This gene encodes a ubiquitous nuclear protein that stimulates both cell proliferation and differentiation. It is a member of the MADS (MCM1, Agamous, Deficiens, and SRF) box superfamily of transcription factors. This protein binds to the serum response element (SRE) in the promoter region of target genes. This protein regulates the activity of many immediate-early genes, for e... See more...

Aliases for SRF Gene

Aliases for SRF Gene

  • Serum Response Factor 2 3 4 5
  • C-Fos Serum Response Element-Binding Transcription Factor 2 3
  • MCM1 2 3
  • Minichromosome Maintenance 1 Homolog (S. Cerevisiae) 2
  • Minichromosome Maintenance 1 Homolog 3
  • SRF 5

External Ids for SRF Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for SRF Gene

  • GC06P043141
  • GC06P043185
  • GC06P043247
  • GC06P043138
  • GC06P042855

Summaries for SRF Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for SRF Gene

  • This gene encodes a ubiquitous nuclear protein that stimulates both cell proliferation and differentiation. It is a member of the MADS (MCM1, Agamous, Deficiens, and SRF) box superfamily of transcription factors. This protein binds to the serum response element (SRE) in the promoter region of target genes. This protein regulates the activity of many immediate-early genes, for example c-fos, and thereby participates in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, cell growth, and cell differentiation. This gene is the downstream target of many pathways; for example, the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway (MAPK) that acts through the ternary complex factors (TCFs). Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]

GeneCards Summary for SRF Gene

SRF (Serum Response Factor) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with SRF include Miller Fisher Syndrome and Myofibroma. Among its related pathways are Integrin Pathway and NGF Pathway. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include DNA-binding transcription factor activity and sequence-specific DNA binding. An important paralog of this gene is MEF2D.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for SRF Gene

  • SRF is a transcription factor that binds to the serum response element (SRE), a short sequence of dyad symmetry located 300 bp to the 5' of the site of transcription initiation of some genes (such as FOS). Together with MRTFA transcription coactivator, controls expression of genes regulating the cytoskeleton during development, morphogenesis and cell migration. The SRF-MRTFA complex activity responds to Rho GTPase-induced changes in cellular globular actin (G-actin) concentration, thereby coupling cytoskeletal gene expression to cytoskeletal dynamics. Required for cardiac differentiation and maturation.

Gene Wiki entry for SRF Gene

No data available for CIViC Summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for SRF Gene

Genomics for SRF Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements Pubs

Promoters and enhancers for SRF Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
Score
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH06J043169 Promoter/Enhancer 2.4 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas dbSUPER 250.7 +2.1 2050 6.9 BCLAF1 SP1 ZNF207 NCOR1 MYC ZNF600 IKZF1 SSRP1 JUND ZNF592 SRF lnc-DNPH1-3 CUL7 RPS2P29 ABCC10 ZNF318 GTPBP2 POLR1C BICRAL POLH
GH06J044154 Enhancer 1.1 Ensembl ENCODE 5.5 +984.8 984781 2.9 SSRP1 ZMYM3 KLF9 CEBPA CHD4 KLF11 CHD2 ZFP64 HOMEZ ZNF217 HSALNG0050263 HSALNG0050264 ABCC10 TMEM63B ZNF318 GTPBP2 RPS2P29 POLH POLR1C ENSG00000220614
GH06J043147 Enhancer 0.3 Ensembl 12.3 -24.2 -24168 0.2 ZMYM3 lnc-DNPH1-4 SRF CUL9 CUL7 KLC4 RN7SL403P KLHDC3 MEA1 PPP2R5D ENSG00000231113
GH06J043180 Promoter/Enhancer 2.4 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas dbSUPER 0.4 +10.9 10895 3.2 BCLAF1 SP1 ZNF207 NCOR1 MYC IKZF1 ZNF600 ZNF592 POLR2A CEBPA CUL9 ZNF318 CUL7 POLH GTPBP2 RPS2P29 POLR1C DNPH1 XPO5 ABCC10
GH06J043141 Promoter/Enhancer 1.5 Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas 0.3 -27.8 -27807 3.6 BCLAF1 ZNF654 IKZF1 ZNF600 SSRP1 CEBPA ZNF10 POLR2A ZIC2 ZBTB10 HSALNG0050161 CUL7 DNPH1 KLC4 RN7SL403P KLHDC3 MEA1 PPP2R5D RPL7L1 lnc-DNPH1-4
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around SRF on the GeneHancer Hub at the UCSC Golden Path

