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Aliases for STAR Gene

Aliases for STAR Gene

  • Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory Protein 2 3 5
  • StAR Related Lipid Transfer (START) Domain Containing 1 2 3
  • START Domain-Containing Protein 1 3 4
  • Steroidogenic Acute Regulator 2 3
  • STARD1 3 4
  • Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory Protein, Mitochondrial 3
  • Testis Secretory Sperm-Binding Protein Li 241mP 3
  • Mitochondrial Steroid Acute Regulatory Protein 3
  • Steroid Acute Regulatory Protein 3
  • START Domain Containing 1 3
  • Cholesterol Trafficker 3
  • STAR 4

External Ids for STAR Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for STAR Gene

  • GC08P037424
  • GC08M038129
  • GC08M037742
  • GC08M038018
  • GC08M036535

Summaries for STAR Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for STAR Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene plays a key role in the acute regulation of steroid hormone synthesis by enhancing the conversion of cholesterol into pregnenolone. This protein permits the cleavage of cholesterol into pregnenolone by mediating the transport of cholesterol from the outer mitochondrial membrane to the inner mitochondrial membrane. Mutations in this gene are a cause of congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia (CLAH), also called lipoid CAH. A pseudogene of this gene is located on chromosome 13. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for STAR Gene

STAR (Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory Protein) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with STAR include Lipoid Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia and Toe Syndactyly, Telecanthus, And Anogenital And Renal Malformations. Among its related pathways are Aldosterone synthesis and secretion and Circadian rythm related genes. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include lipid binding and cholesterol transporter activity. An important paralog of this gene is STARD3.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for STAR Gene

  • Plays a key role in steroid hormone synthesis by enhancing the metabolism of cholesterol into pregnenolone. Mediates the transfer of cholesterol from the outer mitochondrial membrane to the inner mitochondrial membrane where it is cleaved to pregnenolone.

Additional gene information for STAR Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for STAR Gene

Genomics for STAR Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for STAR Gene

Promoters and enhancers for STAR Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH08I038147 Promoter/Enhancer 1.9 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 550.8 -0.2 -199 7.6 HDGF PKNOX1 FOXA2 ARID4B DMAP1 YY1 POLR2B ZNF766 CBX5 E2F8 STAR LOC105379382 GC08P038163 GC08M038027
GH08I038012 Enhancer 0.8 ENCODE 10.5 +138.2 138168 1.8 HDAC1 MEIS2 LEF1 PKNOX1 ZNF449 TAL1 ZSCAN4 ZNF335 TCF12 ZFHX2 GOT1L1 STAR RNU6-323P EIF4EBP1 GC08P037988
GH08I038118 Enhancer 0.5 dbSUPER 12.3 +32.4 32407 1.6 NFIC POLR2A NR2C1 ZIC2 STAR RNU6-323P LETM2 GC08P038125 ASH2L GC08M038027
GH08I037502 Enhancer 0.5 ENCODE 5 +647.1 647128 2.9 GLIS1 SCRT2 ZNF580 MZF1 ZIC2 ZBTB20 ZBTB17 ENSG00000253388 LINC01605 ENSG00000254290 STAR ENSG00000253414
GH08I038155 Enhancer 0.8 ENCODE dbSUPER 0.4 -5.3 -5349 1.4 SCRT1 RFX1 ZNF362 MTA2 HLF ZNF384 ZNF366 ZNF512 SCRT2 ZBTB33 DDHD2 GC08P038163 STAR LOC105379382 GC08M038027
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

GeneHancers around STAR on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the STAR gene promoter:

Genomic Locations for STAR Gene

Genomic Locations for STAR Gene
8,566 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for STAR Gene

Genes around STAR on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
STAR Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for STAR Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for STAR Gene

Proteins for STAR Gene

  • Protein details for STAR Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, mitochondrial
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q16396

    Protein attributes for STAR Gene

    285 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    31914 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • May interact with TSPO.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for STAR Gene

neXtProt entry for STAR Gene

Post-translational modifications for STAR Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for STAR Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for STAR Gene

Domains & Families for STAR Gene

Gene Families for STAR Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Disease related genes
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

genes like me logo Genes that share domains with STAR: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for STAR Gene

Function for STAR Gene

Molecular function for STAR Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
steroidogenic acute regulatory protein,mediating rapid increase in pregnenolone synthesis by tropic hormones,also involved in the activity of the mitochondrial cholesterol metabolizing enzymes,acting on the outside of mitochondria to stimulate the steroidogenesis regulated by CEBPB and repressed by DAX1
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Plays a key role in steroid hormone synthesis by enhancing the metabolism of cholesterol into pregnenolone. Mediates the transfer of cholesterol from the outer mitochondrial membrane to the inner mitochondrial membrane where it is cleaved to pregnenolone.

