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Aliases for SULT2A1 Gene

Aliases for SULT2A1 Gene

  • Sulfotransferase Family 2A Member 1 2 3 5
  • Sulfotransferase Family, Cytosolic, 2A, Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)-Preferring, Member 1 2 3
  • DHEA-ST 3 4
  • ST2A1 3 4
  • ST2A3 3 4
  • STD 3 4
  • HST 3 4
  • ST2 3 4
  • Alcohol/Hydroxysteroid Sulfotransferase 3
  • Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfotransferase 4
  • Bile-Salt Sulfotranasferase 2A1 3
  • Hydroxysteroid Sulfotransferase 4
  • Bile Salt Sulfotransferase 3
  • Sulfotransferase 2A1 4
  • EC 4
  • DHEAS 3
  • HSTa 3

External Ids for SULT2A1 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for SULT2A1 Gene

  • STD

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for SULT2A1 Gene

  • GC19M049020
  • GC19M048765
  • GC19M053049
  • GC19M053065
  • GC19M048373
  • GC19M044800

Summaries for SULT2A1 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for SULT2A1 Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the sulfotransferase family. Sulfotransferases aid in the metabolism of drugs and endogenous compounds by converting these substances into more hydrophilic water-soluble sulfate conjugates that can be easily excreted. This protein catalyzes the sulfation of steroids and bile acids in the liver and adrenal glands, and may have a role in the inherited adrenal androgen excess in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

GeneCards Summary for SULT2A1 Gene

SULT2A1 (Sulfotransferase Family 2A Member 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with SULT2A1 include Sex Differentiation Disease and Adrenal Cortical Adenoma. Among its related pathways are Sulfation Biotransformation Reaction and Cytochrome P450 - arranged by substrate type. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include sulfotransferase activity and bile-salt sulfotransferase activity. An important paralog of this gene is SULT2B1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for SULT2A1 Gene

  • Sulfotransferase that utilizes 3-phospho-5-adenylyl sulfate (PAPS) as sulfonate donor to catalyze the sulfonation of steroids and bile acids in the liver and adrenal glands.

Gene Wiki entry for SULT2A1 Gene

Additional gene information for SULT2A1 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for SULT2A1 Gene

Genomics for SULT2A1 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for SULT2A1 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for SULT2A1 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH19J047884 Promoter/Enhancer 1.4 EPDnew ENCODE 650.7 +0.6 589 2.7 FOXA2 MLX ARID4B FEZF1 DMAP1 ETS1 YY1 SLC30A9 NFKBIZ RXRA SULT2A1 LINC01595
GH19J047657 Enhancer 1.4 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 10.3 +223.1 223134 10.6 PKNOX1 FOXA2 MLX ARNT SIN3A YY1 FOS REST MEF2D SREBF1 ENSG00000278999 BICRA NOP53 ZC3H4 CCDC9 ZNF541 SNORD23 SULT2A1 GRWD1 BICRA-AS1
GH19J047509 Promoter/Enhancer 2.6 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 4.5 +373.5 373454 7.1 CLOCK MLX IRF4 YY1 ZNF143 SP3 NFYC MEF2D GLIS1 NBN NAPA ZC3H4 BICRA GRWD1 NOP53-AS1 KDELR1 KPTN CCDC9 C5AR1 DHX34
GH19J047963 Enhancer 0.8 ENCODE 10.5 -77.0 -76952 0.2 PKNOX1 RB1 ZNF2 RAD21 ZEB1 ARID2 SCRT2 ZNF143 MIXL1 ZNF654 PLA2G4C BSPH1 ELSPBP1 CABP5 SULT2A1 LMTK3 SYNGR4 TMEM143 SNAR-C1 GC19M047959
GH19J048091 Enhancer 0.5 ENCODE 9.8 -205.1 -205142 0.2 ZNF121 ZFHX2 JUND POLR3A POLR2A FOS TCF7L2 CABP5 BSPH1 ELSPBP1 NAPA SULT2A1 LMTK3 PLA2G4C PLA2G4C-AS1
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around SULT2A1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the SULT2A1 gene promoter:
  • HNF-4alpha2
  • HNF-4alpha1
  • COUP-TF1
  • COUP

Genomic Locations for SULT2A1 Gene

Genomic Locations for SULT2A1 Gene
15,932 bases
Minus strand
15,932 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for SULT2A1 Gene

Genes around SULT2A1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
SULT2A1 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for SULT2A1 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for SULT2A1 Gene

Proteins for SULT2A1 Gene

  • Protein details for SULT2A1 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Bile salt sulfotransferase
    Protein Accession:

