Initiation of transcription by RNA polymerase II requires the activities of more than 70 polypeptides. The protein that coordinates these activities is transcription factor IID (TFIID), which binds to the core promoter to position the polymerase properly, serves as the scaffold for assembly of the remainder of the transcription complex, and acts as a channel for regulatory sign... See more...

Aliases for TAF9 Gene

Aliases for TAF9 Gene

  • TATA-Box Binding Protein Associated Factor 9 2 3 5
  • TAFII31 2 3 4
  • TAFII32 2 3 4
  • TAF9 RNA Polymerase II, TATA Box Binding Protein (TBP)-Associated Factor, 32kDa 2 3
  • Transcription Initiation Factor TFIID 31 KDa Subunit 3 4
  • Transcription Initiation Factor TFIID 32 KDa Subunit 3 4
  • RNA Polymerase II TBP-Associated Factor Subunit G 3 4
  • Transcription Initiation Factor TFIID Subunit 9 3 4
  • STAF31/32 3 4
  • TAFII-31 3 4
  • TAFII-32 3 4
  • TAFIID32 2 3
  • TAF2G 3 4
  • TATA Box Binding Protein (TBP)-Associated Factor, RNA Polymerase II, G, 32kD 2
  • Transcription Initiation Factor TFIID 31 KD Subunit 3
  • MGC:5067 3
  • MGC5067 2
  • CGI-137 2
  • MGC1603 2
  • MGC3647 2
  • AD-004 2
  • TAF9 5

External Ids for TAF9 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for TAF9 Gene

  • TAF2G

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for TAF9 Gene

  • GC05M068800
  • GC05M070213
  • GC05M068617
  • GC05M068663
  • GC05M068683
  • GC05M065603
  • GC05M068646

Summaries for TAF9 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for TAF9 Gene

  • Initiation of transcription by RNA polymerase II requires the activities of more than 70 polypeptides. The protein that coordinates these activities is transcription factor IID (TFIID), which binds to the core promoter to position the polymerase properly, serves as the scaffold for assembly of the remainder of the transcription complex, and acts as a channel for regulatory signals. TFIID is composed of the TATA-binding protein (TBP) and a group of evolutionarily conserved proteins known as TBP-associated factors or TAFs. TAFs may participate in basal transcription, serve as coactivators, function in promoter recognition or modify general transcription factors (GTFs) to facilitate complex assembly and transcription initiation. This gene encodes one of the smaller subunits of TFIID that binds to the basal transcription factor GTF2B as well as to several transcriptional activators such as p53 and VP16. In human, TAF9 and AK6 (GeneID: 102157402) are two distinct genes that share 5' exons. A similar but distinct gene (TAF9L) has been found on the X chromosome and a pseudogene has been identified on chromosome 19. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

GeneCards Summary for TAF9 Gene

TAF9 (TATA-Box Binding Protein Associated Factor 9) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Tat-mediated elongation of the HIV-1 transcript and Chromatin organization. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include protein heterodimerization activity and ATPase activity. An important paralog of this gene is TAF9B.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for TAF9 Gene

  • Essential for cell viability. TAF9 and TAF9B are involved in transcriptional activation as well as repression of distinct but overlapping sets of genes. May have a role in gene regulation associated with apoptosis. TAFs are components of the transcription factor IID (TFIID) complex, the TBP-free TAFII complex (TFTC), the PCAF histone acetylase complex and the STAGA transcription coactivator-HAT complex. TFIID or TFTC are essential for the regulation of RNA polymerase II-mediated transcription.

Gene Wiki entry for TAF9 Gene

No data available for CIViC Summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for TAF9 Gene

Genomics for TAF9 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements Pubs

