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Aliases for TFF1 Gene

Aliases for TFF1 Gene

  • Trefoil Factor 1 2 3 5
  • Breast Cancer Estrogen-Inducible Protein 3 4
  • Polypeptide P1.A 3 4
  • Protein PS2 3 4
  • HP1.A 3 4
  • PNR-2 3 4
  • BCEI 3 4
  • PS2 3 4
  • Breast Cancer, Estrogen-Inducible Sequence Expressed In 2
  • Breast Cancer Estrogen-Inducible Sequence 3
  • Gastrointestinal Trefoil Protein PS2 3
  • D21S21 3
  • HPS2 3

External Ids for TFF1 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for TFF1 Gene

  • BCEI

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for TFF1 Gene

  • GC21M040330
  • GC21M042676
  • GC21M042655
  • GC21M043782
  • GC21M029199

Summaries for TFF1 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for TFF1 Gene

  • Members of the trefoil family are characterized by having at least one copy of the trefoil motif, a 40-amino acid domain that contains three conserved disulfides. They are stable secretory proteins expressed in gastrointestinal mucosa. Their functions are not defined, but they may protect the mucosa from insults, stabilize the mucus layer, and affect healing of the epithelium. This gene, which is expressed in the gastric mucosa, has also been studied because of its expression in human tumors. This gene and two other related trefoil family member genes are found in a cluster on chromosome 21. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for TFF1 Gene

TFF1 (Trefoil Factor 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with TFF1 include Breast Cancer and Gastric Ulcer. Among its related pathways are Development Ligand-independent activation of ESR1 and ESR2 and Adhesion. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include growth factor activity. An important paralog of this gene is TFF3.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TFF1 Gene

  • Stabilizer of the mucous gel overlying the gastrointestinal mucosa that provides a physical barrier against various noxious agents. May inhibit the growth of calcium oxalate crystals in urine.

Gene Wiki entry for TFF1 Gene

Additional gene information for TFF1 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for TFF1 Gene

Genomics for TFF1 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for TFF1 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for TFF1 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH21I042362 Promoter/Enhancer 1.6 EPDnew ENCODE dbSUPER 550.8 +1.2 1222 6.5 PKNOX1 CLOCK FOXA2 NEUROD1 ZBTB7B IRF4 E2F8 FOS RUNX3 JUNB TFF1 TFF3 TFF2 LOC105372815
GH21I042402 Promoter/Enhancer 1.8 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 11.8 -38.5 -38526 4.6 ATF1 FOXA2 ARNT TCF12 ZNF766 GATA2 ATF7 NCOA1 ZNF592 MBD2 UBASH3A TFF1 TFF2 TFF3 TMPRSS3 RNU6-1149P
GH21I042423 Enhancer 1.4 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 12.7 -58.2 -58202 3.6 HDGF SMAD1 BMI1 BATF KLF5 IRF4 ZNF48 ZNF207 ZNF143 ATF7 UMODL1 TMPRSS3 TFF1 TFF3 TFF2 ZBTB21 ABCG1 UBASH3A C2CD2 RNU6-1149P
GH21I042392 Enhancer 1 ENCODE dbSUPER 12.7 -26.7 -26692 1.2 ELF3 FOXA2 SMAD1 RAD21 ZBTB40 RARA ATF7 ETV6 BCLAF1 CREM RNU6-1149P TFF1 TFF2 TMPRSS3
GH21I042360 Enhancer 0.7 dbSUPER 15.2 +5.8 5825 0.6 ZSCAN5A BCOR CTCF KLF17 ZMYM3 ZBTB7B RAD21 ZNF324 CC2D1A CBX5 TFF1 LOC105372815
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

GeneHancers around TFF1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the TFF1 gene promoter:

Genomic Locations for TFF1 Gene

Genomic Locations for TFF1 Gene
4,313 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for TFF1 Gene

Genes around TFF1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
TFF1 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for TFF1 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for TFF1 Gene

Proteins for TFF1 Gene

  • Protein details for TFF1 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Trefoil factor 1
    Protein Accession:

    Protein attributes for TFF1 Gene

    84 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    9150 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Heterodimer with GKN2; disulfide linked.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for TFF1 Gene

neXtProt entry for TFF1 Gene

Post-translational modifications for TFF1 Gene

No Post-translational modifications

Other Protein References for TFF1 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for TFF1 Gene

Domains & Families for TFF1 Gene

Gene Families for TFF1 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Cancer-related genes
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Protein Domains for TFF1 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for TFF1 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

genes like me logo Genes that share domains with TFF1: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TFF1 Gene

Function for TFF1 Gene

Molecular function for TFF1 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
estrogen-inducible protein,expressed in breast cancer,and some digestive tumors (stomach,pancreas,biliary tract)
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Stabilizer of the mucous gel overlying the gastrointestinal mucosa that provides a physical barrier against various noxious agents. May inhibit the growth of calcium oxalate crystals in urine.

