Aliases for TMPRSS2 Gene
External Ids for TMPRSS2 Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for TMPRSS2 Gene
This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the serine protease family. The encoded protein contains a type II transmembrane domain, a receptor class A domain, a scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domain and a protease domain. Serine proteases are known to be involved in many physiological and pathological processes. This gene was demonstrated to be up-regulated by androgenic hormones in prostate cancer cells and down-regulated in androgen-independent prostate cancer tissue. The protease domain of this protein is thought to be cleaved and secreted into cell media after autocleavage. This protein also facilitates entry of viruses into host cells by proteolytically cleaving and activating viral envelope glycoproteins. Viruses found to use this protein for cell entry include Influenza virus and the human coronaviruses HCoV-229E, MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19 virus). Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2020]
GeneCards Summary for TMPRSS2 Gene
TMPRSS2 (Transmembrane Serine Protease 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with TMPRSS2 include Covid-19 and Influenza. Among its related pathways are Transcriptional misregulation in cancer and Coregulation of Androgen receptor activity. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include serine-type endopeptidase activity and scavenger receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is TMPRSS3.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for TMPRSS2 Gene
Plasma membrane-anchored serine protease that participates in proteolytic cascades of relevance for the normal physiologic function of the prostate (PubMed:25122198). Androgen-induced TMPRSS2 activates several substrates that include pro-hepatocyte growth factor/HGF, the protease activated receptor-2/F2RL1 or matriptase/ST14 leading to extracellular matrix disruption and metastasis of prostate cancer cells (PubMed:15537383, PubMed:26018085, PubMed:25122198). In addition, activates trigeminal neurons and contribute to both spontaneous pain and mechanical allodynia (By similarity).
(Microbial infection) Facilitates human coronaviruses SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 infections via two independent mechanisms, proteolytic cleavage of ACE2 receptor which promotes viral uptake, and cleavage of coronavirus spike glycoproteins which activates the glycoprotein for host cell entry (PubMed:24227843, PubMed:32142651, PubMed:32404436). Proteolytically cleaves and activates the spike glycoproteins of human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) and human coronavirus EMC (HCoV-EMC) and the fusion glycoproteins F0 of Sendai virus (SeV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), human parainfluenza 1, 2, 3, 4a and 4b viruses (HPIV). Essential for spread and pathogenesis of influenza A virus (strains H1N1, H3N2 and H7N9); involved in proteolytic cleavage and activation of hemagglutinin (HA) protein which is essential for viral infectivity.