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Aliases for SYN2 Gene

Aliases for SYN2 Gene

  • Synapsin II 2 3 4 5
  • Synapsin-2 3
  • SYNII 3

External Ids for SYN2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for SYN2 Gene

  • GC03P011976

Summaries for SYN2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for SYN2 Gene

  • This gene is a member of the synapsin gene family. Synapsins encode neuronal phosphoproteins which associate with the cytoplasmic surface of synaptic vesicles. Family members are characterized by common protein domains, and they are implicated in synaptogenesis and the modulation of neurotransmitter release, suggesting a potential role in several neuropsychiatric diseases. This member of the synapsin family encodes a neuron-specific phosphoprotein that selectively binds to small synaptic vesicles in the presynaptic nerve terminal. Polymorphisms in this gene are associated with abnormal presynaptic function and related neuronal disorders, including autism, epilepsy, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. The tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 4 gene is located within an intron of this gene and is transcribed in the opposite direction. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014]

GeneCards Summary for SYN2 Gene

SYN2 (Synapsin II) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with SYN2 include Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder. Among its related pathways are Transmission across Chemical Synapses and Neurotransmitter Release Cycle. An important paralog of this gene is SYN1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for SYN2 Gene

  • Neuronal phosphoprotein that coats synaptic vesicles, binds to the cytoskeleton, and is believed to function in the regulation of neurotransmitter release. May play a role in noradrenaline secretion by sympathetic neurons (By similarity).

Gene Wiki entry for SYN2 Gene

Additional gene information for SYN2 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for SYN2 Gene

Genomics for SYN2 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for SYN2 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for SYN2 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH03I012004 Promoter/Enhancer 1.8 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 562.6 +0.1 141 0.6 ZNF2 ZEB1 ZNF335 GLIS2 ZNF213 ZNF366 SP3 REST ZEB2 SP1 SYN2 TIMP4 GC03P011967 ACTG1P12
GH03I012191 Enhancer 1.7 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 28.4 +189.5 189519 3.9 ATF1 IRF4 YY1 GTF3C2 ZNF766 ZNF143 ATF7 FOS RUNX3 DEK SYN2 PPARG TAMM41 TSEN2 TIMP4 VGLL4 ENSG00000271716 RAF1 GC03P012190 PIR34150
GH03I012186 Enhancer 1.4 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 28.2 +183.8 183775 2.7 HDGF KLF17 BMI1 IRF4 ZNF335 GLIS2 ATF7 ETV6 FOS BCLAF1 SYN2 TIMP4 PPARG RAF1 GC03P012190 PIR34150 GC03P012176
GH03I012349 Promoter/Enhancer 1.6 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 19.5 +346.2 346225 1.7 MXI1 TAF1 MAX RAD21 RFX5 YY1 POLR2A HNF4G RCOR1 NFE2L2 PPARG SYN2 TIMP4 GC03P012338 GC03P012458
GH03I012353 Enhancer 1.4 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 17.3 +349.7 349746 1 MEIS2 PKNOX1 JUN MAX CEBPG RAD21 RFX5 POLR2A SMC3 RCOR1 PPARG SYN2 TIMP4 RAF1 GC03P012338 GC03P012458
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

GeneHancers around SYN2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the SYN2 gene promoter:

Genomic Locations for SYN2 Gene

Genomic Locations for SYN2 Gene
187,673 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for SYN2 Gene

Genes around SYN2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
SYN2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for SYN2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for SYN2 Gene

Proteins for SYN2 Gene

  • Protein details for SYN2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8MY98

    Protein attributes for SYN2 Gene

    582 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    62847 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with CAPON.
    • Sequence=AC022234; Type=Frameshift; Positions=71; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=AC022234; Type=Miscellaneous discrepancy; Note=Several in-frame stop codons.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Alternative splice isoforms for SYN2 Gene


neXtProt entry for SYN2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for SYN2 Gene