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for TFF1 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for TFF1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 16189514
GO:0008083 growth factor activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TFF1: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with TFF1: view

Animal Models for TFF1 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for TFF1:

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for TFF1 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target TFF1

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for TFF1

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for TFF1 Gene

Localization for TFF1 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TFF1 Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for TFF1 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
nucleus 2
cytosol 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for TFF1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region IEA --
GO:0005615 extracellular space IBA,IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TFF1: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for TFF1 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for TFF1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with TFF1: view

Pathways by source for TFF1 Gene

1 BioSystems pathway for TFF1 Gene
1 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) pathway for TFF1 Gene
1 Cell Signaling Technology pathway for TFF1 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for TFF1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005975 carbohydrate metabolic process TAS 2303034
GO:0007586 digestion IBA --
GO:0008285 negative regulation of cell proliferation IEA --
GO:0010039 response to iron ion IEA --
GO:0010469 regulation of receptor activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TFF1: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for TFF1 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for TFF1 Gene

(46) Drugs for TFF1 Gene - From: DrugBank, FDA Approved Drugs, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
calcium Approved Nutra 0
raloxifene Approved, Investigational Pharma Antagonist, Target 0
Evista Approved September 2007 Pharma 0
Afimoxifene Investigational Pharma Target 7

(28) Additional Compounds for TFF1 Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with TFF1: view

Transcripts for TFF1 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for TFF1 Gene

(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(4) Additional mRNA sequences :
(190) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(1) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for TFF1 Gene

Trefoil factor 1:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for TFF1

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TFF1 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for TFF1 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for TFF1 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for TFF1 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for TFF1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Stomach (x50.2).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for TFF1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Pancreatic juice (58.0) and Oral epithelium (6.9).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for TFF1 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for TFF1 Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of TFF1 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for TFF1 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for TFF1 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Found in stomach, with highest levels in the upper gastric mucosal cells (at protein level). Detected in goblet cells of the small and large intestine and rectum, small submucosal glands in the esophagus, mucous acini of the sublingual gland, submucosal glands of the trachea, and epithelial cells lining the exocrine pancreatic ducts but not in the remainder of the pancreas (at protein level). Scattered expression is detected in the epithelial cells of the gallbladder and submucosal glands of the vagina, and weak expression is observed in the bronchial goblet cells of the pseudostratified epithelia in the respiratory system (at protein level). Detected in urine (at protein level). Strongly expressed in breast cancer but at low levels in normal mammary tissue. It is regulated by estrogen in MCF-7 cells. Strong expression found in normal gastric mucosa and in the regenerative tissues surrounding ulcerous lesions of gastrointestinal tract, but lower expression found in gastric cancer (at protein level).

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for TFF1 Gene

  • Stomach(4.9)
  • Intestine(4.5)
  • Kidney(4)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with TFF1: view

No data available for Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for TFF1 Gene

Orthologs for TFF1 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of mammals.

Orthologs for TFF1 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia TFF1 34 33
  • 99.21 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia TFF1 34 33
  • 74.9 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Tff1 16 34 33
  • 71.6 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Tff1 33
  • 69.55 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia TFF1 34
  • 58 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia TFF1 34
  • 50 (a)
Species where no ortholog for TFF1 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)
  • zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Evolution for TFF1 Gene

Gene Tree for TFF1 (if available)
Gene Tree for TFF1 (if available)

Paralogs for TFF1 Gene

Paralogs for TFF1 Gene

(2) SIMAP similar genes for TFF1 Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with TFF1: view

Variants for TFF1 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for TFF1 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 21 pos Variation AA Info Type
VAR_015281 A gastric carcinoma sample p.Thr32Ile
VAR_015282 A gastric carcinoma sample p.Thr32Lys
VAR_015283 A gastric carcinoma sample p.Ala34Asp
VAR_015284 A gastric carcinoma sample p.Glu37Lys
VAR_015286 A gastric carcinoma sample p.Gly55Val

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for TFF1 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv471829 CNV novel sequence insertion 20440878

Variation tolerance for TFF1 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 71.3% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.92; 19.05% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for TFF1 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TFF1 Gene

Disorders for TFF1 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(14) MalaCards diseases for TFF1 Gene - From: HGMD, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
breast cancer
  • breast cancer, familial
gastric ulcer
  • acute gastric ulcer with haemorrhage and perforation
gastrointestinal adenoma
  • gi adenoma
bile reflux
gastric cancer
  • gastric cancer, somatic
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search TFF1 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for TFF1

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with TFF1: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for TFF1 Gene

Publications for TFF1 Gene

  1. Expression of trefoil factors 1 and 2 in precancerous condition and gastric cancer. (PMID: 16718800) Shi SQ … Yang JM (World journal of gastroenterology 2006) 3 4 22 58
  2. Molecular forms of trefoil factor 1 in normal gastric mucosa and its expression in normal and abnormal gastric tissues. (PMID: 17143957) Ren JL … Shi HX (World journal of gastroenterology 2006) 3 4 22 58
  3. Interaction between TFF1, a gastric tumor suppressor trefoil protein, and TFIZ1, a brichos domain-containing protein with homology to SP-C. (PMID: 15924415) Westley BR … May FE (Biochemistry 2005) 3 4 22 58
  4. Identification of human urinary trefoil factor 1 as a novel calcium oxalate crystal growth inhibitor. (PMID: 16308573) Chutipongtanate S … Thongboonkerd V (The Journal of clinical investigation 2005) 3 4 22 58
  5. Complete primary structure of the human estrogen-responsive gene (pS2) product. (PMID: 2185238) Mori K … Hayashi K (Journal of biochemistry 1990) 3 4 22 58

Products for TFF1 Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for TFF1

Sources for TFF1 Gene

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