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Aliases for TIRAP Gene

Aliases for TIRAP Gene

  • TIR Domain Containing Adaptor Protein 2 3 5
  • MyD88 Adapter-Like Protein 3 4
  • Adaptor Protein Wyatt 3 4
  • MyD88-2 3 4
  • MAL 3 4
  • Toll-Interleukin 1 Receptor (TIR) Domain-Containing Adaptor Protein 2
  • Toll-Interleukin 1 Receptor (TIR) Domain Containing Adaptor Protein 3
  • Toll/Interleukin-1 Receptor Domain-Containing Adapter Protein 3
  • TIR Domain-Containing Adapter Protein 4
  • Toll-Like Receptor Adaptor Protein 3
  • Adapter Protein Wyatt 3
  • MyD88 Adapter-Like 2
  • BACTS1 3
  • Wyatt 3

External Ids for TIRAP Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for TIRAP Gene

  • GC11P128153
  • GC11P127665
  • GC11P126186
  • GC11P125690
  • GC11P125658
  • GC11P122098
  • GC11P126153

Summaries for TIRAP Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for TIRAP Gene

  • The innate immune system recognizes microbial pathogens through Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which identify pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Different TLRs recognize different pathogen-associated molecular patterns and all TLRs have a Toll-interleukin 1 receptor (TIR) domain, which is responsible for signal transduction. The protein encoded by this gene is a TIR adaptor protein involved in the TLR4 signaling pathway of the immune system. It activates NF-kappa-B, MAPK1, MAPK3 and JNK, which then results in cytokine secretion and the inflammatory response. Alternative splicing of this gene results in several transcript variants; however, not all variants have been fully described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for TIRAP Gene

TIRAP (TIR Domain Containing Adaptor Protein) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with TIRAP include Bacteremia 1 and Invasive Pneumococcal Disease, Recurrent Isolated, 1. Among its related pathways are Bacterial infections in CF airways and Akt Signaling. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and protein binding, bridging.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TIRAP Gene

  • Adapter involved in TLR2 and TLR4 signaling pathways in the innate immune response. Acts via IRAK2 and TRAF-6, leading to the activation of NF-kappa-B, MAPK1, MAPK3 and JNK, and resulting in cytokine secretion and the inflammatory response. Positively regulates the production of TNF-alpha and interleukin-6.

Additional gene information for TIRAP Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for TIRAP Gene

Genomics for TIRAP Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for TIRAP Gene

Promoters and enhancers for TIRAP Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH11I126280 Promoter/Enhancer 1.9 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 550.8 +0.6 554 4.2 HDGF ATF1 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF48 YY1 ZNF143 RXRA SP5 TIRAP FOXRED1 FAM118B ENSG00000254694 DCPS HP11014 RPUSD4 RNU4-86P ENSG00000254905
GH11I126350 Promoter/Enhancer 2.4 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 37.8 +74.2 74187 11.5 HDGF PKNOX1 ARNT SIN3A YBX1 DMAP1 POLR2B ZNF766 E2F8 FOS ST3GAL4 GSEC HP11014 TIRAP STT3A FOXRED1 DCPS FAM118B ENSG00000278215
GH11I126060 Promoter/Enhancer 2.2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 27.3 -219.5 -219523 3.5 HDGF PKNOX1 CLOCK FOXA2 SMAD1 ARNT ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 CDON TIRAP STT3A TMEM218 FEZ1 SRPRA PIR48177
GH11I125624 Promoter/Enhancer 2.1 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 26.4 -655.8 -655823 3.4 MLX ZFP64 DMAP1 YY1 ZNF213 E2F8 ZNF143 ZNF548 SP3 MEF2D CHEK1 HP11014 TMEM218 TIRAP MSANTD2 FEZ1 STT3A CCDC15 ACRV1 PUS3
GH11I125591 Promoter/Enhancer 2.1 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 12.4 -689.2 -689159 3.1 HDGF PKNOX1 SMAD1 ARNT ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 YY1 SLC30A9 POLR2B STT3A STT3A-AS1 HP11014 TMEM218 CHEK1 MSANTD2 ENSG00000254509 TIRAP ENSG00000254694 EI24
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

GeneHancers around TIRAP on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the TIRAP gene promoter:

