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Aliases for STK39 Gene

Aliases for STK39 Gene

  • Serine/Threonine Kinase 39 2 3 5
  • Serine/Threonine-Protein Kinase 39 3 4
  • Ste-20-Related Kinase 3 4
  • EC 4 56
  • DCHT 3 4
  • SPAK 3 4
  • STE20/SPS1-Related Proline-Alanine-Rich Protein Kinase 3
  • Serine Threonine Kinase 39 (STE20/SPS1 Homolog, Yeast) 3
  • Proline-Alanine-Rich STE20-Related Kinase 3
  • Small Intestine SPAK-Like Kinase 3
  • STE20/SPS1 Homolog (Yeast) 2
  • Serine Threonine Kinase 39 2
  • Ste20-Like Protein Kinase 3
  • STE20/SPS1 Homolog 3
  • EC 2.7.11 56
  • PASK 3

External Ids for STK39 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for STK39 Gene

  • GC02M166862
  • GC02M167352
  • GC02M168774
  • GC02M169013
  • GC02M168636
  • GC02M168518
  • GC02M160690

Summaries for STK39 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for STK39 Gene

  • This gene encodes a serine/threonine kinase that is thought to function in the cellular stress response pathway. The kinase is activated in response to hypotonic stress, leading to phosphorylation of several cation-chloride-coupled cotransporters. The catalytically active kinase specifically activates the p38 MAP kinase pathway, and its interaction with p38 decreases upon cellular stress, suggesting that this kinase may serve as an intermediate in the response to cellular stress. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for STK39 Gene

STK39 (Serine/Threonine Kinase 39) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with STK39 include Epilepsy, Familial Temporal Lobe, 4 and Renal Tubular Transport Disease. Among its related pathways are Diuretics Pathway, Pharmacodynamics and Sweet Taste Signaling. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include transferase activity, transferring phosphorus-containing groups and protein tyrosine kinase activity. An important paralog of this gene is OXSR1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for STK39 Gene

  • May act as a mediator of stress-activated signals. Mediates the inhibiton of SLC4A4, SLC26A6 as well as CFTR activities by the WNK scaffolds, probably through phosphorylation.

Gene Wiki entry for STK39 Gene

Additional gene information for STK39 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for STK39 Gene

Genomics for STK39 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for STK39 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for STK39 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH02I168243 Promoter/Enhancer 2.2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 557.5 +1.8 1835 5.2 PKNOX1 FOXA2 MLX ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 DMAP1 ZBTB7B ZNF48 SLC30A9 STK39 PHF5GP GC02P168227
GH02I168209 Enhancer 1.3 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 26.3 +36.6 36561 3.2 ELF3 PKNOX1 CLOCK FOXA2 MLX NEUROD1 RARA RFX5 ZNF366 RCOR1 STK39 GC02P168227 ENSG00000235335
GH02I168189 Enhancer 1.3 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 14.2 +54.9 54909 8.8 FOXA2 MLX ARID4B DMAP1 ETS1 FOS RUNX3 SP5 JUNB MXD4 STK39 GC02P168227 ENSG00000235335
GH02I168184 Enhancer 1.2 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 12.6 +62.3 62295 2.5 ELF3 PKNOX1 FOXA2 THRB RARA SMARCC2 CREM MIXL1 HMG20B MIER2 STK39 GC02P168227 ENSG00000235335
GH02I168208 Enhancer 0.8 ENCODE dbSUPER 12 +39.2 39155 0.2 ZNF263 TAL1 CBFA2T3 DPF2 NFXL1 ZIC2 TCF12 CTBP1 TARDBP CBFA2T2 STK39 GC02P168227 ENSG00000235335
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

GeneHancers around STK39 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the STK39 gene promoter:

Genomic Locations for STK39 Gene

Genomic Locations for STK39 Gene
294,122 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for STK39 Gene

Genes around STK39 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
STK39 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for STK39 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for STK39 Gene

Proteins for STK39 Gene

  • Protein details for STK39 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    STE20/SPS1-related proline-alanine-rich protein kinase
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • O14774
    • Q53S90
    • Q53SL7
    • Q53SS1
    • Q9UER4
    • X5D9C8

    Protein attributes for STK39 Gene

    545 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    59474 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • The phosphorylated form forms a complex with WNK2.

