The hormone somatostatin has active 14 aa and 28 aa forms that are produced by alternate cleavage of the single preproprotein encoded by this gene. Somatostatin is expressed throughout the body and inhibits the release of numerous secondary hormones by binding to high-affinity G-protein-coupled somatostatin receptors. This hormone is an important regulator of the endocrine syst... See more...

Aliases for SST Gene

Aliases for SST Gene

  • Somatostatin 2 3 4 5
  • Growth Hormone Release-Inhibiting Factor 3 4
  • Prepro-Somatostatin 2 3
  • Somatostatin-14 2 3
  • Somatostatin-28 2 3
  • SMST 3

External Ids for SST Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for SST Gene

  • GC03M184201
  • GC03M188648
  • GC03M188788
  • GC03M188707
  • GC03M188869
  • GC03M187386
  • GC03M184791

Summaries for SST Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for SST Gene

  • The hormone somatostatin has active 14 aa and 28 aa forms that are produced by alternate cleavage of the single preproprotein encoded by this gene. Somatostatin is expressed throughout the body and inhibits the release of numerous secondary hormones by binding to high-affinity G-protein-coupled somatostatin receptors. This hormone is an important regulator of the endocrine system through its interactions with pituitary growth hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, and most hormones of the gastrointestinal tract. Somatostatin also affects rates of neurotransmission in the central nervous system and proliferation of both normal and tumorigenic cells. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for SST Gene

SST (Somatostatin) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with SST include Somatostatinoma and Esophageal Varix. Among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and Salivary secretion. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include hormone activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for SST Gene

  • [Somatostatin-14]: Inhibits the secretion of pituitary hormones, including that of growth hormone/somatotropin (GH1), PRL, ACTH, luteinizing hormone (LH) and TSH. Also impairs ghrelin- and GnRH-stimulated secretion of GH1 and LH; the inhibition of ghrelin-stimulated secretion of GH1 can be further increased by neuronostatin.
  • [Neuronostatin]: May enhance low-glucose-induced glucagon release by pancreatic alpha cells (By similarity). This effect may be mediated by binding to GPR107 and PKA activation (By similarity). May regulate cardiac contractile function (By similarity). May compromise cardiomyocyte viability (By similarity). In the central nervous system, may impair memory retention and may affect hippocampal excitability (By similarity). May also have anxiolytic and anorexigenic effects (By similarity). May play a role in arterial pressure regulation (By similarity). May inhibit basal, but not ghrelin- or GnRH-stimulated secretion of GH1 or LH, but does not affect the release of other pituitary hormones, including PRL, ACTH, FSH or TSH. Potentiates inhibitory action of somatostatin on ghrelin-stimulated secretion of GH1, but not that on GnRH-stimulated secretion of LH (PubMed:29615476).

Tocris Summary for SST Gene

  • Somatostatin (somatotropin release inhibiting factor, SRIF) is an endogenous cyclic polypeptide with two biologically active forms. It is an abundant neuropeptide and has a wide range of physiological effects on neurotransmission, secretion and cell proliferation.

Gene Wiki entry for SST Gene

Additional gene information for SST Gene

No data available for CIViC Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for SST Gene

Genomics for SST Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for SST Gene

Promoters and enhancers for SST Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
Score
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH03J187671 Promoter/Enhancer 0.8 EPDnew Ensembl 500.7 -0.3 -272 0.2 EP300 EZH2 CREB1 POLR2A SST piR-50443-277 HSALNG0031426
GH03J187670 Promoter 0.7 EPDnew 500.7 +0.0 1 0.1 EP300 REST HDAC2 POLR2A SIN3A TBP ZNF143 EZH2 CREB1 JUND SST HSALNG0031427 HSALNG0031426
GH03J187288 Promoter/Enhancer 1.8 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas 9.8 +378.9 378897 5.4 NCOR1 SAP30 TGIF2 FOXA2 RBM25 NR2F2 ZNF263 SAP130 SPI1 JUND MASP1 LOC101929130 SST
GH03J187318 Enhancer 0.9 ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas 11.9 +350.8 350841 1.8 CTCF REST RAD21 TRIM22 SMC3 ESRRA USF1 GABPA CEBPB SPI1 SST MASP1 RTP4 HSALNG0031413 RF00017-4203
GH03J187261 Enhancer 1 Ensembl ENCODE 10.1 +406.1 406138 4.6 ZNF639 TCF7 RFX1 EP300 TEAD1 ATF2 FOXA2 OSR2 NR2F2 BCL11A MASP1 SST lnc-RPL39L-1 LOC101929130
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around SST on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for SST