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for SRF

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the SRF gene promoter:
  • MyoD
  • Nkx2-5
  • SRF
  • SRF (504 AA)
  • YY1

Genomic Locations for SRF Gene

Latest Assembly
chr6:43,171,269-43,181,506
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
10,238 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Previous Assembly
chr6:43,139,007-43,149,244
(GRCh37/hg19 by Entrez Gene)
Size:
10,238 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

chr6:43,139,037-43,149,243
(GRCh37/hg19 by Ensembl)
Size:
10,207 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for SRF Gene

Genes around SRF on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
SRF Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for SRF Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for SRF Gene

Proteins for SRF Gene

  • Protein details for SRF Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P11831-SRF_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Serum response factor
    Protein Accession:
    P11831
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q5T648

    Protein attributes for SRF Gene

    Size:
    508 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    51593 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Binds DNA as a multimer, probably a dimer (PubMed:7637780). Interacts with MRTFA, forming the SRF-MRTFA nuclear complex which binds the 5'-CArG-3' consensus motif (CArG box) on DNA via SRF (PubMed:14565952, PubMed:19350017). Forms a nuclear ternary complex with MRTFA and SCAI (PubMed:19350017). Interacts with MRTFB (PubMed:14565952). Interacts with MLLT7/FOXO4, NKX3A and SSRP1 (PubMed:16054032). Interacts with ARID2 (By similarity). Interacts with SRFBP1 (By similarity). Interacts with FOXK1 (PubMed:17670796). Interacts with LPXN (PubMed:18497331). Interacts with OLFM2; the interaction promotes dissociation of SRF from the transcriptional repressor HEY2, facilitates binding of SRF to target genes and promotes smooth muscle differentiation (PubMed:25298399).

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for SRF Gene

neXtProt entry for SRF Gene

Post-translational modifications for SRF Gene

  • Phosphorylated by PRKDC.
  • Glycosylation at Ser277, Ser307, Ser309, Ser316, and Ser383
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Glycosylation from GlyConnect
    • SRF_HUMAN (561)

Other Protein References for SRF Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for SRF Gene

Domains & Families for SRF Gene

Gene Families for SRF Gene

HGNC:
Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Predicted intracellular proteins
  • Transcription factors

Protein Domains for SRF Gene

InterPro:
Blocks:
  • Transcription factor, MADS-box

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for SRF Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • Serum response factor (SRF_HUMAN)
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with SRF: view

No data available for Graphical View of Domain Structure and UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for SRF Gene

Function for SRF Gene

Molecular function for SRF Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
SRF is a transcription factor that binds to the serum response element (SRE), a short sequence of dyad symmetry located 300 bp to the 5' of the site of transcription initiation of some genes (such as FOS). Together with MRTFA transcription coactivator, controls expression of genes regulating the cytoskeleton during development, morphogenesis and cell migration. The SRF-MRTFA complex activity responds to Rho GTPase-induced changes in cellular globular actin (G-actin) concentration, thereby coupling cytoskeletal gene expression to cytoskeletal dynamics. Required for cardiac differentiation and maturation.

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for SRF Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for SRF Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000978 RNA polymerase II proximal promoter sequence-specific DNA binding ISS --
GO:0000981 DNA-binding transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II-specific IBA 21873635
GO:0000987 proximal promoter sequence-specific DNA binding IEA --
GO:0001228 DNA-binding transcription activator activity, RNA polymerase II-specific IDA,ISS --
GO:0003677 DNA binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with SRF: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with SRF: view

Animal Models for SRF Gene

MGI Knock Outs for SRF:
  • Srf Srf<tm1Nor>
  • Srf Srf<tm2.2Nor>
  • Srf Srf<tm2.3Nor>

miRNA for SRF Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target SRF

Transcription Factor Targets for SRF Gene

Selected GeneGlobe predicted Target genes for SRF
Targeted motifs for SRF Gene
HOMER Transcription Factor Regulatory Elements motif SRF
  • Consensus sequence: CCATATATGGNA Submotif: canonical Cell Type: PUER