    Protein attributes for SULT2A1 Gene

    285 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    33780 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer.
    • Estrogens present in maternal circulation is predominantly derived from fetal dehydroepiandosterone sulfate which is hydrolyzed and metabolized to estrogens in placenta.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for SULT2A1 Gene

neXtProt entry for SULT2A1 Gene

Post-translational modifications for SULT2A1 Gene

Other Protein References for SULT2A1 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for SULT2A1 Gene

Domains & Families for SULT2A1 Gene

Gene Families for SULT2A1 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Enzymes
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Protein Domains for SULT2A1 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the sulfotransferase 1 family.
  • Belongs to the sulfotransferase 1 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with SULT2A1: view

Function for SULT2A1 Gene

Molecular function for SULT2A1 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Sulfotransferase that utilizes 3-phospho-5-adenylyl sulfate (PAPS) as sulfonate donor to catalyze the sulfonation of steroids and bile acids in the liver and adrenal glands.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
3-phosphoadenylyl sulfate + glycolithocholate = adenosine 3,5-bisphosphate + glycolithocholate 3-sulfate.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
3-phosphoadenylyl sulfate + taurolithocholate = adenosine 3,5-bisphosphate + taurolithocholate sulfate.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
hydroxysteroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) sulfotransferase,cytosolic,involved in the fine control of target cell sensitivity to hormone action,catalyzing the formation of DHEA-S,a major adrenal steroid,precursor for androgen and estrogen biosynthesis in peripheral tissues

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for SULT2A1 Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for SULT2A1 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for SULT2A1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004062 aryl sulfotransferase activity TAS --
GO:0004304 estrone sulfotransferase activity TAS --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 21988832
GO:0008146 sulfotransferase activity TAS --
GO:0016740 transferase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with SULT2A1: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with SULT2A1: view

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for SULT2A1 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target SULT2A1

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for SULT2A1

Clone Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for SULT2A1 Gene

Localization for SULT2A1 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for SULT2A1 Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for SULT2A1 gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
nucleus 3
extracellular 2
peroxisome 2
plasma membrane 1
mitochondrion 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for SULT2A1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with SULT2A1: view

Pathways & Interactions for SULT2A1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with SULT2A1: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for SULT2A1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006068 ethanol catabolic process IDA 23207770
GO:0006629 lipid metabolic process IEA --
GO:0008202 steroid metabolic process IDA 1588921
GO:0016042 lipid catabolic process IEA --
GO:0019216 regulation of lipid metabolic process TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with SULT2A1: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for SULT2A1 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for SULT2A1 Gene

(30) Drugs for SULT2A1 Gene - From: DrugBank, PharmGKB, FDA Approved Drugs, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Abiraterone Approved Pharma Enzyme, substrate Potent CYP17 inhibitor 0
Acetaminophen Approved Pharma Enzyme, substrate 1014
Dehydroepiandrosterone Approved, Investigational Nutra Target 100
Palbociclib Approved, Investigational Pharma 151
Zytiga Approved May 2011 Pharma 0

(27) Additional Compounds for SULT2A1 Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • 12-Methylbenz[a]anthracene-7-methanol
  • 7-HM-12-MBA
  • 7-Hydroxymethyl-12-methylbenz(a)anthracene
7-Hydroxymethyl-12-methylbenz[a]anthracene sulfate
Adenosine 3',5'-diphosphate
  • 3'-Phosphoadenylate
  • Adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate
  • PAP
  • Phosphoadenosine phosphate
  • 3'-Phosphoadenylic acid
  • (3alpha,5alpha)-3-Hydroxyandrostan-17-one
  • 3-Epihydroxyetioallocholan-17-one
  • 3alpha-Hydroxy-5alpha-androstan-17-one
  • 3alpha-Hydroxyetioallocholan-17-one
  • 5alpha-Androstane-3alpha-ol-17-one
Lithocholic acid glycine conjugate
  • Glycolithocholate
  • Lithocholylglycine
  • N-((3-alpha,5-beta)-3-Hydroxy-24-oxocholan-24-yl)glycine
  • Glycolithocholic acid
  • Lithocholate glycine conjugate
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with SULT2A1: view

Transcripts for SULT2A1 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for SULT2A1 Gene

(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(11) Additional mRNA sequences :
(67) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(1) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for SULT2A1 Gene

Sulfotransferase family, cytosolic, 2A, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)-preferring, member 1:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for SULT2A1

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for SULT2A1 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for SULT2A1 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for SULT2A1 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for SULT2A1 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for SULT2A1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (x38.0) and Adrenal Gland (x13.4).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for SULT2A1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver, secretome (19.8), Gallbladder (18.8), Liver (15.2), and Adrenal (9.8).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for SULT2A1 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for SULT2A1 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of SULT2A1 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for SULT2A1 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for SULT2A1 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Liver, adrenal and at lower level in the kidney. Is present in human fetus in higher level in the adrenal than the liver and the kidney.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for SULT2A1 Gene

