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Aliases for SRM Gene

Aliases for SRM Gene

  • Spermidine Synthase 2 3 5
  • Putrescine Aminopropyltransferase 3 4
  • EC 4 56
  • SRML1 3 4
  • SPDSY 3 4
  • SPS1 3 4
  • Spermidine Synthase-1 3
  • EC 2.5.1 56
  • PAPT 3

External Ids for SRM Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for SRM Gene

  • SRML1

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for SRM Gene

  • GC01M011075
  • GC01M010958
  • GC01M010719
  • GC01M010824
  • GC01M011048
  • GC01M011037
  • GC01M010266

Summaries for SRM Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for SRM Gene

  • The polyamines putrescine, spermine, and spermidine are ubiquitous polycationic mediators of cell growth and differentiation. Spermidine synthase is one of four enzymes in the polyamine-biosynthetic pathway and carries out the final step of spermidine biosynthesis. This enzyme catalyzes the conversion of putrescine to spermidine using decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine as the cofactor. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for SRM Gene

SRM (Spermidine Synthase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with SRM include Sleeping Sickness and Leishmaniasis. Among its related pathways are CDK-mediated phosphorylation and removal of Cdc6 and Viral mRNA Translation. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and spermidine synthase activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for SRM Gene

  • Catalyzes the production of spermidine from putrescine and decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine (dcSAM). Has a strong preference for putrescine as substrate, and has very low activity towards 1,3-diaminopropane. Has extremely low activity towards spermidine.

Additional gene information for SRM Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for SRM Gene

Genomics for SRM Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for SRM Gene

Promoters and enhancers for SRM Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH01I011058 Promoter/Enhancer 2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 550.8 -0.5 -470 3.8 HDGF SMAD1 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 YY1 POLR2B ZNF143 FOS GC01P011060 SRM UBIAD1 MTOR ENSG00000226849 EXOSC10
GH01I010429 Promoter/Enhancer 2.1 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 6.1 +629.4 629415 2.1 HDGF PKNOX1 ARNT ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 IRF4 SLC30A9 POLR2B ENSG00000271989 CENPS CENPS-CORT TARDBP PGD ENSG00000226849 DFFA UBIAD1 EXOSC10 SRM
GH01I011245 Enhancer 0.4 ENCODE 10.9 -186.2 -186158 2 ZNF121 ZNF507 MTOR SRM MTOR-AS1 RNU6-537P C1orf127 ENSG00000226849 RPL39P6 GC01M011183
GH01I011047 Promoter 1.1 EPDnew 0.4 +12.8 12775 0.1 FOXA2 ARID4B DMAP1 RARA YY1 THAP11 MIXL1 RXRA REST PPARG MASP2 SRM
GH01I011052 Enhancer 0.7 ENCODE 0.4 +7.0 6975 0.2 CTCF MAX POLR2B MTA3 POLR2A ZBTB48 PATZ1 ZNF282 ZBTB10 PHF21A ENSG00000226849 TARDBP SRM MASP2
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

GeneHancers around SRM on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the SRM gene promoter:

Genomic Locations for SRM Gene

Genomic Locations for SRM Gene
5,451 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for SRM Gene

Genes around SRM on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
SRM Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for SRM Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for SRM Gene

Proteins for SRM Gene

  • Protein details for SRM Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Spermidine synthase
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B1AKP9
    • Q15511

    Protein attributes for SRM Gene

    302 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    33825 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer or homotetramer.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for SRM Gene

neXtProt entry for SRM Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for SRM Gene


Post-translational modifications for SRM Gene

  • Ubiquitination at isoforms=96, isoforms=135, and isoforms=277

Other Protein References for SRM Gene

Domains & Families for SRM Gene

Gene Families for SRM Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Enzymes
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for SRM Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the spermidine/spermine synthase family.
  • Belongs to the spermidine/spermine synthase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with SRM: view

Function for SRM Gene

Molecular function for SRM Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
spermidine synthetase,polyamine biosynthesis
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot BiophysicochemicalProperties:
Kinetic parameters: KM=20 uM for putrescine {ECO:0000269 PubMed:17585781}; KM=0.9 uM for S-adenosylmethioninamine {ECO:0000269 PubMed:17585781};
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
S-adenosyl 3-(methylthio)propylamine + putrescine = 5-S-methyl-5-thioadenosine + spermidine.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
The activity is thought to be regulated mainly by the availability of decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Catalyzes the production of spermidine from putrescine and decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine (dcSAM). Has a strong preference for putrescine as substrate, and has very low activity towards 1,3-diaminopropane. Has extremely low activity towards spermidine.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for SRM Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for SRM Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004766 spermidine synthase activity TAS --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 21044950
GO:0016740 transferase activity IEA --
GO:0042802 identical protein binding IPI 17585781
GO:0042803 protein homodimerization activity IDA 17585781
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with SRM: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with SRM: view

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for SRM

No data available for Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for SRM Gene

Localization for SRM Gene

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for SRM gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
nucleus 3
extracellular 1
peroxisome 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Cytosol (2)
  • Nucleoplasm (2)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for SRM Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with SRM: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for SRM Gene

Pathways & Interactions for SRM Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with SRM: view

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot P19623-SPEE_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Amine and polyamine biosynthesis; spermidine biosynthesis; spermidine from putrescine: step 1/1.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for SRM Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006595 polyamine metabolic process TAS --
GO:0006596 polyamine biosynthetic process IEA --
GO:0008295 spermidine biosynthetic process IEA --
GO:1990830 cellular response to leukemia inhibitory factor IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with SRM: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for SRM Gene

