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Aliases for TAS2R16 Gene

Aliases for TAS2R16 Gene

  • Taste 2 Receptor Member 16 2 3 5
  • Taste Receptor, Type 2, Member 16 2 3
  • T2R16 3 4
  • Taste Receptor Type 2 Member 16 3
  • Candidate Taste Receptor T2R16 3

External Ids for TAS2R16 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for TAS2R16 Gene

  • GC07M121112
  • GC07M122175
  • GC07M122189
  • GC07M122228
  • GC07M122421
  • GC07M122634
  • GC07M116997

Summaries for TAS2R16 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for TAS2R16 Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of a family of candidate taste receptors that are members of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. These family members are specifically expressed by taste receptor cells of the tongue and palate epithelia. Each of these apparently intronless genes encodes a 7-transmembrane receptor protein, functioning as a bitter taste receptor. This gene is clustered with another 3 candidate taste receptor genes in chromosome 7 and is genetically linked to loci that influence bitter perception. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for TAS2R16 Gene

TAS2R16 (Taste 2 Receptor Member 16) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with TAS2R16 include Alcohol Dependence and Alcohol Use Disorder. Among its related pathways are Peptide ligand-binding receptors and Taste transduction. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include G-protein coupled receptor activity and bitter taste receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is TAS2R41.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TAS2R16 Gene

  • Gustducin-coupled receptor implicated in the perception of bitter compounds in the oral cavity and the gastrointestinal tract. Signals through PLCB2 and the calcium-regulated cation channel TRPM5.

Gene Wiki entry for TAS2R16 Gene

Additional gene information for TAS2R16 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for TAS2R16 Gene

Genomics for TAS2R16 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for TAS2R16 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for TAS2R16 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH07I122670 Enhancer 0.2 FANTOM5 16.7 +324.8 324826 0 TAS2R16 RNF133 RNF148 ENSG00000225795 LOC105375481 CADPS2
GH07I123204 Enhancer 0.2 FANTOM5 14.7 -208.5 -208544 0.2 TAS2R16 SLC13A1 GC07M123231
GH07I122802 Enhancer 1 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 2.4 +192.5 192546 1.9 MEIS2 CTCF ZNF687 PKNOX1 ZNF654 USF1 TRIM22 ELF1 RAD21 SMC3 TAS2R16 CADPS2 LOC100422456 RNF148
GH07I122970 Enhancer 0.3 FANTOM5 4.4 +24.9 24877 0.2 ZNF366 TAS2R16 LOC105375482
GH07I122919 Enhancer 0.3 ENCODE 0.2 +75.9 75918 0.2 CUX1 CADPS2 LOC105375482 TAS2R16
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

GeneHancers around TAS2R16 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the TAS2R16 gene promoter:

Genomic Locations for TAS2R16 Gene

Genomic Locations for TAS2R16 Gene
997 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for TAS2R16 Gene

Genes around TAS2R16 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
TAS2R16 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for TAS2R16 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for TAS2R16 Gene

Proteins for TAS2R16 Gene

  • Protein details for TAS2R16 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Taste receptor type 2 member 16
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A4D0X2
    • Q502V3
    • Q549U8
    • Q645W1

    Protein attributes for TAS2R16 Gene

    291 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    33986 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with RTP3 and RTP4.
    • Confers bitter perception of salicin to non-taster mice.
    • Several bitter taste receptors are expressed in a single taste receptor cell.

neXtProt entry for TAS2R16 Gene

Post-translational modifications for TAS2R16 Gene

  • Glycosylation at posLast=8080 and posLast=163163

Other Protein References for TAS2R16 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for TAS2R16 Gene

Domains & Families for TAS2R16 Gene

Gene Families for TAS2R16 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • G-protein coupled receptors
  • Predicted membrane proteins

Protein Domains for TAS2R16 Gene


Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for TAS2R16 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor T2R family.
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor T2R family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with TAS2R16: view

Function for TAS2R16 Gene

Molecular function for TAS2R16 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Gustducin-coupled receptor implicated in the perception of bitter compounds in the oral cavity and the gastrointestinal tract. Signals through PLCB2 and the calcium-regulated cation channel TRPM5.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for TAS2R16 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004871 signal transducer activity IEA --
GO:0004930 G-protein coupled receptor activity IEA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 16720576
GO:0033038 bitter taste receptor activity IDA 16720576
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TAS2R16: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with TAS2R16: view

Clone Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for TAS2R16 Gene

Localization for TAS2R16 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TAS2R16 Gene

Cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for TAS2R16 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
endoplasmic reticulum 4
golgi apparatus 4

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for TAS2R16 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005783 endoplasmic reticulum IDA 16720576
GO:0005802 trans-Golgi network IDA 16720576
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
GO:0009897 external side of plasma membrane IDA 16720576
GO:0016020 membrane IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TAS2R16: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for TAS2R16 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for TAS2R16 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with TAS2R16: view