  • Adrenal gland(4.8)
  • Liver(4.7)
  • Blood(2.6)
  • Nervous system(2.6)
  • Intestine(2.3)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with SULT2A1: view

No data available for Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for SULT2A1 Gene

Orthologs for SULT2A1 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for SULT2A1 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia SULT2A1 34 33
  • 98.21 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia SULT2A1 34 33
  • 78.01 (n)
-- 34
  • 68 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Sult2a1 33
  • 72.34 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Sult2a1 34 33
  • 72.28 (n)
Sult2a6 16 34
  • 64 (a)
Sult2a5 34
  • 63 (a)
Sult2a4 34
  • 63 (a)
Sult2a3 34
  • 63 (a)
2810007J24Rik 34
  • 60 (a)
Sult2a7 34
  • 59 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia SULT2A1 34
  • 47 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 37 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 29 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves -- 34
  • 31 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 34
  • 47 (a)
-- 34
  • 44 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia sult2a1 33
  • 58.1 (n)
Str.6711 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii sult2st1 34 34
  • 40 (a)
sult2st2 34
  • 39 (a)
sult2st3 34
  • 38 (a)
si:dkey-236e20.3 34
  • 36 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea Y113G7A.11 35
  • 32 (a)
Species where no ortholog for SULT2A1 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for SULT2A1 Gene

Gene Tree for SULT2A1 (if available)
Gene Tree for SULT2A1 (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for SULT2A1: view image

Paralogs for SULT2A1 Gene

(13) SIMAP similar genes for SULT2A1 Gene using alignment to 2 proteins:

  • A8K015_HUMAN Pseudogenes for SULT2A1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with SULT2A1: view

Variants for SULT2A1 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for SULT2A1 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 19 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000045453 -- 47,883,203(-) G/A intron_variant
rs1000404199 -- 47,878,037(-) C/T intron_variant
rs1000780722 -- 47,872,658(-) ACACA/ACA intron_variant
rs1000823724 -- 47,876,546(-) G/C/T intron_variant
rs1001131665 -- 47,887,902(-) T/C upstream_transcript_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for SULT2A1 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv1006582 CNV insertion 20482838
esv2676204 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2718669 CNV deletion 23290073
esv3556495 CNV deletion 23714750
esv3644559 CNV gain 21293372
esv3644566 CNV loss 21293372
esv3644567 CNV loss 21293372
esv3644568 CNV gain 21293372
esv3893227 CNV loss 25118596
nsv1056164 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1058622 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1066097 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1066782 CNV loss 25217958
nsv1114020 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv2513 CNV deletion 18451855
nsv428367 CNV gain+loss 18775914
nsv458715 CNV gain 19166990
nsv509748 CNV insertion 20534489
nsv523319 CNV loss 19592680
nsv579897 CNV gain 21841781
nsv579898 CNV loss 21841781
nsv579899 CNV loss 21841781
nsv828571 CNV loss 20364138

Variation tolerance for SULT2A1 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 49% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 3.95; 59.69% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for SULT2A1 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for SULT2A1 Gene

Disorders for SULT2A1 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(6) MalaCards diseases for SULT2A1 Gene - From: HGMD, DISEASES, and Novoseek

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
sex differentiation disease
  • disorder of sexual differentiation
adrenal cortical adenoma
  • adrenocortical adenoma
cholangitis, primary sclerosing
  • psc
ovarian brenner tumor
  • benign ovarian brenner tumor
gonadal disease
  • gonadal dysfunction
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards

Additional Disease Information for SULT2A1

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with SULT2A1: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for SULT2A1 Gene

Publications for SULT2A1 Gene

  1. Identifying androsterone (ADT) as a cognate substrate for human dehydroepiandrosterone sulfotransferase (DHEA-ST) important for steroid homeostasis: structure of the enzyme-ADT complex. (PMID: 14573603) Chang HJ … Lin SX (The Journal of biological chemistry 2004) 3 4 22 25 58
  2. Genes for enzymes regulating dehydroepiandrosterone sulfonation are associated with levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in polycystic ovary syndrome. (PMID: 17426092) Goodarzi MO … Azziz R (The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 2007) 3 22 44 58
  3. Crystal structure of human dehydroepiandrosterone sulphotransferase in complex with substrate. (PMID: 11988089) Rehse PH … Lin SX (The Biochemical journal 2002) 3 4 22 58
  4. Crystal structure of SULT2A3, human hydroxysteroid sulfotransferase. (PMID: 10854859) Pedersen LC … Negishi M (FEBS letters 2000) 3 4 22 58
  5. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfotransferase gene (STD): localization to human chromosome band 19q13.3. (PMID: 7736787) Otterness DM … Weinshilboum RM (Cytogenetics and cell genetics 1995) 2 3 22 58

Products for SULT2A1 Gene

Sources for SULT2A1 Gene

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