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Aliases for SMOX Gene

Aliases for SMOX Gene

  • Spermine Oxidase 2 3 5
  • Polyamine Oxidase 1 3 4
  • C20orf16 3 4
  • PAOH1 3 4
  • PAO-1 3 4
  • SMO 3 4
  • Putative Cyclin G1 Interacting Protein 3
  • Chromosome 20 Open Reading Frame 16 2
  • Flavin-Containing Spermine Oxidase 3
  • Flavin Containing Amine Oxidase 3
  • EC 1.5.3.16 4
  • PAO1 3
  • PAOH 3
  • PAO 3

External Ids for SMOX Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for SMOX Gene

  • C20orf16

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for SMOX Gene

  • GC20P004124
  • GC20P004077

Summaries for SMOX Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for SMOX Gene

  • Polyamines are ubiquitous polycationic alkylamines which include spermine, spermidine, putrescine, and agmatine. These molecules participate in a broad range of cellular functions which include cell cycle modulation, scavenging reactive oxygen species, and the control of gene expression. These molecules also play important roles in neurotransmission through their regulation of cell-surface receptor activity, involvement in intracellular signalling pathways, and their putative roles as neurotransmitters. This gene encodes an FAD-containing enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of spermine to spermadine and secondarily produces hydrogen peroxide. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoenzymes have been identified for this gene, some of which have failed to demonstrate significant oxidase activity on natural polyamine substrates. The characterized isoenzymes have distinctive biochemical characteristics and substrate specificities, suggesting the existence of additional levels of complexity in polyamine catabolism. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

GeneCards Summary for SMOX Gene

SMOX (Spermine Oxidase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with SMOX include Short-Rib Thoracic Dysplasia 2 With Or Without Polydactyly and Autosomal Genetic Disease. Among its related pathways are CDK-mediated phosphorylation and removal of Cdc6 and Viral mRNA Translation. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include oxidoreductase activity and spermine:oxygen oxidoreductase (spermidine-forming) activity. An important paralog of this gene is PAOX.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for SMOX Gene

  • Flavoenzyme which catalyzes the oxidation of spermine to spermidine. Can also use N(1)-acetylspermine and spermidine as substrates, with different affinity depending on the isoform (isozyme) and on the experimental conditions. Plays an important role in the regulation of polyamine intracellular concentration and has the potential to act as a determinant of cellular sensitivity to the antitumor polyamine analogs. May contribute to beta-alanine production via aldehyde dehydrogenase conversion of 3-amino-propanal.

Gene Wiki entry for SMOX Gene

Additional gene information for SMOX Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for SMOX Gene

Genomics for SMOX Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for SMOX Gene

Promoters and enhancers for SMOX Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
Score
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH20I004148 Promoter/Enhancer 2.1 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 568.7 +28.4 28440 2.5 ELF3 ARID4B SIN3A ZNF76 RAD21 ZNF48 ZSCAN9 RARA ZNF335 GLIS2 SMOX PRND GC20P004170
GH20I004119 Enhancer 1 ENCODE dbSUPER 555.4 -1.3 -1326 1.2 HDAC1 PKNOX1 ATF1 KLF17 SIN3A ZBTB40 TCF12 POLR3A EGR1 CREM SMOX ENSG00000205300
GH20I004164 Promoter/Enhancer 0.7 EPDnew dbSUPER 550.3 +43.5 43492 0.1 SMOX GC20P004170
GH20I004165 Enhancer 1.2 FANTOM5 ENCODE dbSUPER 20.7 +46.3 46340 3.1 ELF3 ARID4B THRB ZSCAN9 THAP11 SP5 CEBPB ELF1 SSRP1 GLIS1 SMOX LINC01433 ENSG00000229539 PANK2 GC20P004170
GH20I004081 Enhancer 1.7 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 11.2 -37.1 -37115 5 HDGF PKNOX1 FOXA2 MLX ARNT ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 RPL21P2 PANK2 SMOX ENSG00000229539 CDC25B CENPB SPEF1 RNF24 ENSG00000205300
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