    Alternative splice isoforms for STK39 Gene


neXtProt entry for STK39 Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for STK39 Gene


Post-translational modifications for STK39 Gene

Other Protein References for STK39 Gene

Domains & Families for STK39 Gene

Gene Families for STK39 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Enzymes
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for STK39 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • PAPA box (proline-alanine repeats) may target the kinase to a specific subcellular location by facilitating interaction with intracellular proteins such as actin or actin-like proteins.
  • Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. STE Ser/Thr protein kinase family. STE20 subfamily.
  • PAPA box (proline-alanine repeats) may target the kinase to a specific subcellular location by facilitating interaction with intracellular proteins such as actin or actin-like proteins.
  • Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. STE Ser/Thr protein kinase family. STE20 subfamily.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with STK39: view

Function for STK39 Gene

Molecular function for STK39 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
May act as a mediator of stress-activated signals. Mediates the inhibiton of SLC4A4, SLC26A6 as well as CFTR activities by the WNK scaffolds, probably through phosphorylation.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for STK39 Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for STK39 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for STK39 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004672 protein kinase activity IEA --
GO:0004674 protein serine/threonine kinase activity IMP 16669787
GO:0004702 signal transducer, downstream of receptor, with serine/threonine kinase activity NAS 10980603
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 16669787
GO:0005524 ATP binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with STK39: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with STK39: view

Animal Models for STK39 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for STK39:

Animal Model Products

miRNA for STK39 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target STK39

Clone Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for STK39 Gene

Localization for STK39 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for STK39 Gene

Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Note=Nucleus when caspase-cleaved. {ECO:0000305}.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for STK39 gene
Compartment Confidence
nucleus 5
cytosol 5
plasma membrane 3
extracellular 2
cytoskeleton 2
mitochondrion 1
peroxisome 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Cytosol (3)
  • Nucleoplasm (3)
  • Vesicles (2)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for STK39 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus NAS 10980603
GO:0005654 nucleoplasm IDA --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm NAS,IBA 10980603
GO:0005829 cytosol ISS,IEA --
GO:0005856 cytoskeleton IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with STK39: view

Pathways & Interactions for STK39 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with STK39: view

Pathways by source for STK39 Gene

1 Cell Signaling Technology pathway for STK39 Gene
1 BioSystems pathway for STK39 Gene
1 PharmGKB pathway for STK39 Gene
1 Qiagen pathway for STK39 Gene

SIGNOR curated interactions for STK39 Gene

Is activated by:
Is inactivated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for STK39 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001933 negative regulation of protein phosphorylation IEA --
GO:0006468 protein phosphorylation NAS,ISS 10980603
GO:0006950 response to stress NAS 10980603
GO:0007346 regulation of mitotic cell cycle IBA --
GO:0008217 regulation of blood pressure IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with STK39: view

Drugs & Compounds for STK39 Gene

(6) Drugs for STK39 Gene - From: PharmGKB, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Losartan Approved Pharma Antagonist 295
ATP Investigational Nutra Agonist 0

(3) Additional Compounds for STK39 Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • Adenosindiphosphorsaeure
  • Adenosine 5'-pyrophosphate
  • Adenosine diphosphate
  • Adenosine pyrophosphate
  • Adenosine-5'-diphosphate
Full agonist, Agonist 58-64-0
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with STK39: view

Transcripts for STK39 Gene

Unigene Clusters for STK39 Gene

Serine threonine kinase 39:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for STK39 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for STK39 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for STK39 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for STK39 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for STK39 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Salivary gland (8.9) and Frontal cortex (8.6).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for STK39 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for STK39 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of STK39 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for STK39 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for STK39 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Predominantly expressed in brain and pancreas followed by heart, lung, kidney, skeletal muscle, liver, placenta and testis.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for STK39 Gene

  • Nervous system(4.6)
  • Blood(4.4)
  • Kidney(2.7)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with STK39: view

