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Aliases for TARS Gene

Aliases for TARS Gene

  • Threonyl-TRNA Synthetase 2 3 4 5
  • Threonine TRNA Ligase 1, Cytoplasmic 2 3
  • EC 4 56
  • ThrRS 3 4
  • Threonyl-TRNA Synthetase, Cytoplasmic 3
  • Threonine--TRNA Ligase, Cytoplasmic 3

External Ids for TARS Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for TARS Gene

  • GC05U990056
  • GC05P033887
  • GC05P033440
  • GC05P033486

Summaries for TARS Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for TARS Gene

  • Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases catalyze the aminoacylation of tRNA by their cognate amino acid. Because of their central role in linking amino acids with nucleotide triplets contained in tRNAs, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are thought to be among the first proteins that appeared in evolution. Threonyl-tRNA synthetase belongs to the class-II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for TARS Gene

TARS (Threonyl-TRNA Synthetase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with TARS include Myositis and Kidney Lipoma. Among its related pathways are Gene Expression and tRNA Aminoacylation. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and aminoacyl-tRNA ligase activity. An important paralog of this gene is TARSL2.

Gene Wiki entry for TARS Gene

Additional gene information for TARS Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for TARS Gene

Genomics for TARS Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for TARS Gene

Promoters and enhancers for TARS Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH05I033439 Promoter/Enhancer 2.3 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 561.3 +0.6 592 4.3 DMAP1 YY1 SLC30A9 ZNF213 E2F8 ZNF143 SP3 NFYC ZNF610 GLIS1 ENSG00000249572 TARS GC05M033441 PIR33729 RPS8P8 LOC643373 RXFP3 GC05P033478
GH05I033438 Enhancer 0.6 Ensembl dbSUPER 550.8 -1.8 -1795 0.2 CEBPB FOXA1 ENSG00000249572 GC05M033441 PIR33729 TARS RXFP3 GC05M033421
GH05I033432 Enhancer 0.8 ENCODE 10.5 -7.7 -7673 0.6 ELF3 SOX13 FOXA2 SAP130 MAX RARA YY1 ZNF316 HNF4G ATF7 RXFP3 TARS ENSG00000249572 PIR33729 GC05M033441 GC05M033421
GH05I033444 Enhancer 0.6 Ensembl dbSUPER 10.5 +3.6 3605 0.2 PRDM6 ZNF10 TARS GC05P033478
GH05I033446 Enhancer 0.5 dbSUPER 10.5 +6.8 6849 1.4 SCRT1 SP1 MAFF ZNF316 ZBTB33 MAFK EMSY ENSG00000249572 TARS GC05P033478
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

GeneHancers around TARS on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the TARS gene promoter:

Genomic Locations for TARS Gene

Genomic Locations for TARS Gene
28,844 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for TARS Gene

Genes around TARS on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
TARS Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for TARS Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for TARS Gene

Proteins for TARS Gene

  • Protein details for TARS Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Threonine--tRNA ligase, cytoplasmic
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8K8I1
    • B4DEG8
    • Q96FP5
    • Q9BWA6

    Protein attributes for TARS Gene

    723 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    83435 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer.
    • Sequence=AAB04939.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally extended.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for TARS Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for TARS Gene


neXtProt entry for TARS Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for TARS Gene


Post-translational modifications for TARS Gene

  • ISGylated.
  • Ubiquitination at isoforms=25, posLast=6565, isoforms=2222, isoforms=2223, posLast=279279, posLast=288288, posLast=504504, posLast=549549, isoforms=2611, isoforms=2636, posLast=645645, isoforms=2660, posLast=681681, isoforms=2712, and isoforms=2717
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Domains & Families for TARS Gene

Gene Families for TARS Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Enzymes
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the class-II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family.
  • Belongs to the class-II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with TARS: view

Function for TARS Gene

Molecular function for TARS Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
threonyl-tRNA synthetase
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
ATP + L-threonine + tRNA(Thr) = AMP + diphosphate + L-threonyl-tRNA(Thr).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Inhibited by borrelidin (BN, IC 50 is 7 nM), which binds to 4 distinct subsites in the protein, preventing binding of all 3 substrates (PubMed:25824639).

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for TARS Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for TARS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000049 tRNA binding IEA --
GO:0000166 nucleotide binding IEA --
GO:0003723 RNA binding IEA --
GO:0004812 aminoacyl-tRNA ligase activity IEA --
GO:0004829 threonine-tRNA ligase activity IEA,TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TARS: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with TARS: view

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

No data available for Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for TARS Gene

Localization for TARS Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TARS Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for TARS gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
cytoskeleton 5
cytosol 5
mitochondrion 2
nucleus 2

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Cytosol (3)
  • Actin filaments (2)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for TARS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm NAS,IEA 2033077
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0015629 actin cytoskeleton IDA --
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome IDA,HDA 20458337
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TARS: view

Pathways & Interactions for TARS Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with TARS: view

Pathways by source for TARS Gene

1 KEGG pathway for TARS Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for TARS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006412 translation NAS 2033077
GO:0006418 tRNA aminoacylation for protein translation TAS --
GO:0006435 threonyl-tRNA aminoacylation NAS,IEA 2033077
GO:0043039 tRNA aminoacylation IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TARS: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for TARS Gene

