Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases catalyze the aminoacylation of tRNA by their cognate amino acid. Because of their central role in linking amino acids with nucleotide triplets contained in tRNAs, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are thought to be among the first proteins that appeared in evolution. Threonyl-tRNA synthetase belongs to the class-II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family [provided ... See more...

Aliases for TARS1 Gene

Aliases for TARS1 Gene

  • Threonyl-TRNA Synthetase 1 2 3 4
  • Threonyl-TRNA Synthetase 2 4 5
  • TARS 3 4 5
  • Threonine--TRNA Ligase 1, Cytoplasmic 3 4
  • Threonine TRNA Ligase 1, Cytoplasmic 2 3
  • EC 6.1.1.3 4 52
  • ThrRS 3 4
  • Threonyl-TRNA Synthetase, Cytoplasmic 3
  • Threonine--TRNA Ligase, Cytoplasmic 3
  • TTD7 3

External Ids for TARS1 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for TARS1 Gene

  • TARS

Summaries for TARS1 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for TARS1 Gene

  • Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases catalyze the aminoacylation of tRNA by their cognate amino acid. Because of their central role in linking amino acids with nucleotide triplets contained in tRNAs, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are thought to be among the first proteins that appeared in evolution. Threonyl-tRNA synthetase belongs to the class-II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for TARS1 Gene

TARS1 (Threonyl-TRNA Synthetase 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with TARS1 include Trichothiodystrophy 7, Nonphotosensitive and Trichothiodystrophy 1, Photosensitive. Among its related pathways are Gene Expression and tRNA Aminoacylation. An important paralog of this gene is TARS3.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for TARS1 Gene

  • Catalyzes the attachment of threonine to tRNA(Thr) in a two-step reaction: threonine is first activated by ATP to form Thr-AMP and then transferred to the acceptor end of tRNA(Thr) (PubMed:25824639). Also edits incorrectly charged tRNA(Thr) via its editing domain, at the post-transfer stage (By similarity).

Gene Wiki entry for TARS1 Gene

Additional gene information for TARS1 Gene

No data available for CIViC Summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for TARS1 Gene

Genomics for TARS1 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for TARS1 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for TARS1 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
Score
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH05J033438 Promoter/Enhancer 2.3 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas dbSUPER 511.1 +0.6 605 5.4 EP300 FOXK2 ZNF217 CTCF SIN3A NRF1 MYC POLR2G USF1 SP1 ENSG00000249572 TARS1 piR-40730 ENSG00000240376 RXFP3 lnc-TARS-3
GH05J033435 Enhancer 0.9 Ensembl ENCODE 11 -4.7 -4726 0.8 CTCF ZSCAN5C TEAD4 AFF1 REST RAD21 TRIM22 TEAD1 SMC3 RELA RXFP3 TARS1 ENSG00000249572 piR-40730 piR-40110-557
GH05J033432 Enhancer 0.8 ENCODE 10.5 -7.7 -7673 0.6 NCOR1 TCF7 SKI TBX3 FOXA2 ZNF316 MAFF SAP130 MAFK HDAC1 RXFP3 TARS1 ENSG00000249572 piR-40730 piR-40110-557
GH05J033445 Enhancer 0.7 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 10.2 +5.3 5305 0.4 PRDM6 FEZF1 ZNF577 TARS1 lnc-TARS-3
GH05J033408 Enhancer 0.8 Ensembl ENCODE 8.3 -31.3 -31288 1.8 TCF7 FOXA2 CEBPB NR2F2 CREM JUND NFIA HLF NR2F6 PPARG ENSG00000249572 TARS1 piR-40110-557 piR-40730
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around TARS1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for TARS1

Genomic Locations for TARS1 Gene

Genomic Locations for TARS1 Gene
chr5:33,440,696-33,469,539
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
28,844 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand
chr5:33,440,802-33,469,644
(GRCh37/hg19)
Size:
28,843 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for TARS1 Gene

Genes around TARS1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
TARS1 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for TARS1 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for TARS1 Gene

Proteins for TARS1 Gene

  • Protein details for TARS1 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P26639-SYTC_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Threonine--tRNA ligase 1, cytoplasmic
    Protein Accession:
    P26639
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8K8I1
    • B4DEG8
    • Q96FP5
    • Q9BWA6

    Protein attributes for TARS1 Gene

    Size:
    723 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    83435 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer.
    SequenceCaution:
    • Sequence=AAB04939.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Truncated N-terminus.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for TARS1 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for TARS1 Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for TARS1 Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for TARS1 Gene

P26639:
  • WKTTPYQ
  • IKDAIGR
  • QLDFQLP
  • LSTRPEK
  • KPMNCPG
  • SPGSCFFLP
  • KNSSTYWEG
  • WHSSAHI
  • HRPRSWRE
  • IENGFYYD
  • SGHWQHY
  • FKYNKFKCRIL
  • GDGAFYGPK
  • WPFWLSPR
  • RIYGISFP
  • WLSPRQVMV
  • TVYRCGPL
  • LCYGPPI
  • RTRDNKVHGE
  • LKPMNCP
  • WEKFQEEAK
  • TIQLDFQ
  • AFYGPKID
  • DLCRGPH
  • RFNLTYV
  • DGDDKKRPVI
  • ENYGGKWP
  • RDHRKIG
  • QDDAHIF
  • HYSENMFSFEVEKE
  • GPHVRHTG
  • DDAHIFC
  • YWEGKAD
  • HRAILGS
  • ADFGVLHR