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the SST gene promoter:
  • CREB
  • deltaCREB
  • Gfi-1
  • Nkx3-1 v4
  • PPAR-gamma1
  • PPAR-gamma2

Genomic Locations for SST Gene

Genomic Locations for SST Gene
chr3:187,668,906-187,670,413
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
1,508 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand
chr3:187,386,694-187,388,201
(GRCh37/hg19)
Size:
1,508 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for SST Gene

Genes around SST on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
SST Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for SST Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for SST Gene

Proteins for SST Gene

  • Protein details for SST Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P61278-SMS_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Somatostatin
    Protein Accession:
    P61278
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2R5G3
    • P01166

    Protein attributes for SST Gene

    Size:
    116 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    12736 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for SST Gene

neXtProt entry for SST Gene

Post-translational modifications for SST Gene

  • C-terminal amidation of the neuronostatin peptide is required for its biological activity, including for the regulation of mean arterial pressure.
  • Glycosylation at Asn61
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for SST Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for SST Gene

Domains & Families for SST Gene

Gene Families for SST Gene

HGNC:
Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Cancer-related genes
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Protein Domains for SST Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for SST Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • Growth hormone release-inhibiting factor (SMS_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P61278

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

SMS_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the somatostatin family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the somatostatin family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with SST: view

Function for SST Gene

Molecular function for SST Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
[Somatostatin-14]: Inhibits the secretion of pituitary hormones, including that of growth hormone/somatotropin (GH1), PRL, ACTH, luteinizing hormone (LH) and TSH. Also impairs ghrelin- and GnRH-stimulated secretion of GH1 and LH; the inhibition of ghrelin-stimulated secretion of GH1 can be further increased by neuronostatin.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
[Neuronostatin]: May enhance low-glucose-induced glucagon release by pancreatic alpha cells (By similarity). This effect may be mediated by binding to GPR107 and PKA activation (By similarity). May regulate cardiac contractile function (By similarity). May compromise cardiomyocyte viability (By similarity). In the central nervous system, may impair memory retention and may affect hippocampal excitability (By similarity). May also have anxiolytic and anorexigenic effects (By similarity). May play a role in arterial pressure regulation (By similarity). May inhibit basal, but not ghrelin- or GnRH-stimulated secretion of GH1 or LH, but does not affect the release of other pituitary hormones, including PRL, ACTH, FSH or TSH. Potentiates inhibitory action of somatostatin on ghrelin-stimulated secretion of GH1, but not that on GnRH-stimulated secretion of LH (PubMed:29615476).
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
somatostatin

LifeMap Function Summary for SST Gene

During embryonic development, SST as signaling molecule is secreted from the following cells
It affects the following cells:

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for SST Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for SST Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005179 hormone activity TAS 9886848
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with SST: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with SST: view

Animal Models for SST Gene

MGI Knock Outs for SST:
  • Sst Sst<tm1Ute>
  • Sst Sst<tm1b(KOMP)Wtsi>
  • Sst Sst<tm1Low>

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for SST Gene

Clone Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for SST Gene

Localization for SST Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for SST Gene

Secreted.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for SST gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
plasma membrane 3
cytoskeleton 3
nucleus 3
mitochondrion 2
endoplasmic reticulum 2
endosome 2
cytosol 2
lysosome 2
golgi apparatus 2
peroxisome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for SST Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0005615 extracellular space TAS,IEA 9437026
GO:0043025 neuronal cell body IEA --
GO:0045202 synapse IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with SST: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for SST Gene

Pathways & Interactions for SST Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with SST: view

SIGNOR curated interactions for SST Gene

Activates:
Is activated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for SST Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006972 hyperosmotic response IEA --
GO:0007166 cell surface receptor signaling pathway TAS 9437026
GO:0007186 G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS 8405411
GO:0007267 cell-cell signaling TAS 6145156
GO:0007268 chemical synaptic transmission TAS 9437026
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with SST: view

