This gene encodes a protein that is a member of the syntaxin or t-SNARE (target-SNAP receptor) family. These proteins are found on cell membranes and serve as the targets for V-SNARES (vesicle-SNAP receptors) permitting specific synaptic vesicle docking and fusion. A microdeletion in the region of chromosome 20 where this gene is located has been associated with pseudohypoparat... See more...

Aliases for STX16 Gene

Aliases for STX16 Gene

  • Syntaxin 16 2 3 5
  • Syntaxin-16 3 4
  • SYN16 3
  • Syn16 4

External Ids for STX16 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for STX16 Gene

  • GC20P056955
  • GC20P057864
  • GC20P057912
  • GC20P056659
  • GC20P057226
  • GC20P054010

Summaries for STX16 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for STX16 Gene

  • This gene encodes a protein that is a member of the syntaxin or t-SNARE (target-SNAP receptor) family. These proteins are found on cell membranes and serve as the targets for V-SNARES (vesicle-SNAP receptors) permitting specific synaptic vesicle docking and fusion. A microdeletion in the region of chromosome 20 where this gene is located has been associated with pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib. Multiple transcript variants have been found for this gene. Read-through transcription also exists between this gene and the neighboring downstream aminopeptidase-like 1 (NPEPL1) gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]

GeneCards Summary for STX16 Gene

STX16 (Syntaxin 16) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with STX16 include Pseudohypoparathyroidism, Type Ib and Pseudohypoparathyroidism. Among its related pathways are Ectoderm Differentiation and Nicotine Pathway (Dopaminergic Neuron), Pharmacodynamics. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include syntaxin binding and SNAP receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is STX16-NPEPL1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for STX16 Gene

  • SNARE involved in vesicular transport from the late endosomes to the trans-Golgi network.

Gene Wiki entry for STX16 Gene

Additional gene information for STX16 Gene

No data available for CIViC Summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for STX16 Gene

Genomics for STX16 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for STX16 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for STX16 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
Score
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH20J058649 Promoter/Enhancer 2.3 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas dbSUPER 550.5 +2.2 2218 9.3 RXRA EP300 FOXK2 ZBTB40 ZNF217 CTCF ZSCAN5C SIN3A TCF12 POLR2G STX16 lnc-APCDD1L-3-002 ENSG00000225806 NELFCD PPP4R1L ENSG00000254419 NPEPL1 ENSG00000270951 LINC01711 STX16-NPEPL1
GH20J058622 Promoter/Enhancer 1.9 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 515.1 -25.9 -25866 6 ZNF217 TCF12 JUND PHB2 FOS ZIC2 REST ZBTB10 FOXA1 AFF1 STX16 NELFCD ENSG00000225806 APCDD1L APCDD1L-DT piR-47958 ENSG00000254620
GH20J058678 Promoter 0.6 EPDnew 500.3 +27.8 27770 0.1 MYC RBM22 GATA3 lnc-NPEPL1-3 piR-56187 STX16 STX16-NPEPL1
GH20J058676 Promoter 0.6 EPDnew 500.3 +25.3 25276 0.1 RBM22 AGO2 POLR2A lnc-NPEPL1-3 STX16 lnc-APCDD1L-3-002 STX16-NPEPL1
GH20J058675 Promoter 0.4 EPDnew 500.4 +24.5 24537 0.1 AGO2 lnc-NPEPL1-3 STX16 NPEPL1 lnc-APCDD1L-3-002 STX16-NPEPL1
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around STX16 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for STX16

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the STX16 gene promoter:
  • C/EBPalpha
  • C/EBPbeta
  • FOXI1
  • HFH-3
  • HNF-3beta
  • Nkx2-5
  • Pax-6
  • SREBP-1a
  • SREBP-1b
  • SREBP-1c

Genomic Locations for STX16 Gene

Genomic Locations for STX16 Gene
chr20:58,651,253-58,679,526
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
28,274 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand
chr20:57,226,309-57,254,582
(GRCh37/hg19)
Size:
28,274 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for STX16 Gene

Genes around STX16 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
STX16 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for STX16 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for STX16 Gene

Proteins for STX16 Gene

  • Protein details for STX16 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    O14662-STX16_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Syntaxin-16
    Protein Accession:
    O14662
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A6NK32
    • A6NN69
    • A8MPP0
    • B7ZBN1
    • B7ZBN2
    • B7ZBN3
    • E1P5M0
    • E1P607
    • O14661
    • O14663
    • O60517
    • Q5W084
    • Q5W086
    • Q5W087
    • Q5XKI6
    • Q6GMS8
    • Q9H0Z0
    • Q9H1T7
    • Q9H1T8
    • Q9UIX5