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for STAR Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for STAR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 25416956
GO:0008289 lipid binding IEA --
GO:0015485 cholesterol binding IEA,IDA 18403318
GO:0017127 cholesterol transporter activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with STAR: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with STAR: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for STAR Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for STAR Gene

MGI Knock Outs for STAR:

Animal Model Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for STAR

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for STAR Gene

Localization for STAR Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for STAR Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for STAR gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5
cytosol 3
extracellular 2
nucleus 2
endoplasmic reticulum 2
peroxisome 1
lysosome 1
endosome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for STAR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IEA --
GO:0005758 mitochondrial intermembrane space IEA,TAS --
GO:0005829 cytosol IEA --
GO:0030061 mitochondrial crista IEA --
GO:0043005 neuron projection IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with STAR: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for STAR Gene

Pathways & Interactions for STAR Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with STAR: view

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot P49675-STAR_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Steroid metabolism; cholesterol metabolism.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for STAR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006082 organic acid metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006694 steroid biosynthetic process IEA,TAS 7761400
GO:0006699 bile acid biosynthetic process IEA --
GO:0006700 C21-steroid hormone biosynthetic process TAS --
GO:0006703 estrogen biosynthetic process IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with STAR: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for STAR Gene

Drugs & Compounds for STAR Gene

(41) Drugs for STAR Gene - From: ClinicalTrials and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Cisplatin Approved Pharma Inhibits DNA synthesis,chemotherapy drug, Potent pro-apoptotic anticancer agent; activates caspase-3, Platinum 2906
Etoposide Approved Pharma Topo II inhibitor, Topoisomerase 2 Inhibitors 1302
Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic Pharma 5862
Etoposide phosphate Pharma 1302
Topoisomerase Inhibitors Pharma 5269

(35) Additional Compounds for STAR Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with STAR: view

Transcripts for STAR Gene

Unigene Clusters for STAR Gene

Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for STAR

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for STAR Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4a · 4b · 4c ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7 ^ 8a · 8b ^ 9a · 9b ^ 10a · 10b
SP1: - - -
SP2: - - -
SP3: - -
SP4: - - - -
SP5: -
SP7: - -

Relevant External Links for STAR Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for STAR Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for STAR Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for STAR Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Adrenal Gland (x47.5) and Ovary (x4.3).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for STAR Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Adrenal (36.4) and Fetal testis (20.7).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for STAR Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for STAR Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of STAR Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for STAR Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for STAR Gene:

Tissue specificity: Expressed in gonads, adrenal cortex and kidney.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for STAR Gene

  • Nervous system(4.9)
  • Adrenal gland(4.8)
  • Kidney(2.2)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for STAR Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • endoderm
  • mesoderm
  • cardiovascular
  • endocrine
  • immune
  • integumentary
  • nervous
  • reproductive
  • skeleton
  • urinary
Head and neck:
  • brain
  • ear
  • head
  • jaw
  • mandible
  • maxilla
  • mouth
  • neck
  • pituitary gland
  • skull
  • chest wall
  • clavicle
  • heart
  • rib
  • rib cage
  • scapula
  • sternum
  • adrenal gland
  • kidney
  • pelvis
  • penis
  • urethra
  • ankle
  • arm
  • digit
  • elbow
  • femur
  • fibula
  • finger
  • foot
  • forearm
  • hand
  • hip
  • humerus
  • knee
  • lower limb
  • radius
  • shin
  • shoulder
  • thigh
  • tibia
  • toe
  • ulna
  • upper limb
  • wrist
  • blood
  • peripheral nerve
  • peripheral nervous system
  • skin
  • spinal column
  • sweat gland
  • vertebrae
  • white blood cell
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with STAR: view