Drugs & Compounds for TARS Gene

(8) Drugs for TARS Gene - From: DrugBank, ApexBio, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
L-Threonine Approved Nutra Target 0
Phosphoric acid Approved Pharma 0
Adenosine monophosphate Approved, Investigational Nutra 0
ATP Investigational Nutra Agonist 0
Borrelidin Pharma Antiangiogenic; inhibits threonyl-tRNA synthetase 0

(4) Additional Compounds for TARS Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • (4-)Diphosphoric acid ion
  • (P2O74-)Diphosphate
  • Diphosphate
  • Diphosphoric acid
  • PPi

(1) ApexBio Compounds for TARS Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Borrelidin 7184-60-3
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with TARS: view

Drug Products

Transcripts for TARS Gene

Unigene Clusters for TARS Gene

Threonyl-tRNA synthetase:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TARS Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2a · 2b · 2c · 2d · 2e ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7a · 7b · 7c · 7d ^ 8a · 8b · 8c ^ 9a · 9b ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12 ^
SP1: - - -
SP2: - - - - -
SP3: - -
SP4: - - - - - - -
SP5: - - - - - - - -
SP6: -
SP7: - - -
SP8: - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP9: - - - -
SP10: - -

ExUns: 13 ^ 14 ^ 15 ^ 16 ^ 17 ^ 18 ^ 19 ^ 20 ^ 21 ^ 22

Relevant External Links for TARS Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for TARS Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for TARS Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for TARS Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Lymph node (8.4).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for TARS Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for TARS Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of TARS Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for TARS Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for TARS Gene

  • Nervous system(4.9)
  • Lung(4.6)
  • Skin(3.1)
  • Kidney(3)
  • Liver(2.7)
  • Blood(2.4)
  • Bone(2.2)
  • Spleen(2.1)
  • Heart(2)
  • Stomach(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with TARS: view

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for TARS Gene

Orthologs for TARS Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for TARS Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia TARS 33 34
  • 99.69 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia TARS 34
  • 92 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia TARS 34
  • 92 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia TARS 33 34
  • 91.7 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia TARS 33 34
  • 90.96 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Tars 33
  • 87.48 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Tars 33 16 34
  • 86.98 (n)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves TARS 33 34
  • 79.51 (n)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia tars 33
  • 77.37 (n)
Str.1862 33
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.9104 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii tars 33 34
  • 76.35 (n)
wufb07c05 33
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.2257 33
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Aats-thr 35 33 34
  • 66.92 (n)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP008929 33
  • 65.17 (n)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea trs-1 35
  • 63 (a)
tars-1 33 34
  • 61.55 (n)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes THS1 33 34 36
  • 59.08 (n)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0F05918g 33
  • 58.87 (n)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_ACL039W 33
  • 58.14 (n)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons AT5G26830 33
  • 58.18 (n)
Alicante grape
(Vitis vinifera)
eudicotyledons Vvi.595 33
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os08g0295300 33
  • 58.6 (n)
Os.19842 33
(Hordeum vulgare)
Liliopsida Hv.6106 33
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 34
  • 66 (a)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes trs1 33
  • 57.32 (n)
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU02380 33
  • 56.85 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.10053 33
Species where no ortholog for TARS was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for TARS Gene

Gene Tree for TARS (if available)
Gene Tree for TARS (if available)

Paralogs for TARS Gene

Paralogs for TARS Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with TARS: view

Variants for TARS Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for TARS Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 05 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000068110 -- 33,462,508(+) A/G intron_variant
rs1000081682 -- 33,448,011(+) G/A intron_variant
rs1000121512 -- 33,462,836(+) T/C intron_variant
rs1000518298 -- 33,457,738(+) T/C intron_variant
rs1000534134 -- 33,452,778(+) T/A intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for TARS Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv699n27 CNV gain 19166990
dgv9716n54 CNV gain 21841781
esv2762514 CNV gain 21179565
esv3604646 CNV gain 21293372
nsv471010 CNV gain 18288195
nsv522715 CNV gain 19592680

Variation tolerance for TARS Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 91.8% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 4.94; 67.91% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for TARS Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TARS Gene

Disorders for TARS Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(6) MalaCards diseases for TARS Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
  • myopathy, familial idiopathic inflammatory; iim
kidney lipoma
  • lipoma of kidney
  • amyopathic dermatomyositis
antisynthetase syndrome
  • anti-jo1 syndrome
follicular mucinosis
  • alopecia mucinosa
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search TARS in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for TARS

genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with TARS: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for TARS Gene

Publications for TARS Gene

  1. Nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence of human threonyl-tRNA synthetase reveals extensive homology to the Escherichia coli and yeast enzymes. (PMID: 2033077) Cruzen ME … Arfin SM (The Journal of biological chemistry 1991) 3 4 22 58
  2. Proteomic identification of proteins conjugated to ISG15 in mouse and human cells. (PMID: 16139798) Giannakopoulos NV … Zhang DE (Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2005) 3 4 58
  3. Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. (PMID: 14702039) Ota T … Sugano S (Nature genetics 2004) 3 4 58
  4. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PMID: 15489334) Gerhard DS … MGC Project Team (Genome research 2004) 3 4 58
  5. Threonyl-tRNA synthetase. (PMID: 7626230) Freist W … Gauss DH (Biological chemistry Hoppe-Seyler 1995) 3 22 58

Products for TARS Gene

Sources for TARS Gene

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