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Aliases for TGM4 Gene

Aliases for TGM4 Gene

  • Transglutaminase 4 2 3 5
  • Prostate-Specific Transglutaminase 3 4
  • Transglutaminase 4 (Prostate) 2 3
  • Prostate Transglutaminase 3 4
  • Transglutaminase P 3 4
  • Fibrinoligase 3 4
  • EC 4 56
  • TGase P 3 4
  • TGase-4 3 4
  • TG(P) 3 4
  • TGP 3 4
  • Protein-Glutamine Gamma-Glutamyltransferase 4 3
  • Transglutaminase-4 4
  • HTGP 3

External Ids for TGM4 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for TGM4 Gene

  • GC03P043872
  • GC03P044096
  • GC03P044735
  • GC03P044876
  • GC03P044891
  • GC03P044893
  • GC03P044896
  • GC03P044916

Summaries for TGM4 Gene

GeneCards Summary for TGM4 Gene

TGM4 (Transglutaminase 4) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with TGM4 include Hyperlipoproteinemia, Type Iii. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase activity. An important paralog of this gene is TGM1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TGM4 Gene

  • Associated with the mammalian reproductive process. Catalyzes the cross-linking of proteins and the conjugation of polyamines to specific proteins in the seminal tract.

Gene Wiki entry for TGM4 Gene

Additional gene information for TGM4 Gene

No data available for Entrez Gene Summary , CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for TGM4 Gene

Genomics for TGM4 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for TGM4 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for TGM4 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH03I044874 Promoter 0.5 EPDnew 550.8 0.0 -3 0.1 PPIAP18 TGM4 ZNF501
GH03I044962 Enhancer 1.4 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 16.6 +92.0 91987 8.1 PKNOX1 ATF1 ARNT FEZF1 TCF12 ZNF766 GATA2 FOS ATF7 RUNX3 TGM4 RN7SL145P ZNF852 CLEC3B ZNF445 LIMD1 EXOSC7 ENSG00000235845 ZNF502 RNU5B-3P
GH03I044980 Enhancer 1.1 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 10.2 +108.0 107974 4.2 HDGF MEIS2 PKNOX1 TEAD4 CEBPG EBF1 GATA2 FOS IKZF2 RUNX3 EXOSC7 ZNF660 RNU5B-3P ENSG00000235845 TGM4 TMEM42 ZDHHC3 CLEC3B
GH03I044532 Enhancer 1 ENCODE 10.5 -341.6 -341588 0.2 MLX ARNT ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 SLC30A9 ZNF766 CBX5 ZNF197 ZNF852 ZKSCAN7 ENSG00000235845 TGM4 ZNF445 ZNF660 ZNF501 CLEC3B RNU5B-3P
GH03I044882 Enhancer 1.5 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 6.8 +10.7 10738 5.2 INSM2 KLF17 RFX5 ZNF335 GLIS2 ZNF366 RCOR1 FOS CEBPB ZNF398 ZNF660 ZKSCAN7 KIAA1143 TGM4 ZNF501 ZNF197 ENSG00000235845
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

GeneHancers around TGM4 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the TGM4 gene promoter:

Genomic Locations for TGM4 Gene

Genomic Locations for TGM4 Gene
40,399 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for TGM4 Gene

Genes around TGM4 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
TGM4 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for TGM4 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for TGM4 Gene

Proteins for TGM4 Gene

  • Protein details for TGM4 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase 4
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q16707
    • Q96QN4

    Protein attributes for TGM4 Gene

    684 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    77145 Da
    Name=Ca(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:29108;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer.

neXtProt entry for TGM4 Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for TGM4 Gene


Post-translational modifications for TGM4 Gene

No Post-translational modifications

Other Protein References for TGM4 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Domains & Families for TGM4 Gene

Gene Families for TGM4 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Cancer-related genes
  • Enzymes
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the transglutaminase superfamily. Transglutaminase family.
  • Belongs to the transglutaminase superfamily. Transglutaminase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with TGM4: view

Function for TGM4 Gene

Molecular function for TGM4 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
transglutaminase,type IV,expressed in prostate,with an alternatively splice variant, involved in reproductive process and processed pseudogene in the promoter containing a cyclophilin A
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
A protein-L-glutamine + a protein-L-lysine = a protein with an N(6)-(gamma-glutamyl)-L-lysine cross-link + NH(3).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Associated with the mammalian reproductive process. Catalyzes the cross-linking of proteins and the conjugation of polyamines to specific proteins in the seminal tract.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for TGM4 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for TGM4 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003810 protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase activity NAS 7916568
GO:0016740 transferase activity IEA --
GO:0016746 transferase activity, transferring acyl groups IEA --
GO:0046872 metal ion binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TGM4: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with TGM4: view

Animal Models for TGM4 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for TGM4:
  • Tgm4 tm1a(KOMP)Wtsi

Clone Products

No data available for Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog , Human Phenotype Ontology , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for TGM4 Gene