    Protein attributes for STX16 Gene

    Size:
    325 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    37031 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with GCC2 (PubMed:18195106). Interacts with BAIAP3; this interaction is increased in the presence of calcium (PubMed:28626000).
    Miscellaneous:
    • [Isoform C]: May be produced at very low levels due to a premature stop codon in the mRNA, leading to nonsense-mediated mRNA decay.
    SequenceCaution:
    • Sequence=AAB69282.1; Type=Frameshift; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=AAB69283.1; Type=Frameshift; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=AAC05647.1; Type=Frameshift; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Alternative splice isoforms for STX16 Gene

neXtProt entry for STX16 Gene

Post-translational modifications for STX16 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for STX16 Gene

Domains & Families for STX16 Gene

Gene Families for STX16 Gene

HGNC:
Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Disease related genes
  • Predicted intracellular proteins
  • Predicted membrane proteins

Protein Domains for STX16 Gene

Blocks:
  • Syntaxin, N-terminal
InterPro:
ProtoNet:

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for STX16 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • cDNA, FLJ79446, highly similar to Syntaxin-16 (B4DJX9_HUMAN)
  • Syntaxin 16 (B7ZBM8_HUMAN)
  • Syntaxin 16 (B7ZBM9_HUMAN)
  • Syntaxin-16 (STX16_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

O14662

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

STX16_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the syntaxin family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the syntaxin family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with STX16: view

Function for STX16 Gene

Molecular function for STX16 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
SNARE involved in vesicular transport from the late endosomes to the trans-Golgi network.

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for STX16 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for STX16 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000149 SNARE binding IBA 21873635
GO:0005484 SNAP receptor activity IDA 15215310
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 18195106
GO:0019905 syntaxin binding IPI 16154903
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with STX16: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with STX16: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for STX16 Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for STX16 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for STX16:

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for STX16 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target STX16

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for STX16

Clone Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for STX16 Gene

Localization for STX16 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for STX16 Gene

Golgi apparatus membrane; Single-pass type IV membrane protein.
[Isoform C]: Cytoplasm.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for STX16 gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
golgi apparatus 5
mitochondrion 3
nucleus 3
plasma membrane 2
endoplasmic reticulum 2
endosome 2
lysosome 2
extracellular 1
cytoskeleton 1
peroxisome 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for STX16 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000139 Golgi membrane TAS --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA,IDA 9587053
GO:0005794 Golgi apparatus IEA,IDA 9464276
GO:0005802 trans-Golgi network IDA 16154903
GO:0005829 cytosol IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with STX16: view

Pathways & Interactions for STX16 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with STX16: view

Pathways by source for STX16 Gene

1 KEGG pathway for STX16 Gene
1 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) pathway for STX16 Gene
  • Transport Clathrin-coated vesicle cycle

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for STX16 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006886 intracellular protein transport IBA 21873635
GO:0006906 vesicle fusion IBA 21873635
GO:0015031 protein transport IEA --
GO:0016192 vesicle-mediated transport IEA --
GO:0042147 retrograde transport, endosome to Golgi IMP 17389686
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with STX16: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for STX16 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for STX16 Gene

No Compound Related Data Available

Transcripts for STX16 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for STX16 Gene

6 REFSEQ mRNAs :
23 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
20 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for STX16

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for STX16 Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2a · 2b · 2c · 2d ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b · 4c ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8a · 8b ^ 9 ^ 10a · 10b · 10c · 10d
SP1: - - - -
SP2: - - -
SP3: - -
SP4: - - -
SP5: - -
SP6: - -
SP7: -
SP8: -

Relevant External Links for STX16 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
STX16

Expression for STX16 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for STX16 Gene

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for STX16 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (17.9) and Retina (8.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for STX16 Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for STX16 Gene

- Elite partner

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for STX16

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for STX16 Gene:

Hs.307913

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for STX16 Gene:

O14662-STX16_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Ubiquitous.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for STX16 Gene

  • Nervous system(4.7)
  • Kidney(4.4)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for STX16 Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • endoderm
  • mesoderm
Systems:
  • cardiovascular
  • endocrine
  • nervous
  • respiratory
  • skeletal muscle
  • urinary
Regions:
Head and neck:
  • brain
  • ear
  • eye
  • head
  • larynx
  • neck
  • parathyroid
  • thyroid
Thorax:
  • heart
Abdomen:
  • kidney
General:
  • blood vessel
  • peripheral nerve
  • peripheral nervous system
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with STX16: view

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery and mRNA differential expression in normal tissues for STX16 Gene