GeneHancers around SMOX on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the SMOX gene promoter:

Genomic Locations for SMOX Gene

Genomic Locations for SMOX Gene
chr20:4,120,980-4,187,747
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
66,768 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand
chr20:4,101,627-4,168,394
(GRCh37/hg19)

Genomic View for SMOX Gene

Genes around SMOX on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
SMOX Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for SMOX Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for SMOX Gene

Proteins for SMOX Gene

  • Protein details for SMOX Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q9NWM0-SMOX_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Spermine oxidase
    Protein Accession:
    Q9NWM0
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A2A2P5
    • A2A2P6
    • A8BE87
    • D3DVZ4
    • Q5TE26
    • Q5TE27
    • Q6UY28
    • Q8IX00
    • Q96LC3
    • Q96LC4
    • Q96QT3
    • Q9BW38
    • Q9H6H1
    • Q9NP51
    • Q9NPY1
    • Q9NPY2

    Protein attributes for SMOX Gene

    Size:
    555 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    61819 Da
    Cofactor:
    Name=FAD; Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:57692;
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

    Alternative splice isoforms for SMOX Gene

neXtProt entry for SMOX Gene

Post-translational modifications for SMOX Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for SMOX Gene

Domains & Families for SMOX Gene

Gene Families for SMOX Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Enzymes
  • FDA approved drug targets
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Protein Domains for SMOX Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for SMOX Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q9NWM0

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

SMOX_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the flavin monoamine oxidase family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the flavin monoamine oxidase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with SMOX: view

Function for SMOX Gene

Molecular function for SMOX Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot BiophysicochemicalProperties:
Kinetic parameters: KM=0.6 uM for spermine (isoform 1) {ECO:0000269 PubMed:12141946, ECO:0000269 PubMed:12398765, ECO:0000269 PubMed:18422650}; KM=0.5 uM for spermine (isoform 6) {ECO:0000269 PubMed:12141946, ECO:0000269 PubMed:12398765, ECO:0000269 PubMed:18422650}; KM=3.0 uM for N1-acetylspermine (Isoform 1 and isoform 6) {ECO:0000269 PubMed:12141946, ECO:0000269 PubMed:12398765, ECO:0000269 PubMed:18422650}; Note=Kcat is 27-fold higher with spermine than N1-acetylspermine as substrate for isoform 1 and isoform 6.; pH dependence: Optimum pH is 9.5 with spermine as substrate. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:12141946, ECO:0000269 PubMed:12398765, ECO:0000269 PubMed:18422650};
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Spermine + O(2) + H(2)O = spermidine + 3-aminopropanal + H(2)O(2).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Inhibited at more than 90% by SL-11144, SL-11150 and SL-11158, at concentrations less than 1 uM.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Flavoenzyme which catalyzes the oxidation of spermine to spermidine. Can also use N(1)-acetylspermine and spermidine as substrates, with different affinity depending on the isoform (isozyme) and on the experimental conditions. Plays an important role in the regulation of polyamine intracellular concentration and has the potential to act as a determinant of cellular sensitivity to the antitumor polyamine analogs. May contribute to beta-alanine production via aldehyde dehydrogenase conversion of 3-amino-propanal.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
By antitumor polyamine analogs.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for SMOX Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for SMOX Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for SMOX Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0016491 oxidoreductase activity IEA --
GO:0046592 polyamine oxidase activity IDA,IEA 12477380
GO:0052894 norspermine:oxygen oxidoreductase activity IEA --
GO:0052895 N1-acetylspermine:oxygen oxidoreductase (N1-acetylspermidine-forming) activity IEA --
GO:0052901 spermine:oxygen oxidoreductase (spermidine-forming) activity TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with SMOX: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with SMOX: view

Animal Models for SMOX Gene

MGI Knock Outs for SMOX:

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for SMOX

CRISPR Products

Clone Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for SMOX Gene

Localization for SMOX Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for SMOX Gene