  • Phosphorylation at Ser-10 dissociates synapsins from synaptic vesicles. Phosphorylation at Ser-425 by MAPK1/ERK2 and/or MAPK3/ERK1 may play a role in noradrenaline secretion by sympathetic neurons (By similarity).
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for SYN2 Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for SYN2 Gene

Domains & Families for SYN2 Gene

Gene Families for SYN2 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for SYN2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • The A region binds phospholipids with a preference for negatively charged species.
  • Belongs to the synapsin family.
  • The A region binds phospholipids with a preference for negatively charged species.
  • Belongs to the synapsin family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with SYN2: view

Function for SYN2 Gene

Molecular function for SYN2 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
synapsin II,synaptic vesicles associated phosphoprotein,with two alternative forms SYNIIA,SYNIIB,involved in the fine regulation of neurotransmitter release
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Neuronal phosphoprotein that coats synaptic vesicles, binds to the cytoskeleton, and is believed to function in the regulation of neurotransmitter release. May play a role in noradrenaline secretion by sympathetic neurons (By similarity).

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for SYN2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for SYN2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003824 catalytic activity IEA --
GO:0005524 ATP binding TAS,IEA 15217342
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with SYN2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with SYN2: view

Animal Models for SYN2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for SYN2:

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for SYN2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target SYN2

Inhibitory RNA Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for SYN2 Gene

Localization for SYN2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for SYN2 Gene

Cell junction, synapse.

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for SYN2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005886 plasma membrane IEA --
GO:0008021 synaptic vesicle IEA --
GO:0014069 postsynaptic density IEA --
GO:0030054 cell junction IEA --
GO:0030672 synaptic vesicle membrane IEA,ISS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with SYN2: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS for SYN2 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for SYN2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with SYN2: view

Pathways by source for SYN2 Gene

Interacting Proteins for SYN2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for SYN2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007268 chemical synaptic transmission TAS 8964517
GO:0007269 neurotransmitter secretion ISS,IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with SYN2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for SYN2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for SYN2 Gene

No Compound Related Data Available

Transcripts for SYN2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for SYN2 Gene

Synapsin II:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for SYN2 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for SYN2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for SYN2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for SYN2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for SYN2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain - Anterior cingulate cortex (BA24) (x7.4), Brain - Frontal Cortex (BA9) (x6.9), Brain - Cortex (x5.9), Brain - Amygdala (x5.4), and Brain - Nucleus accumbens (basal ganglia) (x4.2).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for SYN2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain (51.9) and Frontal cortex (16.2).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for SYN2 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for SYN2 Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of SYN2 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for SYN2 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for SYN2 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Central and peripheral nervous systems.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with SYN2: view

No data available for Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for SYN2 Gene

Orthologs for SYN2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for SYN2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia SYN2 33
  • 97.59 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia SYN2 33
  • 91.81 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia SYN2 33
  • 91.44 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Syn2 33
  • 89 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Syn2 16 33
  • 88.66 (n)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves SYN2 33
  • 75.8 (n)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia syn2-A 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii syn2a 33
  • 69.34 (n)
Dr.13414 33
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Syn 35
  • 47 (a)
Species where no ortholog for SYN2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • oppossum (Monodelphis domestica)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for SYN2 Gene

Gene Tree for SYN2 (if available)
Gene Tree for SYN2 (if available)

Paralogs for SYN2 Gene

Paralogs for SYN2 Gene

(3) SIMAP similar genes for SYN2 Gene using alignment to 2 proteins: Pseudogenes for SYN2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with SYN2: view