Pathways by source for TAS2R16 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for TAS2R16 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001580 detection of chemical stimulus involved in sensory perception of bitter taste IDA 16720576
GO:0007165 signal transduction IEA --
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS --
GO:0050896 response to stimulus IEA --
GO:0050909 sensory perception of taste IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TAS2R16: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for TAS2R16 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for TAS2R16 Gene

(6) Drugs for TAS2R16 Gene - From: DrugBank, PharmGKB, ApexBio, BitterDB, and HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Probenecid Approved, Investigational Pharma Inhibition, Inhibitor, Target 35
Ethanol Approved Pharma 2326
Arbutin Approved Pharma 0
Diphenidol Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn Pharma 1
calcium Approved Nutra 0

(5) Additional Compounds for TAS2R16 Gene - From: BitterDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
Amygdalin, D
Phenyl beta-D-glucopyranoside
  • 1-Thio-b-D-glucopyranose 1-[N-(sulfooxy)-3-butenimidate], 9CI
  • 2-Phenylethyl glucosinolate
  • Allyl glucosinolate
  • Myronate
  • Myronic acid

(1) ApexBio Compounds for TAS2R16 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Probenecid 57-66-9
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with TAS2R16: view

Drug Products

Transcripts for TAS2R16 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for TAS2R16 Gene

(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(1) Additional mRNA sequences :
(2) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(1) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for TAS2R16 Gene

Taste receptor, type 2, member 16:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TAS2R16 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for TAS2R16 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for TAS2R16 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for TAS2R16 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of TAS2R16 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for TAS2R16 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for TAS2R16 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Expressed in a subset of gustducin-positive taste receptor cells of the tongue. Expressed in circumvallate papillae and testis (PubMed:16720576).
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with TAS2R16: view

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein expression , Protein tissue co-expression partners , Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for TAS2R16 Gene

Orthologs for TAS2R16 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for TAS2R16 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia TAS2R16 33 34
  • 99.43 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia TAS2R16 33 34
  • 73.2 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Tas2r118 33 16 34
  • 70.51 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Tas2r118 33
  • 69.35 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia T2R62 34
  • 39 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia TAS2R16 34
  • 36 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 30 (a)
-- 34
  • 29 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves TAS2R7 34
  • 21 (a)
Species where no ortholog for TAS2R16 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)
  • zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Evolution for TAS2R16 Gene

Gene Tree for TAS2R16 (if available)
Gene Tree for TAS2R16 (if available)

Paralogs for TAS2R16 Gene

Variants for TAS2R16 Gene

Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TAS2R16 Gene

The Lys-172 polymorphism in TAS2R16 is associated with genetic susceptibility to alcoholism [MIM:103780].

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for TAS2R16 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 07 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs846664 pathogenic, risk-factor, Beta-glycopyranoside tasting, Alcohol dependence, susceptibility to 122,995,119(-) A/C coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs1000312684 -- 122,996,053(-) G/A upstream_transcript_variant
rs1000428852 -- 122,996,358(-) C/T upstream_transcript_variant
rs1000644068 -- 122,997,675(-) T/A upstream_transcript_variant
rs1002117094 -- 122,995,318(-) T/C coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for TAS2R16 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv524192 CNV gain 19592680
nsv1033520 CNV loss 25217958
esv3891198 CNV gain 25118596
dgv6605n100 CNV gain 25217958

Variation tolerance for TAS2R16 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 75.8% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.73; 15.50% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for TAS2R16 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

Disorders for TAS2R16 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(4) MalaCards diseases for TAS2R16 Gene - From: HGMD, OMIM, ClinVar, GTR, DISEASES, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
alcohol dependence
  • alcoholism
alcohol use disorder
  • alcohol dependence
ichthyosis, congenital, autosomal recessive 11
  • arci11
tobacco addiction
  • tobacco addiction, susceptibility to
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards

Additional Disease Information for TAS2R16

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with TAS2R16: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for TAS2R16 Gene

Publications for TAS2R16 Gene

  1. A novel family of mammalian taste receptors. (PMID: 10761934) Adler E … Zuker CS (Cell 2000) 2 3 4 58
  2. Bitter taste receptor gene polymorphisms are an important factor in the development of nicotine dependence in African Americans. (PMID: 18524836) Mangold JE … Li MD (Journal of medical genetics 2008) 3 44 58
  3. Functional variants in TAS2R38 and TAS2R16 influence alcohol consumption in high-risk families of African-American origin. (PMID: 17250611) Wang JC … Goate AM (Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research 2007) 3 44 58
  4. Members of RTP and REEP gene families influence functional bitter taste receptor expression. (PMID: 16720576) Behrens M … Meyerhof W (The Journal of biological chemistry 2006) 3 4 58
  5. Functional variant in a bitter-taste receptor (hTAS2R16) influences risk of alcohol dependence. (PMID: 16385453) Hinrichs AL … Goate AM (American journal of human genetics 2006) 3 4 58

Products for TAS2R16 Gene

Sources for TAS2R16 Gene

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