Promoters and enhancers for TAF9 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
Score
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH05J069367 Promoter/Enhancer 2.1 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas 250.7 +0.2 162 5.4 BCLAF1 SP1 ZNF207 MYC ZNF580 ZNF592 KLF9 POLR2A ZNF10 ZIC2 RAD17 AK6 HSALNG0042463 TAF9 lnc-TAF9-9 lnc-MARVELD2-2 GTF2H2C CCDC125 OCLN RF00017-4216
GH05J069365 Promoter 0.3 EPDnew 250.7 +4.5 4506 0.1 TAF9 piR-31764 AK6 HSALNG0042463 RAD17 lnc-TAF9-9 CCDC125 RF00017-4216
GH05J069366 Promoter 0.3 EPDnew 250.7 +3.5 3492 0.1 TAF9 piR-31764 AK6 HSALNG0042463 RAD17 lnc-TAF9-9 CCDC125 RF00017-4216
GH05J069374 Enhancer 0.9 Ensembl ENCODE 0.7 -4.6 -4580 1.6 BCLAF1 BCL11A ZNF592 ZNF316 SMARCA5 ASH2L ELF1 IKZF1 BMI1 RB1 CCDC125 MARVELD2 CDK7 AK6 TAF9 lnc-MARVELD2-2 RAD17 piR-57135-011 RF00017-4216
GH05J069368 Enhancer 0.6 Ensembl 0.7 +4.9 4912 0.2 ATF2 SMAD5 ZNF513 MAFF ZNF316 JUND MAFK MAFG JUN CREB1 piR-31764 AK6 HSALNG0042463 RAD17 TAF9 lnc-TAF9-9 CCDC125 RF00017-4216
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around TAF9 on the GeneHancer Hub at the UCSC Golden Path

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for TAF9

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the TAF9 gene promoter:
  • ATF-2

Genomic Locations for TAF9 Gene

Latest Assembly
chr5:69,364,743-69,370,013
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
5,271 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Previous Assembly
chr5:68,660,570-68,665,651
(GRCh37/hg19 by Entrez Gene)
Size:
5,082 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Alternative Locations (GRCh38/hg38)

  • chr5(ALT_REF_LOCI_1):147,938-153,020 (-)

Genomic View for TAF9 Gene

Genes around TAF9 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
TAF9 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for TAF9 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for TAF9 Gene

Proteins for TAF9 Gene

  • Protein details for TAF9 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q16594-TAF9_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Transcription initiation factor TFIID subunit 9
    Protein Accession:
    Q16594
    Secondary Accessions:
    • D3DWA3
    • Q5U0D1
    • Q9BTS1

    Protein attributes for TAF9 Gene

    Size:
    264 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    28974 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Component of TFIID, the TATA-binding protein-free TAF complex (TFTC), the PCAF complex and the STAGA transcription coactivator-HAT complex. The PCAF complex consists at least of TADA2L/ADA2, SUPT3H/SPT3, TADA3L/ADA3, TAF5L/PAF65-beta, TAF6L/PAF65-alpha, TAF10/TAFII30, TAF12/TAFII20, TAF9/TAFII31 and TRRAP. The STAGA transcription coactivator-HAT complex consists at least of SUPT3H, GCN5L2, SUPT7L, TAF5L, TAF6L, TADA3L, TAD1L, TAF10, TAF12, TRRAP and TAF9. Binds N-terminal domain of p53/TP53 which is essential for transcription. Component of some MLL1/MLL complex, at least composed of the core components KMT2A/MLL1, ASH2L, HCFC1/HCF1, WDR5 and RBBP5, as well as the facultative components BAP18, CHD8, E2F6, HSP70, INO80C, KANSL1, LAS1L, MAX, MCRS1, MGA, MYST1/MOF, PELP1, PHF20, PRP31, RING2, RUVB1/TIP49A, RUVB2/TIP49B, SENP3, TAF1, TAF4, TAF6, TAF7, TAF9 and TEX10. Binds TFIIB and the Herpes simplex virus activator VP16. Forms a heterodimer with TAF6/TAFII80 in a complex with the TAF4B/TAFII105-TAF12/TAFII20 heterodimer. Also interacts with TAF5. Binds directly DNA. Increased DNA binding when complexed with TAF6/TAFII80.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for TAF9 Gene

neXtProt entry for TAF9 Gene

Post-translational modifications for TAF9 Gene

  • Ubiquitination at Lys108
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for TAF9 Gene

Domains & Families for TAF9 Gene

Gene Families for TAF9 Gene

HGNC:
Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Protein Domains for TAF9 Gene

InterPro:
Blocks:
  • Transcription factor TAFII-31

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for TAF9 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • Coilin-interacting nuclear ATPase protein (KAD6_HUMAN)
  • Transcription initiation factor TFIID 32 kDa subunit (TAF9_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q16594