Inhibitory RNAs for research

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for SRF

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) and Human Phenotype Ontology for SRF Gene

Localization for SRF Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for SRF Gene

Nucleus.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for SRF gene
Compartment Confidence
nucleus 5
cytoskeleton 3
plasma membrane 2
extracellular 2
mitochondrion 2
endoplasmic reticulum 2
cytosol 2
peroxisome 1
endosome 1
lysosome 1
golgi apparatus 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for SRF Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000785 chromatin IBA --
GO:0005634 nucleus IEA,IDA 2108863
GO:0005654 nucleoplasm TAS --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA,TAS 15180964
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with SRF: view

Pathways & Interactions for SRF Gene

PathCards logo

SuperPathways for SRF Gene

SuperPathway Contained pathways
1 MAPK signaling pathway
2 IL-2 Pathway
.49
.47
3 NGF Pathway
.75
.75
4 TCR Signaling (Qiagen)
.68
.39
5 Signaling by Rho GTPases
genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with SRF: view

Pathways by source for SRF Gene

2 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) pathways for SRF Gene
  • Development PDGF signaling via MAPK cascades
  • Immune response_IL-6 signaling pathway
15 Qiagen pathways for SRF Gene
  • CCKBR-Gastrin Stimulated Signaling
  • Cellular Transformation by HTLV1
  • Chemokine Signaling
  • ERK Signaling
  • GPCR Pathway
2 Cell Signaling Technology pathways for SRF Gene

SIGNOR curated interactions for SRF Gene

Activates:
Inactivates:
Is activated by:
Is inactivated by:
Other effect:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for SRF Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001569 branching involved in blood vessel morphogenesis IEA --
GO:0001666 response to hypoxia IEP 19098903
GO:0001701 in utero embryonic development IEA --
GO:0001707 mesoderm formation IEA --
GO:0001764 neuron migration IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with SRF: view

Drugs & Compounds for SRF Gene

(58) Drugs for SRF Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials

(37) Additional Compounds for SRF Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with SRF: view

Transcripts for SRF Gene

mRNA/cDNA for SRF Gene

2 REFSEQ mRNAs :
6 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
1 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

Inhibitory RNAs for research

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for SRF

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for SRF Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for SRF Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
SRF

Expression for SRF Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for SRF Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for SRF Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Adipocyte (18.2), Fetal gut (15.8), CD8 Tcells (15.8), Fetal heart (10.0), and Prostate (9.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for SRF Gene



Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for SRF

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for SRF Gene:

Hs.520140

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for SRF Gene

  • Liver(4.5)
  • Lung(4.5)
  • Muscle(3.9)
  • Heart(3.5)
  • Nervous system(3.2)
  • Intestine(2.6)
  • Kidney(2.6)
  • Skin(2.6)
  • Stomach(2.4)
  • Bone marrow(2.4)
  • Thyroid gland(2.2)
  • Pancreas(2.2)
  • Lymph node(2.1)
  • Spleen(2.1)
  • Blood(2.1)
  • Eye(2.1)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with SRF: view

Primer products for research

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , Protein tissue co-expression partners , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for SRF Gene