Orthologs for STX16 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for STX16 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia STX16 30
  • 99.75 (n)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 31
  • 94 (a)
OneToMany
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 31
  • 93 (a)
OneToMany
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia STX16 31 30
  • 92.49 (n)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia STX16 31 30
  • 88.62 (n)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Stx16 17 30
  • 87.49 (n)
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Stx16 30
  • 82.25 (n)
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves STX16 31 30
  • 81.58 (n)
OneToMany
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 31
  • 85 (a)
OneToMany
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia LOC100493473 30
  • 75.31 (n)
Str.11454 30
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia MGC69090 30
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii stx16 31 30
  • 74.2 (n)
OneToMany
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Syx16 31 30
  • 53.59 (n)
OneToMany
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP000850 30
  • 46.52 (n)
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea syn-16 30
  • 44.44 (n)
syx-16 31
  • 30 (a)
OneToMany
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_AEL026C 30
  • 46.76 (n)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0A10681g 30
  • 44.82 (n)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes TLG2 33 31 30
  • 44.2 (n)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons SYP41 30
  • 50.84 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 31
  • 50 (a)
OneToMany
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU04119 30
  • 46.53 (n)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes tlg2 30
  • 42.9 (n)
Species where no ortholog for STX16 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for STX16 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for STX16 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for STX16 (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for STX16: view image

Paralogs for STX16 Gene

(3) SIMAP similar genes for STX16 Gene using alignment to 12 proteins:

  • STX16_HUMAN
  • B4DJX9_HUMAN
  • B7ZBM4_HUMAN
  • B7ZBM5_HUMAN
  • B7ZBM8_HUMAN
  • C9K0W8_HUMAN
  • E9PLV7_HUMAN
  • E9PND6_HUMAN
  • F8W9Z6_HUMAN
  • G8JLE0_HUMAN
  • H0YEW0_HUMAN
  • Q96NX8_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with STX16: view

Variants for STX16 Gene

Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for STX16 Gene

SNP ID Clinical significance and condition Chr 20 pos Variation AA Info Type
710614 Likely Benign: not provided 58,669,339(+) C/T MISSENSE_VARIANT,NON_CODING_TRANSCRIPT_VARIANT
723495 Likely Benign: not provided 58,670,549(+) C/T NON_CODING_TRANSCRIPT_VARIANT,SYNONYMOUS_VARIANT
723869 Likely Benign: not provided 58,669,443(+) C/A NON_CODING_TRANSCRIPT_VARIANT,SYNONYMOUS_VARIANT
734383 Likely Benign: not provided 58,671,171(+) G/A NON_CODING_TRANSCRIPT_VARIANT,SYNONYMOUS_VARIANT
735849 Likely Benign: not provided 58,668,094(+) T/C NON_CODING_TRANSCRIPT_VARIANT,SYNONYMOUS_VARIANT

Additional dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for STX16 Gene

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for STX16 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv1002410 CNV deletion 20482838
nsv1063462 CNV gain 25217958
nsv828761 CNV loss 20364138

Variation tolerance for STX16 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 42.8% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 3.82; 58.51% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for STX16 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
STX16
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
STX16

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for STX16 Gene

Disorders for STX16 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(15) MalaCards diseases for STX16 Gene - From: OMIM, ClinVar, GTR, Orphanet, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search STX16 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

STX16_HUMAN
  • Pseudohypoparathyroidism 1B (PHP1B) [MIM:603233]: A disorder characterized by end-organ resistance to parathyroid hormone, hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia. Patients affected with PHP1B lack developmental defects characteristic of Albright hereditary osteodystrophy, and typically show no other endocrine abnormalities besides resistance to PTH. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:14561710, ECO:0000269 PubMed:15800843}. Note=The gene represented in this entry is involved in disease pathogenesis. Microdeletions involving STX16 can cause loss of methylation at exon A/B of GNAS, resulting in PHP1B.

Additional Disease Information for STX16

genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with STX16: view

No data available for Genatlas for STX16 Gene

Publications for STX16 Gene

  1. A novel STX16 deletion in autosomal dominant pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib redefines the boundaries of a cis-acting imprinting control element of GNAS. (PMID: 15800843) Linglart A … Bastepe M (American journal of human genetics 2005) 2 3 4 23 54
  2. Molecular cloning and localization of human syntaxin 16, a member of the syntaxin family of SNARE proteins. (PMID: 9464276) Tang BL … Hong W (Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1998) 2 3 4 23 54
  3. Syntaxin-16, a putative Golgi t-SNARE. (PMID: 9587053) Simonsen A … Stenmark H (European journal of cell biology 1998) 2 3 4 23 54
  4. BAIAP3, a C2 domain-containing Munc13 protein, controls the fate of dense-core vesicles in neuroendocrine cells. (PMID: 28626000) Zhang X … Martin TFJ (The Journal of cell biology 2017) 3 4 54
  5. Dual roles of the mammalian GARP complex in tethering and SNARE complex assembly at the trans-golgi network. (PMID: 19620288) Pérez-Victoria FJ … Bonifacino JS (Molecular and cellular biology 2009) 3 23 54

Products for STX16 Gene

Sources for STX16 Gene