Drugs & Compounds for SST Gene

(97) Drugs for SST Gene - From: DrugBank, ClinicalTrials, DGIdb, HMDB, Tocris, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Cysteamine Approved, Investigational Pharma binder, Target 30
Octreotide Approved, Investigational Pharma Full agonist, Agonist sst2, sst3 and sst5 agonist 271
Ethanol Approved Pharma 3220
Quinine Approved Pharma Pore Blocker, Inhibition, Inhibitor 55
Somatostatin Approved, Investigational Pharma Influences growth hormone release 295

(45) Additional Compounds for SST Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs

(5) Tocris Compounds for SST Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Cortistatin 14 Endogenous neuropeptide; binds sst1 - sst5 and ghrelin receptor 193829-96-8
Octreotide sst2, sst3 and sst5 agonist 83150-76-9
Seglitide sst2 and sst5 agonist 81377-02-8
Somatostatin Influences growth hormone release 51110-01-1
Somatostatin 1-28 sst receptor agonist 74315-46-1
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with SST: view

Transcripts for SST Gene

mRNA/cDNA for SST Gene

1 REFSEQ mRNAs :
4 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
1 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

CRISPR Products

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for SST Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for SST Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
SST

Expression for SST Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for SST Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for SST Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain - Hypothalamus (x10.8), Pancreas (x8.7), Stomach (x5.2), and Brain - Putamen (basal ganglia) (x5.2).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for SST Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Fetal gut (29.5), Stomach (19.1), and Pancreas (18.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for SST Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for SST Gene

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for SST

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for SST Gene:

Hs.12409

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for SST Gene

  • Pancreas(5)
  • Nervous system(4.9)
  • Liver(4.5)
  • Stomach(4.1)
  • Intestine(3.6)
  • Adrenal gland(3.1)
  • Blood(3.1)
  • Thyroid gland(2.6)
  • Kidney(2.5)
  • Gall bladder(2.3)
  • Muscle(2.2)
  • Eye(2)
  • Lung(2)
  • Skin(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with SST: view

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for SST Gene

Orthologs for SST Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for SST Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia SST 31 30
  • 99.71 (n)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia SST 31 30
  • 95.98 (n)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia SST 31 30
  • 94.83 (n)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Sst 17 31 30
  • 90.52 (n)
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Sst 30
  • 90.23 (n)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia SST 31
  • 84 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia SST 31
  • 84 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves SST 31 30
  • 82.18 (n)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia SST 31
  • 78 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia sst 30
  • 71.88 (n)
Str.14307 30
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.13593 30
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii sst1.1 31 30
  • 67.54 (n)
OneToOne
sst1 30
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.14049 30
Species where no ortholog for SST was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for SST Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for SST (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for SST (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for SST: view image

Paralogs for SST Gene

No data available for Paralogs for SST Gene

Variants for SST Gene

Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for SST Gene

SNP ID Clinical significance and condition Chr 03 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs33934967 - p.Asn61Thr
rs35603672 - p.Ala11Val

Additional dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for SST Gene

Variation tolerance for SST Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 71.4% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.33; 26.37% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for SST Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SST
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
SST

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for SST Gene

Disorders for SST Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(209) MalaCards diseases for SST Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
somatostatinoma
  • pancreatic endocrine carcinoma
esophageal varix
  • bleeding esophageal varices
vipoma
  • malignant vasoactive intestinal peptide-secreting tumor
nelson syndrome
  • ridges-off-the-end syndrome
neuroendocrine tumor
  • neuroendocrine neoplasm
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search SST in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for SST

Genetic Association Database
(GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
(HuGE)
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with SST: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for SST Gene

Publications for SST Gene

  1. Sequence of the human somatostatin I gene. (PMID: 6142531) Shen LP … Rutter WJ (Science (New York, N.Y.) 1984) 2 3 4 54
  2. Human somatostatin I: sequence of the cDNA. (PMID: 6126875) Shen LP … Rutter WJ (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1982) 2 3 4 54
  3. Investigation of genetic susceptibility factors for human longevity - a targeted nonsynonymous SNP study. (PMID: 20800603) Flachsbart F … Nebel A (Mutation research 2010) 3 41 54
  4. Physiogenomic analysis of statin-treated patients: domain-specific counter effects within the ACACB gene on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol? (PMID: 20602615) Ruaño G … Wu AH (Pharmacogenomics 2010) 3 41 54
  5. A large-scale candidate gene association study of age at menarche and age at natural menopause. (PMID: 20734064) He C … Hunter DJ (Human genetics 2010) 3 41 54

Products for SST Gene

Sources for SST Gene