Orthologs for SRF Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for SRF Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
Chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia SRF 29 30
  • 98.47 (n)
OneToOne
Mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Srf 29 16 30
  • 94.91 (n)
OneToOne
Rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Srf 29
  • 94.58 (n)
Dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia SRF 29 30
  • 94.52 (n)
OneToOne
Cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia SRF 29 30
  • 93.96 (n)
OneToOne
Oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia SRF 30
  • 90 (a)
OneToOne
Chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves SRF 29 30
  • 82.11 (n)
OneToOne
Lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia SRF 30
  • 80 (a)
OneToOne
Tropical Clawed Frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia srf 29
  • 68.2 (n)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia srf-A 29
Zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii srfa 29 30
  • 67.85 (n)
OneToMany
SRF (1 of 2) 30
  • 55 (a)
OneToMany
srf 29
Rainbow Trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.13739 29
Fruit Fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta bs 30
  • 36 (a)
OneToOne
Worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea unc-120 30
  • 35 (a)
OneToOne
Baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes MCM1 30
  • 33 (a)
OneToMany
ARG80 30 32
  • 32 (a)
OneToMany
Sea Squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.10664 30
  • 42 (a)
OneToOne
Sea Vase
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.3406 29
Species where no ortholog for SRF was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Eremothecium gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • Alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • Amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • Beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • Common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • Corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • Filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute Bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • Fission Yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • Green Algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. Lactis Yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • Loblloly Pine (Pinus taeda)
  • Malaria Parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • Medicago Trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • Moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • Pig (Sus scrofa)
  • Platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • Rice (Oryza sativa)
  • Rice Blast Fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • Schistosome Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • Sea Anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • Soybean (Glycine max)
  • Stem Rust Fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • Thale Cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • Wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for SRF Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for SRF (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for SRF (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for SRF: view image
Alliance of Genome Resources:
Additional Orthologs for SRF

Paralogs for SRF Gene

Paralogs for SRF Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with SRF: view

Variants for SRF Gene

Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for SRF Gene

SNP ID Clinical significance and condition Chr 06 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs116728249 Benign: not provided 43,178,493(+) G/C
NM_003131.4(SRF):c.1354+8G>C
INTRON
rs1292283865 Likely Benign: not provided 43,171,839(+) G/C
NM_003131.4(SRF):c.183G>C (p.Ala61=)
SYNONYMOUS
rs142698332 Likely Benign: not provided 43,178,873(+) G/T
NM_003131.4(SRF):c.1422G>T (p.Gln474His)
MISSENSE
rs548562090 Likely Benign: not provided 43,171,794(+) G/A
NM_003131.4(SRF):c.138G>A (p.Gly46=)
SYNONYMOUS
rs560386274 Likely Benign: not provided 43,174,048(+) A/T
NM_003131.4(SRF):c.715A>T (p.Thr239Ser)
MISSENSE

dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for variants without ClinVar clinical significance for SRF Gene

All consequence types are included: molecular consequences (e.g. missense, synonymous), and location-based (e.g. intron, upstream).

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for SRF Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv3571027 CNV loss 25503493
nsv1017398 CNV gain 25217958
nsv521730 CNV loss 19592680
nsv819840 CNV gain 19587683

Variation tolerance for SRF Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 20.2% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.51; 11.05% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for SRF Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
SRF
Leiden Open Variation Database (LOVD)
SRF

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assays for research

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for SRF Gene

Disorders for SRF Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(20) MalaCards diseases for SRF Gene - From: COP and GCD

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
miller fisher syndrome
  • fisher's syndrome
myofibroma
  • lipoleiomyoma
lymphangioleiomyomatosis
  • lam
acute megakaryocytic leukemia
  • megakaryocytic myelosis
fumarate hydratase deficiency
  • fumarase deficiency
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search SRF in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for SRF

Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
(HuGE)
Atlas
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
Open Targets Platform
Open Targets Platform
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with SRF: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for SRF Gene

Publications for SRF Gene

  1. Megakaryoblastic leukemia-1/2, a transcriptional co-activator of serum response factor, is required for skeletal myogenic differentiation. (PMID: 14565952) Selvaraj A … Prywes R (The Journal of biological chemistry 2003) 3 4 22
  2. The carboxyl-terminal transactivation domain of human serum response factor contains DNA-activated protein kinase phosphorylation sites. (PMID: 8407951) Liu SH … Ng SY (The Journal of biological chemistry 1993) 3 4 22
  3. C-terminal phosphorylation of the serum-response factor. (PMID: 8375385) Janknecht R … Nordheim A (European journal of biochemistry 1993) 3 4 22
  4. Identification of multiple SRF N-terminal phosphorylation sites affecting DNA binding properties. (PMID: 1547771) Janknecht R … Stunnenberg HG (The EMBO journal 1992) 3 4 22
  5. Localization of O-GlcNAc modification on the serum response transcription factor. (PMID: 1512232) Reason AJ … Dell A (The Journal of biological chemistry 1992) 3 4 22

Products for SRF Gene

Sources for SRF Gene