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

TAF9_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the TAF9 family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the TAF9 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with TAF9: view

Function for TAF9 Gene

Molecular function for TAF9 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Essential for cell viability. TAF9 and TAF9B are involved in transcriptional activation as well as repression of distinct but overlapping sets of genes. May have a role in gene regulation associated with apoptosis. TAFs are components of the transcription factor IID (TFIID) complex, the TBP-free TAFII complex (TFTC), the PCAF histone acetylase complex and the STAGA transcription coactivator-HAT complex. TFIID or TFTC are essential for the regulation of RNA polymerase II-mediated transcription.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
6 to 8-fold by apoptotic signals.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for TAF9 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000976 transcription regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding IDA 19251649
GO:0002039 p53 binding IPI 11278372
GO:0003677 DNA binding IEA,IDA 15601843
GO:0003713 transcription coactivator activity IMP 11278372
GO:0004402 contributes_to histone acetyltransferase activity IDA 9674425
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TAF9: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with TAF9: view

Inhibitory RNAs for research

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for TAF9

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for TAF9 Gene

Localization for TAF9 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TAF9 Gene

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for TAF9 gene
Compartment Confidence
nucleus 5
cytoskeleton 4
cytosol 4
extracellular 1
mitochondrion 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for TAF9 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000124 SAGA complex IBA 21873635
GO:0000125 PCAF complex IDA 9674425
GO:0005634 nucleus IEA,IDA 11564863
GO:0005654 nucleoplasm IDA,TAS --
GO:0005669 transcription factor TFIID complex IDA 14580349
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TAF9: view

Pathways & Interactions for TAF9 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with TAF9: view

Pathways by source for TAF9 Gene

2 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) pathways for TAF9 Gene
  • ATP/ITP metabolism
  • Transcription Ligand-Dependent Transcription of Retinoid-Target genes
7 Qiagen pathways for TAF9 Gene
  • Assembly of RNA Polymerase-II Initiation Complex
  • Crosstalk Between CARM1 and ESRs
  • Estrogen Pathway
  • Glucocorticoid Receptor Signaling
  • Nuclear Receptor Activation by Vitamin-A

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for TAF9 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000492 box C/D snoRNP assembly IDA 17636026
GO:0006352 DNA-templated transcription, initiation IEA --
GO:0006366 transcription by RNA polymerase II IBA,TAS --
GO:0006367 transcription initiation from RNA polymerase II promoter TAS --
GO:0006974 cellular response to DNA damage stimulus IC 11278372
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TAF9: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for TAF9 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for TAF9 Gene

(2) Drugs for TAF9 Gene - From: HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Adenosine monophosphate Approved, Investigational Nutra 0
ATP Investigational Nutra 0

(1) Additional Compounds for TAF9 Gene - From: HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
ADP
  • 5'-Adenylphosphoric acid
  • Adenosine 5'-diphosphate
  • ADENOSINE-5'-diphosphATE
  • H3ADP
  • 5'-Adenylphosphate
58-64-0
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with TAF9: view

Transcripts for TAF9 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for TAF9 Gene

2 REFSEQ mRNAs :
11 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
8 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

Inhibitory RNAs for research

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for TAF9

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TAF9 Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2a · 2b · 2c · 2d ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7a · 7b · 7c · 7d · 7e · 7f · 7g ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b ^ 10
SP1: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP2: - - - - - - - - - -
SP3: - - - - - - -
SP4: - - - - - -
SP5: - - - -
SP6: - - -
SP7: - -
SP8: -
SP9: - - - - - - -
SP10:

Relevant External Links for TAF9 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
TAF9

Expression for TAF9 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for TAF9 Gene

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for TAF9 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Bone (23.4), Kidney (17.1), and Colon (6.5).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for TAF9 Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for TAF9 Gene

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for TAF9

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for TAF9 Gene:

Hs.653163

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for TAF9 Gene

  • Adrenal gland(4)
  • Nervous system(4)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with TAF9: view

