CIViC Summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for TNFSF18 Gene

Genomics for TNFSF18 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for TNFSF18 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for TNFSF18 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
Score
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH01J173050 Promoter 0.7 EPDnew 500.7 +0.0 5 0.1 EP300 KLF8 ZNF843 PRDM6 RAD21 FEZF1 MAX KLF10 POLR2A FOS TNFSF18 piR-36588-026 ENSG00000224228
GH01J173051 Enhancer 0.7 ENCODE 500.7 -1.4 -1371 2.5 JUND EP300 OSR2 SMARCC1 FOS CEBPB JUN NR2F2 KLF8 RFX5 TNFSF18 piR-57501 ENSG00000224228
GH01J173049 Promoter 0.5 Ensembl 500.7 +1.7 1662 0.2 GATA2 FOS TNFSF18 piR-36588-026 ENSG00000224228
GH01J173052 Promoter 0.3 Ensembl 500.7 +0.8 762 0.8 TNFSF18 piR-36588-026 ENSG00000224228
GH01J172902 Enhancer 1.5 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 12.7 +144.0 143962 10.4 JUND FOS ZBTB11 AFF1 EP300 HINFP RELA KDM1A ZNF316 MAFF ENSG00000224000 ENSG00000224228 TNFSF18 GAS5 lnc-TNFSF18-2
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around TNFSF18 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for TNFSF18

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the TNFSF18 gene promoter:
  • AML1a
  • C/EBPbeta
  • Ik-2
  • LCR-F1
  • LyF-1
  • RREB-1
  • Sox5
  • Sox9
  • SRY
  • TGIF

Genomic Locations for TNFSF18 Gene

Genomic Locations for TNFSF18 Gene
chr1:173,039,960-173,050,963
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
11,004 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand
chr1:173,009,100-173,020,103
(GRCh37/hg19)
Size:
11,004 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for TNFSF18 Gene

Genes around TNFSF18 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
TNFSF18 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for TNFSF18 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for TNFSF18 Gene

Proteins for TNFSF18 Gene

  • Protein details for TNFSF18 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q9UNG2-TNF18_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 18
    Protein Accession:
    Q9UNG2
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A9IQG8
    • O95852
    • Q6ISV1

    Protein attributes for TNFSF18 Gene

    Size:
    199 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    22724 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer (By similarity). Homotrimer.
    SequenceCaution:
    • Sequence=AAH93986.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Truncated N-terminus.; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=AAI12033.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Truncated N-terminus.; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=AAQ89227.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Truncated N-terminus.; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=BAG36082.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Truncated N-terminus.; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=EAW90937.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Truncated N-terminus.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for TNFSF18 Gene

neXtProt entry for TNFSF18 Gene

Post-translational modifications for TNFSF18 Gene

  • Glycosylation at Asn151 and Asn183

Other Protein References for TNFSF18 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

  • Boster Bio Antibodies for TNFSF18
  • Santa Cruz Biotechnology (SCBT) Antibodies for TNFSF18

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for TNFSF18 Gene

Domains & Families for TNFSF18 Gene

Gene Families for TNFSF18 Gene

Protein Domains for TNFSF18 Gene

Blocks:
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor
InterPro:
ProtoNet:

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for TNFSF18 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • Glucocorticoid-induced TNF-related ligand (TNF18_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q9UNG2

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

TNF18_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the tumor necrosis factor family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the tumor necrosis factor family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with TNFSF18: view

Function for TNFSF18 Gene

Molecular function for TNFSF18 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Cytokine that binds to TNFRSF18/AITR/GITR. Regulates T-cell responses. Can function as costimulator and lower the threshold for T-cell activation and T-cell proliferation. Important for interactions between activated T-lymphocytes and endothelial cells. Mediates activation of NF-kappa-B. Triggers increased phosphorylation of STAT1 and up-regulates expression of VCAM1 and ICAM1 (PubMed:23892569). Promotes leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells (PubMed:23892569). Regulates migration of monocytes from the splenic reservoir to sites of inflammation (By similarity).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
Up-regulated after stimulation by bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS).
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
tumor necrosis factor (ligand) superfamily,member 18,expressed in several peripheral tissues and vascular endothelial cellsl,maybe involved in interaction between activated T lymphocytes and endothelial cells

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for TNFSF18 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for TNFSF18 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005102 signaling receptor binding TAS 10074428
GO:0005125 cytokine activity IEA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI,IEA 18040044
GO:0032813 tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily binding ISS --
GO:0042802 identical protein binding IPI 18040044
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TNFSF18: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with TNFSF18: view

Animal Models for TNFSF18 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for TNFSF18:

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for TNFSF18

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for TNFSF18 Gene

Localization for TNFSF18 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TNFSF18 Gene

Cell membrane; Single-pass type II membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for TNFSF18 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
extracellular 4
nucleus 2
cytoskeleton 1
mitochondrion 1
endosome 1
cytosol 1
lysosome 1
golgi apparatus 1
peroxisome 0

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for TNFSF18 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005615 extracellular space IEA --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
GO:0009986 cell surface IBA,ISS --
GO:0016020 membrane IEA --
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TNFSF18: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for TNFSF18 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for TNFSF18 Gene

