Aliases for TLR2 Gene
External Ids for TLR2 Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for TLR2 Gene
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family which plays a fundamental role in pathogen recognition and activation of innate immunity. TLRs are highly conserved from Drosophila to humans and share structural and functional similarities. This protein is a cell-surface protein that can form heterodimers with other TLR family members to recognize conserved molecules derived from microorganisms known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Activation of TLRs by PAMPs leads to an up-regulation of signaling pathways to modulate the host's inflammatory response. This gene is also thought to promote apoptosis in response to bacterial lipoproteins. This gene has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2016]
GeneCards Summary for TLR2 Gene
TLR2 (Toll Like Receptor 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with TLR2 include Leprosy 3 and Colorectal Cancer. Among its related pathways are Activated TLR4 signalling and Human cytomegalovirus infection. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include protein heterodimerization activity and transmembrane signaling receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is TLR6.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TLR2 Gene
Cooperates with LY96 to mediate the innate immune response to bacterial lipoproteins and other microbial cell wall components. Cooperates with TLR1 or TLR6 to mediate the innate immune response to bacterial lipoproteins or lipopeptides (PubMed:21078852, PubMed:17889651). Acts via MYD88 and TRAF6, leading to NF-kappa-B activation, cytokine secretion and the inflammatory response. May also activate immune cells and promote apoptosis in response to the lipid moiety of lipoproteins (PubMed:10426995, PubMed:10426996). Recognizes mycoplasmal macrophage-activating lipopeptide-2kD (MALP-2), soluble tuberculosis factor (STF), phenol-soluble modulin (PSM) and B.burgdorferi outer surface protein A lipoprotein (OspA-L) cooperatively with TLR6 (PubMed:11441107). Stimulation of monocytes in vitro with M.tuberculosis PstS1 induces p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 activation primarily via this receptor, but also partially via TLR4 (PubMed:16622205). MAPK activation in response to bacterial peptidoglycan also occurs via this receptor (PubMed:16622205). Acts as a receptor for M.tuberculosis lipoproteins LprA, LprG, LpqH and PstS1, some lipoproteins are dependent on other coreceptors (TLR1, CD14 and/or CD36); the lipoproteins act as agonists to modulate antigen presenting cell functions in response to the pathogen (PubMed:19362712). M.tuberculosis HSP70 (dnaK) but not HSP65 (groEL-2) acts via this protein to stimulate NF-kappa-B expression (PubMed:15809303). Recognizes M.tuberculosis major T-antigen EsxA (ESAT-6) which inhibits downstream MYD88-dependent signaling (shown in mouse) (By similarity). Forms activation clusters composed of several receptors depending on the ligand, these clusters trigger signaling from the cell surface and subsequently are targeted to the Golgi in a lipid-raft dependent pathway. Forms the cluster TLR2:TLR6:CD14:CD36 in response to diacylated lipopeptides and TLR2:TLR1:CD14 in response to triacylated lipopeptides (PubMed:16880211). Required for normal uptake of M.tuberculosis, a process that is inhibited by M.tuberculosis LppM (By similarity).
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are single transmembrane cell-surface receptors, which have a key role in the innate immune system. TLRs generally exist as homodimers (heterodimers have been reported) and are found on immune cells; macrophages, B lymphocytes and mast cells.