Orthologs for STAR Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for STAR Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia STAR 33 34
  • 99.3 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia STAR 33 34
  • 88.89 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia STAR 33 34
  • 87.37 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Star 33
  • 84.74 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Star 33 16 34
  • 83.57 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia STAR 34
  • 83 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 82 (a)
-- 34
  • 79 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves STAR 33 34
  • 74.79 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 34
  • 83 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia LOC100492318 33
  • 67.84 (n)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia star-A 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii star 33 34
  • 66.91 (n)
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.86 33
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Start1 34
  • 10 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea tag-340 34
  • 10 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 34
  • 37 (a)
Species where no ortholog for STAR was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for STAR Gene

Gene Tree for STAR (if available)
Gene Tree for STAR (if available)

Paralogs for STAR Gene

Paralogs for STAR Gene

(1) SIMAP similar genes for STAR Gene using alignment to 8 proteins: Pseudogenes for STAR Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with STAR: view

Variants for STAR Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for STAR Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 08 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1009841840 uncertain-significance, Congenital adrenal hyperplasia 38,142,889(-) AA/A 3_prime_UTR_variant
rs104894085 pathogenic, Cholesterol monooxygenase (side-chain cleaving) deficiency 38,144,359(-) G/A coding_sequence_variant, stop_gained, synonymous_variant
rs104894086 pathogenic, Cholesterol monooxygenase (side-chain cleaving) deficiency, not provided, Adrenal hyperplasia 1 (AH1) [MIM:201710] 38,146,068(-) C/A/T coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs104894087 pathogenic, Cholesterol monooxygenase (side-chain cleaving) deficiency 38,144,382(-) C/T coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant, stop_gained
rs104894089 pathogenic, Cholesterol monooxygenase (side-chain cleaving) deficiency 38,146,054(-) C/T coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for STAR Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv3616917 CNV gain 21293372

Variation tolerance for STAR Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 67% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.58; 30.49% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for STAR Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for STAR Gene

Disorders for STAR Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(20) MalaCards diseases for STAR Gene - From: HGMD, OMIM, ClinVar, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards


  • Adrenal hyperplasia 1 (AH1) [MIM:201710]: The most severe form of adrenal hyperplasia. It is a condition characterized by onset of profound adrenocortical insufficiency shortly after birth, hyperpigmentation reflecting increased production of pro-opiomelanocortin, elevated plasma renin activity as a consequence of reduced aldosterone synthesis, and male pseudohermaphroditism resulting from deficient fetal testicular testosterone synthesis. Affected individuals are phenotypic females irrespective of gonadal sex, and frequently die in infancy if mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid replacement are not instituted. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:10566637, ECO:0000269 PubMed:8948562, ECO:0000269 PubMed:9097960}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Genatlas disease for STAR Gene

congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia,with neonatal onset of severe adrenal insufficiency and male pseudohermaphroditism

Additional Disease Information for STAR

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with STAR: view

Publications for STAR Gene

  1. Human steroidogenic acute regulatory protein: functional activity in COS-1 cells, tissue-specific expression, and mapping of the structural gene to 8p11.2 and a pseudogene to chromosome 13. (PMID: 7761400) Sugawara T … Clark BJ (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1995) 2 3 4 22 58
  2. The steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR): a window into the complexities of intracellular cholesterol trafficking. (PMID: 10548884) Strauss JF … Sugawara T (Recent progress in hormone research 1999) 3 4 22 58
  3. Structure of the human steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) gene: StAR stimulates mitochondrial cholesterol 27-hydroxylase activity. (PMID: 7547998) Sugawara T … Strauss JF (Biochemistry 1995) 3 4 22 58
  4. Genetic variation in CYP11A1 and StAR in relation to endometrial cancer risk. (PMID: 20199803) Terry K … De Vivo I (Gynecologic oncology 2010) 3 44 58
  5. Personalized smoking cessation: interactions between nicotine dose, dependence and quit-success genotype score. (PMID: 20379614) Rose JE … Uhl GR (Molecular medicine (Cambridge, Mass.) 2010) 3 44 58

Products for STAR Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for STAR

Sources for STAR Gene

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