Drugs & Compounds for SRM Gene

(7) Drugs for SRM Gene - From: DrugBank, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
spermine Approved Nutra Full agonist, Agonist 0
Ademetionine Approved, Investigational Nutra Enzyme, substrate 0
putrescine Experimental Pharma Antagonist, Pore Blocker 0
spermidine Experimental Pharma Antagonist, Pore Blocker 0

(11) Additional Compounds for SRM Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • 1-(6-Amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-1-deoxy-5-S-methyl-5-thio-beta-D-Ribofuranose
  • 1-(6-Amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-1-deoxy-5-S-methyl-5-thio-beta-delta-Ribofuranose
  • 5'-(Methylthio)-5'-deoxyadenosine
  • 5'-(Methylthio)adenosine
  • 5'-Deoxy-5'-(methylthio)adenosine
  • 3-Apcad
  • N-(3-Aminopropyl)-1,5-Pentanediamine
  • N-(3-Aminopropyl)cadaverine
  • N-3-Aminopropyl-1,5-diaminopentane
  • 1,5-Diaminopentane
  • 1,5-Diaminopentane dihydrochloride
  • 1,5-Pentamethylenediamine
  • 1,5-Pentanediamine
  • Cadaverin
  • (5-deoxy-5-adenosyl)(3-aminopropyl) methylsulfonium salt
  • DAdoMet
  • Decarboxylated AdoMet
  • Decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine
  • Decarboxylated SAM
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with SRM: view

Transcripts for SRM Gene

Unigene Clusters for SRM Gene

Spermidine synthase:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for SRM

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for SRM Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3a · 3b · 3c · 3d ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8a · 8b · 8c · 8d
SP1: - - - -
SP2: - -
SP3: - - - -
SP4: -

Relevant External Links for SRM Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for SRM Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for SRM Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for SRM Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Bone marrow stromal cell (8.2), Oral epithelium (7.4), and Lymph node (7.2).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for SRM Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for SRM Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of SRM Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for SRM Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for SRM Gene

  • Skin(4.6)
  • Nervous system(4.6)
  • Lung(4.4)
  • Muscle(2.5)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with SRM: view

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for SRM Gene

Orthologs for SRM Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for SRM Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia SRM 33 34
  • 99.23 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia SRM 33 34
  • 90.73 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia SRM 33 34
  • 90.55 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Srm 33
  • 89.18 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Srm 33 16 34
  • 88.85 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia SRM 34
  • 76 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia SRM 34
  • 61 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves SRM 33 34
  • 80.95 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia SRM 34
  • 86 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia srm 33
  • 74.86 (n)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.25559 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii srm 33 34
  • 72.16 (n)
zgc63600 33
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta SpdS 33 34
  • 62.86 (n)
CG8327 35
  • 55 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP011126 33
  • 62.49 (n)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea spds-1 33 34
  • 58.7 (n)
Y46G5A.19 35
  • 48 (a)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_ADL340W 33
  • 62.44 (n)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0B09372g 33
  • 58.57 (n)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes SPE3 33 34 36
  • 57.28 (n)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons SPDS1 33
  • 55.48 (n)
(Glycine max)
eudicotyledons Gma.2891 33
Alicante grape
(Vitis vinifera)
eudicotyledons Vvi.2088 33
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os07g0408700 33
  • 54.44 (n)
Os.4599 33
(Hordeum vulgare)
Liliopsida Hv.6371 33
(Triticum aestivum)
Liliopsida Ta.24743 33
(Zea mays)
Liliopsida Zm.16536 33
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU06727 33
  • 66.55 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 34
  • 58 (a)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes SPBC12C2.07c 33
  • 57.93 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.2167 33
Species where no ortholog for SRM was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)

Evolution for SRM Gene

Gene Tree for SRM (if available)
Gene Tree for SRM (if available)

Paralogs for SRM Gene Pseudogenes for SRM Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with SRM: view

No data available for Paralogs for SRM Gene

Variants for SRM Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for SRM Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 01 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000416974 -- 11,055,970(-) C/T intron_variant
rs1001030484 -- 11,057,272(-) C/A/G/T intron_variant
rs1001310289 -- 11,061,461(-) A/C upstream_transcript_variant
rs1001482683 -- 11,057,471(-) T/A intron_variant
rs1001509124 -- 11,056,881(-) TTATTATT/TTATT intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for SRM Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv953456 CNV deletion 24416366
nsv832425 CNV loss 17160897
nsv545407 CNV gain 21841781
nsv474577 CNV novel sequence insertion 20440878

Variation tolerance for SRM Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 32.7% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.49; 10.73% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for SRM Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for SRM Gene

Disorders for SRM Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(3) MalaCards diseases for SRM Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
sleeping sickness
  • african sleeping sickness
  • cutaneous leishmaniasis
  • malaria, susceptibility to
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search SRM in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with SRM: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for SRM Gene

Publications for SRM Gene

  1. Human spermidine synthase: cloning and primary structure. (PMID: 2344393) Wahlfors J … Eloranta TO (DNA and cell biology 1990) 2 3 4 22 58
  2. Structure and mechanism of spermidine synthases. (PMID: 17585781) Wu H … Plotnikov AN (Biochemistry 2007) 3 4 22 58
  3. Human spermidine synthase gene: structure and chromosomal localization. (PMID: 2069720) Myöhänen S … Jänne J (DNA and cell biology 1991) 3 4 22 58
  4. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PMID: 15489334) Gerhard DS … MGC Project Team (Genome research 2004) 3 4 58
  5. Inhibition of spermidine synthase gene expression by transforming growth factor-beta 1 in hepatoma cells. (PMID: 9020892) Nishikawa Y … Carr BI (The Biochemical journal 1997) 3 22 58

Products for SRM Gene

Sources for SRM Gene

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