PathCards logo

SuperPathways for TNFSF18 Gene

SuperPathway Contained pathways
1 PEDF Induced Signaling
.94
.94
.73
.71
.62
.61
.47
.46
2 ERK Signaling
.61
.61
.51
3 Akt Signaling
.60
.60
4 PAK Pathway
.56
.56
5 T Cell Co-Signaling Pathway: Ligand-Receptor Interactions
genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with TNFSF18: view

Pathways by source for TNFSF18 Gene

1 KEGG pathway for TNFSF18 Gene
1 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) pathway for TNFSF18 Gene
  • Apoptosis and survival Apoptotic TNF-family pathways
1 R&D Systems pathway for TNFSF18 Gene
17 Qiagen pathways for TNFSF18 Gene
  • Akt Signaling
  • all-trans-Retinoic Acid Signaling in Brain
  • Antioxidant Action of Vitamin-C
  • Endothelin-1 Signaling Pathway
  • ERK Signaling

Interacting Proteins for TNFSF18 Gene

;

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for TNFSF18 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0002250 adaptive immune response IEA --
GO:0002309 T cell proliferation involved in immune response IBA,ISS --
GO:0002376 immune system process IEA --
GO:0002687 positive regulation of leukocyte migration IMP 23892569
GO:0007165 signal transduction TAS 10074428
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TNFSF18: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for TNFSF18 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for TNFSF18 Gene

(1) Drugs for TNFSF18 Gene - From: ApexBio

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Pomalidomide (CC-4047) Pharma Immunomodulator,antumor/anti-angiogenic 0

(1) ApexBio Compounds for TNFSF18 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Pomalidomide (CC-4047) Immunomodulator,antumor/anti-angiogenic 19171-19-8
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with TNFSF18: view

Transcripts for TNFSF18 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for TNFSF18 Gene

1 REFSEQ mRNAs :
10 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
1 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for TNFSF18

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TNFSF18 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for TNFSF18 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
TNFSF18

Expression for TNFSF18 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for TNFSF18 Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for TNFSF18 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Esophagus - Mucosa (x5.9).

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for TNFSF18

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for TNFSF18 Gene:

Hs.248197

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for TNFSF18 Gene:

Q9UNG2-TNF18_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Expressed at high levels in the small intestine, ovary, testis, kidney and endothelial cells.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for TNFSF18 Gene

  • Nervous system(4.2)
  • Spleen(2.3)
  • Lymph node(2.2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with TNFSF18: view

No data available for Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein expression , Protein tissue co-expression partners and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for TNFSF18 Gene

Orthologs for TNFSF18 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of mammals.

Orthologs for TNFSF18 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia TNFSF18 31 30
  • 100 (n)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia TNFSF18 31 30
  • 82.3 (n)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia TNFSF18 31 30
  • 81.56 (n)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Tnfsf18 30
  • 72.35 (n)
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Tnfsf18 17 31 30
  • 69.41 (n)
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia TNFSF18 31
  • 32 (a)
OneToOne
Species where no ortholog for TNFSF18 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • oppossum (Monodelphis domestica)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)
  • zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Evolution for TNFSF18 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for TNFSF18 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for TNFSF18 (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for TNFSF18: view image

Paralogs for TNFSF18 Gene

No data available for Paralogs for TNFSF18 Gene

Variants for TNFSF18 Gene

Additional dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for TNFSF18 Gene

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for TNFSF18 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv831904 CNV gain+loss 17160897

Variation tolerance for TNFSF18 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 69.9% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.93; 19.35% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for TNFSF18 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
TNFSF18
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
TNFSF18

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for TNFSF18 Gene

Disorders for TNFSF18 Gene

Additional Disease Information for TNFSF18

Genetic Association Database
(GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
(HuGE)
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology

No disorders were found for TNFSF18 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for TNFSF18 Gene

Publications for TNFSF18 Gene

  1. Identification of a new member of the tumor necrosis factor family and its receptor, a human ortholog of mouse GITR. (PMID: 10074428) Gurney AL … Ashkenazi A (Current biology : CB 1999) 2 3 4 23 54
  2. Identification of a novel activation-inducible protein of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily and its ligand. (PMID: 10037686) Kwon B … Kwon BS (The Journal of biological chemistry 1999) 2 3 4 54
  3. Glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor family-related ligand triggering upregulates vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and promotes leukocyte adhesion. (PMID: 23892569) Lacal PM … Nocentini G (The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics 2013) 3 4 54
  4. Variation at the NFATC2 locus increases the risk of thiazolidinedione-induced edema in the Diabetes REduction Assessment with ramipril and rosiglitazone Medication (DREAM) study. (PMID: 20628086) Bailey SD … DREAM investigators (Diabetes care 2010) 3 41 54
  5. Risk of meningioma and common variation in genes related to innate immunity. (PMID: 20406964) Rajaraman P … Inskip PD (Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology 2010) 3 41 54

Products for TNFSF18 Gene

  • Boster Bio Antibodies for TNFSF18
  • Boster Bio ELISA Kits for TNFSF18

Sources for TNFSF18 Gene