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for STK39 Gene

Orthologs for STK39 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for STK39 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia STK39 33 34
  • 99.51 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia STK39 33 34
  • 94.68 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia STK39 34
  • 92 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia STK39 34
  • 91 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Stk39 33 16 34
  • 90.81 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Stk39 33
  • 90.62 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia STK39 34
  • 89 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves STK39 33 34
  • 85.11 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia STK39 34
  • 86 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia LOC100488948 33
  • 78.25 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii oxsr1a 33
  • 69.46 (n)
CABZ01117519.1 34
  • 53 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta fray 35 34
  • 54 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea Y59A8B.23 35
  • 55 (a)
gck-3 34
  • 49 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes SKM1 34
  • 17 (a)
CLA4 34
  • 13 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.9457 34
  • 59 (a)
Species where no ortholog for STK39 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for STK39 Gene

Gene Tree for STK39 (if available)
Gene Tree for STK39 (if available)

Paralogs for STK39 Gene

Paralogs for STK39 Gene

(5) SIMAP similar genes for STK39 Gene using alignment to 1 proteins: Pseudogenes for STK39 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with STK39: view

Variants for STK39 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for STK39 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 02 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs886043154 uncertain-significance, not specified 168,247,367(-) CGCCGCTGTCACCGGG/ coding_sequence_variant, frameshift, genic_upstream_transcript_variant
rs1000002797 -- 168,101,286(-) C/G genic_downstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant
rs1000005247 -- 168,080,139(-) A/G genic_downstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant
rs1000007473 -- 168,039,295(-) T/C genic_downstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant
rs1000008918 -- 168,086,038(-) T/A genic_downstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for STK39 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv963745 CNV duplication 23825009
nsv956656 CNV deletion 24416366
nsv583597 CNV gain 21841781
nsv583596 CNV gain 21841781
nsv523543 CNV loss 19592680
nsv522749 CNV loss 19592680
nsv478733 CNV novel sequence insertion 20440878
nsv478431 CNV novel sequence insertion 20440878
nsv476192 CNV novel sequence insertion 20440878
nsv459941 CNV gain 19166990
nsv3022 CNV insertion 18451855
nsv1149975 CNV deletion 26484159
nsv1148814 CNV deletion 26484159
nsv1138864 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv1072464 CNV deletion 25765185
nsv1011828 CNV loss 25217958
esv999027 CNV deletion 20482838
esv5404 CNV loss 18987735
esv3593306 CNV loss 21293372
esv3593304 CNV loss 21293372
esv3593303 CNV loss 21293372
esv3593302 CNV loss 21293372
esv3593301 CNV loss 21293372
esv3560498 CNV deletion 23714750
esv3560497 CNV deletion 23714750
esv275050 CNV gain+loss 21479260
esv2721098 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2721097 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2721096 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2670762 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2668311 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2665325 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2214356 CNV deletion 18987734
esv1331913 CNV deletion 17803354
dgv2087n106 CNV deletion 24896259

Variation tolerance for STK39 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 24.9% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 12.62; 94.52% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for STK39 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for STK39 Gene

Disorders for STK39 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(2) MalaCards diseases for STK39 Gene - From: HGMD and DISEASES

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
epilepsy, familial temporal lobe, 4
  • etl4
renal tubular transport disease
  • inborn renal tubular transport disorder
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search STK39 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for STK39

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with STK39: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for STK39 Gene

Publications for STK39 Gene

  1. From the Cover: Whole-genome association study identifies STK39 as a hypertension susceptibility gene. (PMID: 19114657) Wang Y … Chang YP (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2009) 3 22 44 58
  2. An analysis of candidate autism loci on chromosome 2q24-q33: evidence for association to the STK39 gene. (PMID: 18348195) Ramoz N … Buxbaum JD (American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics 2008) 3 22 44 58
  3. SPAK, a STE20/SPS1-related kinase that activates the p38 pathway. (PMID: 10980603) Johnston AM … DeAizpurua HJ (Oncogene 2000) 2 3 4 58
  4. Protein interaction network of alternatively spliced isoforms from brain links genetic risk factors for autism. (PMID: 24722188) Corominas R … Iakoucheva LM (Nature communications 2014) 3 4 58
  5. Imputation of sequence variants for identification of genetic risks for Parkinson's disease: a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies. (PMID: 21292315) International Parkinson Disease Genomics Consortium … Wood NW (Lancet (London, England) 2011) 3 44 58

Products for STK39 Gene

Sources for STK39 Gene

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