Aliases for TNF Gene
External Ids for TNF Gene
Previous HGNC Symbols for TNF Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for TNF Gene
This gene encodes a multifunctional proinflammatory cytokine that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily. This cytokine is mainly secreted by macrophages. It can bind to, and thus functions through its receptors TNFRSF1A/TNFR1 and TNFRSF1B/TNFBR. This cytokine is involved in the regulation of a wide spectrum of biological processes including cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, lipid metabolism, and coagulation. This cytokine has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including autoimmune diseases, insulin resistance, and cancer. Knockout studies in mice also suggested the neuroprotective function of this cytokine. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
GeneCards Summary for TNF Gene
TNF (Tumor Necrosis Factor) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with TNF include Asthma and Malaria. Among its related pathways are Apoptosis Modulation and Signaling and Monoamine Transport. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include identical protein binding and cytokine activity. An important paralog of this gene is LTB.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for TNF Gene
Cytokine that binds to TNFRSF1A/TNFR1 and TNFRSF1B/TNFBR. It is mainly secreted by macrophages and can induce cell death of certain tumor cell lines. It is potent pyrogen causing fever by direct action or by stimulation of interleukin-1 secretion and is implicated in the induction of cachexia, Under certain conditions it can stimulate cell proliferation and induce cell differentiation. Impairs regulatory T-cells (Treg) function in individuals with rheumatoid arthritis via FOXP3 dephosphorylation. Upregulates the expression of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1), which dephosphorylates the key 'Ser-418' residue of FOXP3, thereby inactivating FOXP3 and rendering Treg cells functionally defective (PubMed:23396208). Key mediator of cell death in the anticancer action of BCG-stimulated neutrophils in combination with DIABLO/SMAC mimetic in the RT4v6 bladder cancer cell line (PubMed:22517918, PubMed:16829952, PubMed:23396208). Induces insulin resistance in adipocytes via inhibition of insulin-induced IRS1 tyrosine phosphorylation and insulin-induced glucose uptake. Induces GKAP42 protein degradation in adipocytes which is partially responsible for TNF-induced insulin resistance (By similarity).
The TNF intracellular domain (ICD) form induces IL12 production in dendritic cells.
NF-kappaB (nuclear factor-kappa B) is a rapidly acting primary transcription factor found in all cell types. It is involved in the cellular responses to stimuli such as cytokines and stress and plays a key role in regulating the immunological response to infections.