Aliases for SPAM1 Gene
External Ids for SPAM1 Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for SPAM1 Gene
Hyaluronidase degrades hyaluronic acid, a major structural proteoglycan found in extracellular matrices and basement membranes. Six members of the hyaluronidase family are clustered into two tightly linked groups on chromosome 3p21.3 and 7q31.3. This gene was previously referred to as HYAL1 and HYA1 and has since been assigned the official symbol SPAM1; another family member on chromosome 3p21.3 has been assigned HYAL1. This gene encodes a GPI-anchored enzyme located on the human sperm surface and inner acrosomal membrane. This multifunctional protein is a hyaluronidase that enables sperm to penetrate through the hyaluronic acid-rich cumulus cell layer surrounding the oocyte, a receptor that plays a role in hyaluronic acid induced cell signaling, and a receptor that is involved in sperm-zona pellucida adhesion. Abnormal expression of this gene in tumors has implicated this protein in degradation of basement membranes leading to tumor invasion and metastasis. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]
GeneCards Summary for SPAM1 Gene
SPAM1 (Sperm Adhesion Molecule 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with SPAM1 include Mucopolysaccharidosis, Type Ix and Cystitis Cystica. Among its related pathways are Lysosome and Glycosaminoglycan degradation. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include hyalurononglucosaminidase activity. An important paralog of this gene is HYAL4.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for SPAM1 Gene
Involved in sperm-egg adhesion. Upon fertilization sperm must first penetrate a layer of cumulus cells that surrounds the egg before reaching the zona pellucida. The cumulus cells are embedded in a matrix containing hyaluronic acid which is formed prior to ovulation. This protein aids in penetrating the layer of cumulus cells by digesting hyaluronic acid.