Primer products for research

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for TAF9 Gene

Orthologs for TAF9 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for TAF9 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
Chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia TAF9 29
  • 99.6 (n)
Cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia TAF9 29
  • 93.55 (n)
Rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Taf9 29
  • 92.74 (n)
Dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia TAF9 29
  • 92.64 (n)
Mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Taf9 29 16
  • 91.09 (n)
Chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves TAF9 29
  • 73.28 (n)
Tropical Clawed Frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia taf9b 29
  • 75.2 (n)
Zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii taf9 29
  • 71.69 (n)
wufb16h03 29
Rainbow Trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.3586 29
Fruit Fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta e(y)1 31
  • 56 (a)
K. Lactis Yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0F25003g 29
  • 47.09 (n)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Eremothecium gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_AFR527W 29
  • 46.72 (n)
Baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes TAF9 29 32 32
  • 44.96 (n)
Fission Yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes taf9 29
  • 55.94 (n)
Sea Vase
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.7568 29
Species where no ortholog for TAF9 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • Alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • Amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • Beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • Common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • Corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • Filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute Bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • Green Algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)
  • Lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • Loblloly Pine (Pinus taeda)
  • Malaria Parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • Medicago Trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • Moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • Oppossum (Monodelphis domestica)
  • Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • Pig (Sus scrofa)
  • Platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • Rice (Oryza sativa)
  • Rice Blast Fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • Schistosome Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • Sea Anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • Sea Squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • Soybean (Glycine max)
  • Stem Rust Fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • Thale Cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • Wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • Worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for TAF9 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for TAF9 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for TAF9 (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for TAF9: view image
Alliance of Genome Resources:
Additional Orthologs for TAF9

Paralogs for TAF9 Gene

Paralogs for TAF9 Gene

(2) SIMAP similar genes for TAF9 Gene using alignment to 7 proteins:

  • TAF9_HUMAN
  • D6RDH4_HUMAN
  • D6RGK3_HUMAN
  • D6RHW1_HUMAN
  • D6RIE8_HUMAN
  • D6RIV9_HUMAN
  • D6RIY1_HUMAN

Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for TAF9 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with TAF9: view

Variants for TAF9 Gene

Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for TAF9 Gene

SNP ID Clinical significance and condition Chr 05 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs11542580 -- p.Gln210His
rs4252233 -- p.Thr6Met

dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for variants without ClinVar clinical significance for TAF9 Gene

All consequence types are included: molecular consequences (e.g. missense, synonymous), and location-based (e.g. intron, upstream).

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for TAF9 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv5694n100 CNV gain 25217958
nsv428117 CNV gain+loss 18775914
nsv821643 CNV loss 15273396
nsv980655 CNV duplication 23825009

Variation tolerance for TAF9 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 30.7% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.67; 31.98% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for TAF9 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
TAF9
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
TAF9
Leiden Open Variation Database (LOVD)
TAF9

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assays for research

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TAF9 Gene

Disorders for TAF9 Gene

Additional Disease Information for TAF9

Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
(HuGE)
Atlas
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
Open Targets Platform
Open Targets Platform

No disorders were found for TAF9 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for TAF9 Gene

Publications for TAF9 Gene

  1. Characterization of hCINAP, a novel coilin-interacting protein encoded by a transcript from the transcription factor TAFIID32 locus. (PMID: 16079131) Santama N … Lamond AI (The Journal of biological chemistry 2005) 2 3 4 22
  2. Evolutionary conservation of human TATA-binding-polypeptide-associated factors TAFII31 and TAFII80 and interactions of TAFII80 with other TAFs and with general transcription factors. (PMID: 7667268) Hisatake K … Roeder RG (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1995) 3 4 22
  3. STAGA recruits Mediator to the MYC oncoprotein to stimulate transcription and cell proliferation. (PMID: 17967894) Liu X … Martinez E (Molecular and cellular biology 2008) 3 22
  4. Multivalent binding of p53 to the STAGA complex mediates coactivator recruitment after UV damage. (PMID: 18250150) Gamper AM … Roeder RG (Molecular and cellular biology 2008) 3 22
  5. Physical association and coordinate function of the H3 K4 methyltransferase MLL1 and the H4 K16 acetyltransferase MOF. (PMID: 15960975) Dou Y … Roeder RG (Cell 2005) 3 4

Products for TAF9 Gene

Sources for TAF9 Gene