Variants for SYN2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for SYN2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 03 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1064796171 uncertain-significance, not specified 12,187,570(+) T/ coding_sequence_variant, frameshift, genic_downstream_transcript_variant
rs1064796852 uncertain-significance, not specified 12,162,079(+) C/G coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant, non_coding_transcript_variant
rs751232089 uncertain-significance, not specified 12,183,393(+) G/A/C coding_sequence_variant, genic_downstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant, missense_variant, non_coding_transcript_variant
rs1000026690 -- 12,127,914(+) T/G genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant
rs1000058253 -- 12,124,975(+) T/C genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for SYN2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv1360e212 CNV loss 25503493
dgv763e201 CNV deletion 23290073
dgv850e199 CNV deletion 23128226
esv1007552 CNV deletion 20482838
esv1015927 CNV deletion 17803354
esv1768590 CNV insertion 17803354
esv2193425 CNV deletion 18987734
esv2504613 CNV deletion 19546169
esv2584673 CNV insertion 19546169
esv2724931 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2724932 CNV deletion 23290073
esv3030297 CNV deletion 24192839
esv3310138 CNV mobile element insertion 20981092
esv3383197 CNV insertion 20981092
esv3561484 CNV deletion 23714750
esv3568616 CNV loss 25503493
esv3595315 CNV loss 21293372
nsv1073205 CNV deletion 25765185
nsv1112379 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv1139090 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv1147269 CNV deletion 26484159
nsv236690 CNV deletion 16902084
nsv236830 CNV deletion 16902084
nsv460427 CNV loss 19166990
nsv519277 CNV loss 19592680
nsv589698 CNV loss 21841781
nsv589699 CNV loss 21841781
nsv7351 OTHER inversion 18451855
nsv979803 CNV duplication 23825009

Additional Variant Information for SYN2 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Variation tolerance for SYN2 Gene

Disorders for SYN2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(3) MalaCards diseases for SYN2 Gene - From: OMIM, GTR, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
  • sczd
bipolar disorder
  • major affective disorder 1
  • autistic disorder
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search SYN2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Schizophrenia (SCZD) [MIM:181500]: A complex, multifactorial psychotic disorder or group of disorders characterized by disturbances in the form and content of thought (e.g. delusions, hallucinations), in mood (e.g. inappropriate affect), in sense of self and relationship to the external world (e.g. loss of ego boundaries, withdrawal), and in behavior (e.g bizarre or apparently purposeless behavior). Although it affects emotions, it is distinguished from mood disorders in which such disturbances are primary. Similarly, there may be mild impairment of cognitive function, and it is distinguished from the dementias in which disturbed cognitive function is considered primary. Some patients manifest schizophrenic as well as bipolar disorder symptoms and are often given the diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:15449241}. Note=Disease susceptibility may be associated with variations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Additional Disease Information for SYN2

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with SYN2: view

No data available for Genatlas for SYN2 Gene

Publications for SYN2 Gene

  1. Association study of polymorphisms in synaptic vesicle-associated genes, SYN2 and CPLX2, with schizophrenia. (PMID: 16131404) Lee HJ … Fukumaki Y (Behavioral and brain functions : BBF 2005) 3 22 44 58
  2. Personalized smoking cessation: interactions between nicotine dose, dependence and quit-success genotype score. (PMID: 20379614) Rose JE … Uhl GR (Molecular medicine (Cambridge, Mass.) 2010) 3 44 58
  3. Variation at the NFATC2 locus increases the risk of thiazolidinedione-induced edema in the Diabetes REduction Assessment with ramipril and rosiglitazone Medication (DREAM) study. (PMID: 20628086) Bailey SD … DREAM investigators (Diabetes care 2010) 3 44 58
  4. Association of intronic polymorphism rs3773364 A>G in synapsin-2 gene with idiopathic epilepsy. (PMID: 20034013) Lakhan R … Mittal B (Synapse (New York, N.Y.) 2010) 3 44 58
  5. No association between bipolar disorder and syngr1 or synapsin II polymorphisms in the Han Chinese population. (PMID: 19665806) Wang Y … Li S (Psychiatry research 2009) 3 44 58

Products for SYN2 Gene

Sources for SYN2 Gene

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