Genomic Locations for TIRAP Gene

Genomic Locations for TIRAP Gene
16,953 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for TIRAP Gene

Genes around TIRAP on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
TIRAP Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for TIRAP Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for TIRAP Gene

Proteins for TIRAP Gene

  • Protein details for TIRAP Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domain-containing adapter protein
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B3KW65
    • Q56UH9
    • Q56UI0
    • Q8N5E5

    Protein attributes for TIRAP Gene

    221 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    23883 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer. Also forms heterodimers with MYD88. May interact with PIK3AP1 (By similarity). Interacts with TLR4 and IRAK2 via their respective TIR domains. Interacts with BMX and TBK1. Interacts with EIF2AK2. Does not interact with IRAK1, nor TLR9.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for TIRAP Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for TIRAP Gene


neXtProt entry for TIRAP Gene

Post-translational modifications for TIRAP Gene

  • Phosphorylated by IRAK1 and IRAK4. Also phosphorylated by BTK.
  • Polyubiquitinated. Polyubiquitination follows phosphorylation by BTK and leads to TIRAP degradation.
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for TIRAP Gene

Domains & Families for TIRAP Gene

Gene Families for TIRAP Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Protein Domains for TIRAP Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

genes like me logo Genes that share domains with TIRAP: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TIRAP Gene

Function for TIRAP Gene

Molecular function for TIRAP Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Adapter involved in TLR2 and TLR4 signaling pathways in the innate immune response. Acts via IRAK2 and TRAF-6, leading to the activation of NF-kappa-B, MAPK1, MAPK3 and JNK, and resulting in cytokine secretion and the inflammatory response. Positively regulates the production of TNF-alpha and interleukin-6.

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for TIRAP Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for TIRAP Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005080 protein kinase C binding IPI 17161867
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 11544529
GO:0005546 phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate binding ISS --
GO:0030674 protein binding, bridging NAS 19509286
GO:0035662 Toll-like receptor 4 binding IPI 19509286
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TIRAP: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with TIRAP: view

Animal Models for TIRAP Gene

MGI Knock Outs for TIRAP:

Animal Model Products

miRNA for TIRAP Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target TIRAP

Clone Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for TIRAP Gene

Localization for TIRAP Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TIRAP Gene

Cytoplasm. Cell membrane. Membrane. Note=Colocalizes with DAB2IP at the plasma membrane.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for TIRAP gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
cytosol 5
nucleus 4
endosome 2

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Cytokinetic bridge (2)
  • Cytosol (2)
  • Nucleoplasm (2)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for TIRAP Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA,IEA 19948740
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
GO:0016020 membrane IEA --
GO:0030139 endocytic vesicle ISS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TIRAP: view

Pathways & Interactions for TIRAP Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with TIRAP: view

SIGNOR curated interactions for TIRAP Gene

Is activated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for TIRAP Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0002755 MyD88-dependent toll-like receptor signaling pathway TAS 19509286
GO:0006954 inflammatory response IEA --
GO:0007165 signal transduction IEA --
GO:0007166 cell surface receptor signaling pathway ISS --
GO:0007250 activation of NF-kappaB-inducing kinase activity IMP 24275656
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TIRAP: view

Drugs & Compounds for TIRAP Gene

(1) Drugs for TIRAP Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with TIRAP: view

Transcripts for TIRAP Gene

Unigene Clusters for TIRAP Gene

Toll-interleukin 1 receptor (TIR) domain containing adaptor protein:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TIRAP Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b · 3c ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6a · 6b · 6c · 6d ^ 7 ^ 8a · 8b · 8c · 8d ^ 9a · 9b · 9c
SP1: - - - - - -
SP2: - - - - - - -
SP3: - - - - -
SP4: - - - - - - - - -
SP5: - - - - -
SP6: - -
SP8: - - - - -
SP9: - - -
SP10: -
SP11: - - - - -

Relevant External Links for TIRAP Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for TIRAP Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for TIRAP Gene

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for TIRAP Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Monocytes (34.5), CD4 Tcells (20.5), and Placenta (14.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for TIRAP Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for TIRAP Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of TIRAP Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for TIRAP Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for TIRAP Gene:

Tissue specificity: Highly expressed in liver, kidney, spleen, skeletal muscle and heart. Also detected in peripheral blood leukocytes, lung, placenta, small intestine, thymus, colon and brain.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for TIRAP Gene