Post-translational modifications for TARS1 Gene

  • ISGylated.
  • Ubiquitination at Lys5, Lys65, Lys223, Lys243, Lys279, Lys288, Lys504, Lys549, Lys611, Lys636, Lys645, Lys660, Lys681, Lys712, and Lys717
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Domains & Families for TARS1 Gene

Gene Families for TARS1 Gene

HGNC:
Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Enzymes
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Protein Domains for TARS1 Gene

Blocks:
  • Anticodon binding domain
  • Threonyl-tRNA synthetase signature
  • TGS domain
InterPro:
ProtoNet:

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for TARS1 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • cDNA FLJ53464, highly similar to Threonyl-tRNA synthetase, cytoplasmic (EC 6.1.1.3) (B4DEG8_HUMAN)
  • TARS protein (Q5M7Z9_HUMAN)
  • Threonine--tRNA ligase (SYTC_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P26639

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

SYTC_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the class-II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the class-II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with TARS1: view

Function for TARS1 Gene

Molecular function for TARS1 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Catalyzes the attachment of threonine to tRNA(Thr) in a two-step reaction: threonine is first activated by ATP to form Thr-AMP and then transferred to the acceptor end of tRNA(Thr) (PubMed:25824639). Also edits incorrectly charged tRNA(Thr) via its editing domain, at the post-transfer stage (By similarity).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=ATP + L-threonine + tRNA(Thr) = AMP + diphosphate + H(+) + L-threonyl-tRNA(Thr); Xref=Rhea:RHEA:24624, Rhea:RHEA-COMP:9670, Rhea:RHEA-COMP:9704, ChEBI:CHEBI:15378, ChEBI:CHEBI:30616, ChEBI:CHEBI:33019, ChEBI:CHEBI:57926, ChEBI:CHEBI:78442, ChEBI:CHEBI:78534, ChEBI:CHEBI:456215; EC=6.1.1.3; Evidence=. ;.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Inhibited by borrelidin (BN, IC 50 is 7 nM), which binds to 4 distinct subsites in the protein, preventing binding of all 3 substrates (PubMed:25824639).

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for TARS1 Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for TARS1 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for TARS1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000049 tRNA binding IEA --
GO:0000166 nucleotide binding IEA --
GO:0003723 RNA binding IEA --
GO:0004812 aminoacyl-tRNA ligase activity IEA --
GO:0004829 threonine-tRNA ligase activity NAS,IEA 2033077
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TARS1: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with TARS1: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for TARS1 Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for TARS1

No data available for Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for TARS1 Gene

Localization for TARS1 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TARS1 Gene

Cytoplasm.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for TARS1 gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
cytoskeleton 4
mitochondrion 3
nucleus 3
plasma membrane 1
extracellular 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1
lysosome 1
golgi apparatus 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Cytosol (3)
  • Actin filaments (2)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for TARS1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA,NAS 2033077
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0015629 actin cytoskeleton IDA --
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome HDA 20458337
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TARS1: view

Pathways & Interactions for TARS1 Gene

PathCards logo

SuperPathways for TARS1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with TARS1: view

Pathways by source for TARS1 Gene

1 KEGG pathway for TARS1 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for TARS1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006412 translation NAS 2033077
GO:0006418 tRNA aminoacylation for protein translation TAS --
GO:0006435 threonyl-tRNA aminoacylation NAS,IEA 2033077
GO:0043039 tRNA aminoacylation IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TARS1: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for TARS1 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for TARS1 Gene

(7) Drugs for TARS1 Gene - From: DrugBank, ApexBio, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Threonine Approved Nutra Target 34
Phosphoric acid Approved Pharma 0
Adenosine monophosphate Approved, Investigational Nutra 0
ATP Investigational Nutra Agonist, Activator, Full agonist, Antagonist, Pore Blocker, Potentiation 0
Borrelidin Pharma Antiangiogenic; inhibits threonyl-tRNA synthetase 0

(4) Additional Compounds for TARS1 Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
pyrophosphate
  • [(ho)2P(O)OP(O)(OH)2]
  • Acide diphosphorique
  • Diphosphorsaeure
  • H4P2O7
  • PYROphosphATE
14000-31-8

(1) ApexBio Compounds for TARS1 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Borrelidin 7184-60-3
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with TARS1: view

Drug Products

Transcripts for TARS1 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for TARS1 Gene

3 REFSEQ mRNAs :
16 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
16 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for TARS1

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TARS1 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for TARS1 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
TARS1

Expression for TARS1 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for TARS1

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for TARS1 Gene:

Hs.481860

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for TARS1 Gene

  • Nervous system(4.9)
  • Lung(4.6)
  • Skin(3.1)
  • Kidney(3)
  • Liver(2.7)
  • Blood(2.4)
  • Bone(2.2)
  • Spleen(2.1)
  • Heart(2)
  • Stomach(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with TARS1: view

No data available for mRNA expression in normal human tissues , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein expression , Protein tissue co-expression partners , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for TARS1 Gene

Orthologs for TARS1 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for TARS1 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia TARS 31 30
  • 99.69 (n)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia TARS 31
  • 92 (a)
OneToOne
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia TARS 31
  • 92 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia TARS 31 30
  • 91.7 (n)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia TARS 31 30
  • 90.96 (n)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Tars 30
  • 87.48 (n)
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Tars 17 31 30
  • 86.98 (n)
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves TARS 31 30
  • 79.51 (n)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia tars 30
  • 77.37 (n)
Str.1862 30
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.9104 30
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii tars 31 30
  • 76.35 (n)
OneToOne
wufb07c05 30
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.2257 30
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Aats-thr 31 30
  • 66.92 (n)
ManyToMany
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP008929 30
  • 65.17 (n)
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea tars-1 31 30
  • 61.55 (n)
OneToMany
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes THS1 33 31 30
  • 59.08 (n)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0F05918g 30
  • 58.87 (n)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_ACL039W 30
  • 58.14 (n)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons AT5G26830 30
  • 58.18 (n)
Alicante grape
(Vitis vinifera)
eudicotyledons Vvi.595 30
rice
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os08g0295300 30
  • 58.6 (n)
Os.19842 30
barley
(Hordeum vulgare)
Liliopsida Hv.6106 30
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 31
  • 66 (a)
ManyToMany
Cin.10053 30
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes trs1 30
  • 57.32 (n)
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU02380 30
  • 56.85 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.10053 30
Species where no ortholog for TARS1 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for TARS1 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for TARS1 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for TARS1 (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for TARS1: view image

Paralogs for TARS1 Gene

Paralogs for TARS1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with TARS1: view

Variants for TARS1 Gene

Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for TARS1 Gene

SNP ID Clinical significance and condition Chr 05 pos Variation AA Info Type
689397 Pathogenic: TRICHOTHIODYSTROPHY 7, NONPHOTOSENSITIVE 33,466,874(+) C/T NONSENSE,NON_CODING_TRANSCRIPT_VARIANT
689398 Pathogenic: TRICHOTHIODYSTROPHY 7, NONPHOTOSENSITIVE 33,456,216(+) A/G MISSENSE_VARIANT,NON_CODING_TRANSCRIPT_VARIANT
689399 Pathogenic: TRICHOTHIODYSTROPHY 7, NONPHOTOSENSITIVE 33,455,691(+) T/C MISSENSE_VARIANT,NON_CODING_TRANSCRIPT_VARIANT
716827 Benign: not provided 33,453,311(+) G/A MISSENSE_VARIANT,NON_CODING_TRANSCRIPT_VARIANT
769298 Benign: not provided 33,462,107(+) G/A MISSENSE_VARIANT,NON_CODING_TRANSCRIPT_VARIANT

Additional dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for TARS1 Gene

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for TARS1 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv699n27 CNV gain 19166990
dgv9716n54 CNV gain 21841781
esv2762514 CNV gain 21179565
esv3604646 CNV gain 21293372
nsv471010 CNV gain 18288195
nsv522715 CNV gain 19592680

Variation tolerance for TARS1 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 91.8% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 4.94; 67.91% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for TARS1 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
TARS1

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TARS1 Gene

Disorders for TARS1 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(14) MalaCards diseases for TARS1 Gene - From: OMIM, ClinVar, Orphanet, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
trichothiodystrophy 7, nonphotosensitive
  • ttd7
trichothiodystrophy 1, photosensitive
  • amish brittle hair brain syndrome
kidney lipoma
  • lipoma of kidney
scrotal carcinoma
  • carcinoma of scrotum
myositis
  • myopathy, familial idiopathic inflammatory; iim
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search TARS1 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for TARS1

genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with TARS1: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for TARS1 Gene

Publications for TARS1 Gene

  1. Nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence of human threonyl-tRNA synthetase reveals extensive homology to the Escherichia coli and yeast enzymes. (PMID: 2033077) Cruzen ME … Arfin SM (The Journal of biological chemistry 1991) 3 4 23 54
  2. Proteomic identification of proteins conjugated to ISG15 in mouse and human cells. (PMID: 16139798) Giannakopoulos NV … Zhang DE (Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2005) 3 4 54
  3. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PMID: 15489334) Gerhard DS … MGC Project Team (Genome research 2004) 3 4 54
  4. Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. (PMID: 14702039) Ota T … Sugano S (Nature genetics 2004) 3 4 54
  5. Threonyl-tRNA synthetase. (PMID: 7626230) Freist W … Gauss DH (Biological chemistry Hoppe-Seyler 1995) 3 23 54

Products for TARS1 Gene

Sources for TARS1 Gene