Localization for TGM4 Gene

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for TGM4 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
golgi apparatus 5
cytosol 4
nucleus 2

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for TGM4 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA 20596668
GO:0005794 Golgi apparatus IDA 20569004
GO:0031012 extracellular matrix IDA 20596668
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome HDA,IDA 19056867
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TGM4: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for TGM4 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for TGM4 Gene

No Data Available

Interacting Proteins for TGM4 Gene

STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 3 interactants - click image to see details)
Selected Interacting proteins: ENSP00000296125 P49221-TGM4_HUMAN for TGM4 Gene via STRING IID

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for TGM4 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0018149 peptide cross-linking IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TGM4: view

No data available for Pathways by source and SIGNOR curated interactions for TGM4 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for TGM4 Gene

(3) Drugs for TGM4 Gene - From: DrugBank and HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
L-Glutamine Approved, Investigational Nutra Full agonist, Agonist, Enzyme, substrate 0
Ammonia Approved Pharma 0
calcium Approved Nutra 0

(1) Additional Compounds for TGM4 Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with TGM4: view

Transcripts for TGM4 Gene

Unigene Clusters for TGM4 Gene

Transglutaminase 4 (prostate):
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TGM4 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for TGM4 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for TGM4 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for TGM4 Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for TGM4 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Prostate (x52.4).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for TGM4 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Prostate (68.2).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for TGM4 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of TGM4 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for TGM4 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for TGM4 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Prostate.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for TGM4 Gene

  • Lung(2.4)
  • Liver(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with TGM4: view

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , Protein tissue co-expression partners and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for TGM4 Gene

Orthologs for TGM4 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for TGM4 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia TGM4 33 34
  • 99.37 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Tgm4 33 16 34
  • 67.66 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Tgm4 33
  • 67.62 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia TGM4 34
  • 49 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves TGM4 33 34
  • 58.55 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 34
  • 47 (a)
-- 34
  • 43 (a)
-- 34
  • 42 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia tgm4 33
  • 54.12 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii tgm2l 34
  • 32 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP009098 33
  • 48.48 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG7356 35
  • 33 (a)
Tg 34
  • 29 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 34
  • 35 (a)
CSA.9818 34
  • 31 (a)
Species where no ortholog for TGM4 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • cow (Bos Taurus)
  • dog (Canis familiaris)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • oppossum (Monodelphis domestica)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for TGM4 Gene

Gene Tree for TGM4 (if available)
Gene Tree for TGM4 (if available)

Paralogs for TGM4 Gene

Paralogs for TGM4 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with TGM4: view

Variants for TGM4 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for TGM4 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 03 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000010685 -- 44,901,274(+) T/C intron_variant
rs1000241473 -- 44,879,268(+) T/C intron_variant
rs1000287450 -- 44,895,596(+) G/A intron_variant
rs1000295817 -- 44,891,539(+) A/G intron_variant
rs1000541892 -- 44,877,439(+) C/G intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for TGM4 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv979826 CNV duplication 23825009
nsv834675 CNV gain 17160897
nsv521765 CNV loss 19592680
nsv3792 CNV deletion 18451855
nsv1074588 CNV deletion 25765185
esv3596041 CNV loss 21293372
esv3596040 CNV gain 21293372
esv2725215 CNV deletion 23290073
dgv2518n106 CNV deletion 24896259

Variation tolerance for TGM4 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 95.6% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 11.49; 92.90% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for TGM4 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TGM4 Gene

Disorders for TGM4 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(1) MalaCards diseases for TGM4 Gene - From: HGMD and DISEASES

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
hyperlipoproteinemia, type iii
  • apolipoprotein e, deficiency or defect of
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search TGM4 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for TGM4

genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with TGM4: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for TGM4 Gene

Publications for TGM4 Gene

  1. Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel transglutaminase cDNA from a human prostate cDNA library. (PMID: 7916568) Grant FJ … O'Hara PJ (Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1994) 2 3 4 22 58
  2. Tissue specific and androgen-regulated expression of human prostate-specific transglutaminase. (PMID: 8645175) Dubbink HJ … Romijn JC (The Biochemical journal 1996) 3 4 22 58
  3. Localization of the human prostate transglutaminase (type IV) gene (TGM4) to chromosome 3p21.33-p22 by fluorescence in situ hybridization. (PMID: 7665178) Gentile V … Baldini A (Genomics 1995) 2 3 22 58
  4. Differential alternative splicing of human transglutaminase 4 in benign prostate hyperplasia and prostate cancer. (PMID: 20177144) Cho SY … Kim IG (Experimental & molecular medicine 2010) 3 22 58
  5. The prostate transglutaminase (TGase-4, TGaseP) regulates the interaction of prostate cancer and vascular endothelial cells, a potential role for the ROCK pathway. (PMID: 18983858) Jiang WG … Mason MD (Microvascular research 2009) 3 22 58

Products for TGM4 Gene

Sources for TGM4 Gene

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