  • Blood(4.4)
  • Spleen(4.4)
  • Lymph node(4.3)
  • Nervous system(4.1)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with TIRAP: view

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for TIRAP Gene

Orthologs for TIRAP Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for TIRAP Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia TIRAP 33 34
  • 99.4 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia TIRAP 33 34
  • 82.96 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia TIRAP 33 34
  • 82.27 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Tirap 33
  • 80.24 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Tirap 33 16 34
  • 79.49 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia TIRAP 34
  • 54 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia TIRAP 34
  • 51 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves TIRAP 33 34
  • 58.96 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia TIRAP 34
  • 44 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia LOC100491693 33
  • 49.03 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii tirap 33 34
  • 50.58 (n)
Species where no ortholog for TIRAP was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for TIRAP Gene

Gene Tree for TIRAP (if available)
Gene Tree for TIRAP (if available)

Paralogs for TIRAP Gene

No data available for Paralogs for TIRAP Gene

Variants for TIRAP Gene

Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TIRAP Gene

Genetic variations in TIRAP may influence susceptibility or resistance to invasive pneumococcal disease [MIM:610799], malaria [MIM:611162], and tuberculosis [MIM:607948]. It may define the bacteremia susceptibility locus 1 (BACTS1) [MIM:614382].

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for TIRAP Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 11 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs8177374 protective, Invasive pneumococcal disease, protection against, Malaria, resistance to, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, protection against, Bacteremia, resistance to 126,292,948(+) C/T coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant, non_coding_transcript_variant
rs1000316851 -- 126,288,156(+) A/C genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant, non_coding_transcript_variant, upstream_transcript_variant
rs1000339157 -- 126,294,684(+) A/G 3_prime_UTR_variant, genic_downstream_transcript_variant, non_coding_transcript_variant
rs1000448835 -- 126,283,139(+) T/A 5_prime_UTR_variant, coding_sequence_variant, genic_upstream_transcript_variant, missense_variant, non_coding_transcript_variant
rs1000475176 -- 126,294,286(+) T/A 3_prime_UTR_variant, genic_downstream_transcript_variant, non_coding_transcript_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for TIRAP Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv2660319 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2664251 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2762950 CNV loss 21179565
esv3628001 CNV loss 21293372
esv3628002 CNV loss 21293372
nsv556530 CNV loss 21841781
nsv826122 CNV loss 20364138

Variation tolerance for TIRAP Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 89.9% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 5.46; 71.54% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for TIRAP Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

Disorders for TIRAP Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(9) MalaCards diseases for TIRAP Gene - From: HGMD, OMIM, GTR, DISEASES, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
bacteremia 1
  • bacteremia, susceptibility to, 1
invasive pneumococcal disease, recurrent isolated, 1
  • ipd1
  • malaria, susceptibility to
pelvic inflammatory disease
  • pid
  • acute epiglottitis
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search TIRAP in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for TIRAP

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with TIRAP: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for TIRAP Gene

Publications for TIRAP Gene

  1. Mal (MyD88-adapter-like) is required for Toll-like receptor-4 signal transduction. (PMID: 11544529) Fitzgerald KA … O'Neill LA (Nature 2001) 2 3 4 22 58
  2. AIP1 functions as Arf6-GAP to negatively regulate TLR4 signaling. (PMID: 19948740) Wan T … Min W (The Journal of biological chemistry 2010) 3 4 22 58
  3. A TIR domain variant of MyD88 adapter-like (Mal)/TIRAP results in loss of MyD88 binding and reduced TLR2/TLR4 signaling. (PMID: 19509286) Nagpal K … Golenbock DT (The Journal of biological chemistry 2009) 3 4 22 58
  4. Low frequency of the TIRAP S180L polymorphism in Africa, and its potential role in malaria, sepsis, and leprosy. (PMID: 19602285) Hamann L … Schumann RR (BMC medical genetics 2009) 3 4 44 58
  5. Polymorphic variation in TIRAP is not associated with susceptibility to childhood TB but may determine susceptibility to TBM in some ethnic groups. (PMID: 19693265) Dissanayeke SR … Levin M (PloS one 2009) 3 22 44 58

Products for TIRAP Gene

Sources for TIRAP Gene

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