Isoform 1: Cytoplasm. Nucleus.
Isoform 4: Cytoplasm. Nucleus.
Isoform 6: Cytoplasm. Nucleus.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for SMOX gene
Compartment Confidence
nucleus 5
cytosol 5
plasma membrane 3
extracellular 3
mitochondrion 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Nuclear membrane (3)
  • Nucleoplasm (3)
  • Vesicles (2)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for SMOX Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005654 nucleoplasm IDA --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0031965 nuclear membrane IDA --
GO:0043231 intracellular membrane-bounded organelle IDA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with SMOX: view

Pathways & Interactions for SMOX Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with SMOX: view

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Q9NWM0-SMOX_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Amine and polyamine degradation; spermine degradation.

Interacting Proteins for SMOX Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for SMOX Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006596 polyamine biosynthetic process TAS --
GO:0006598 polyamine catabolic process IDA 12477380
GO:0046208 spermine catabolic process IEA --
GO:0055114 oxidation-reduction process IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with SMOX: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for SMOX Gene

Drugs & Compounds for SMOX Gene

(9) Drugs for SMOX Gene - From: DrugBank, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
spermine Approved Nutra Full agonist, Agonist, Target, ligand 0
Oxygen Approved, Vet_approved Pharma 0
FAD Approved Pharma 0
Hydrogen peroxide Approved, Vet_approved Pharma 73
Water Approved Pharma 0

(16) Additional Compounds for SMOX Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
N1-acetylspermine
  • N'-Acetylspermine
  • N'-Monoacetylspermine
  • N(1)-Acetylspermine
  • N-(3-((4-((3-Aminopropyl)amino)butyl)amino)propyl)-Acetamide
  • N-Acetylspermine
25593-72-0
3-Aminopropionaldehyde
  • 3-Aminopropanal
  • 3-Aminopropionaldehyde
  • beta-Aminopropion aldehyde
352-92-1
Norspermidine
  • -1,3-propanediamine
  • 1,7-Diamino-4-azaheptane
  • 3, 3'-Diaminodipropylamine
  • 3, {3'-Iminobis[propylamine]}
  • 3,3'-Diamino-Dipropylamine
56-18-8
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with SMOX: view

Transcripts for SMOX Gene

Unigene Clusters for SMOX Gene

Spermine oxidase:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for SMOX Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2a · 2b · 2c ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8a · 8b · 8c · 8d · 8e ^ 9a · 9b ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12a · 12b ^ 13 ^ 14a · 14b · 14c ·
SP1: - - - - - - - -
SP2: - - - - - - - - -
SP3: - - -
SP4: - - - - - - - - -
SP5:
SP6: - - - - - -
SP7: - - - - - -
SP8: - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP9: - -
SP10: -
SP11: - - - - -
SP12: - - - -
SP13: - - -

ExUns: 14d
SP1:
SP2:
SP3:
SP4:
SP5:
SP6:
SP7:
SP8:
SP9:
SP10:
SP11:
SP12:
SP13:

Relevant External Links for SMOX Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
SMOX
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
SMOX

Expression for SMOX Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for SMOX Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for SMOX Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Pancreatic juice (63.8).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for SMOX Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for SMOX Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of SMOX Gene:

SMOX

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for SMOX Gene:

Hs.433337

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for SMOX Gene:

Q9NWM0-SMOX_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Widely expressed. Expressed in human tumor cell lines. Isoform 4 is only found in an embryonal kidney cell line.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for SMOX Gene

  • Nervous system(4.8)
  • Kidney(4.3)
  • Lung(3.4)
  • Blood(2.4)
  • Eye(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with SMOX: view

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for SMOX Gene

Orthologs for SMOX Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for SMOX Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia SMOX 33 34
  • 99.15 (n)
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia SMOX 33 34
  • 92.19 (n)
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia SMOX 33 34
  • 91.53 (n)
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Smox 33
  • 90.97 (n)
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Smox 33 16 34
  • 90.07 (n)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia SMOX 34
  • 85 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia SMOX 34
  • 82 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves SMOX 33 34
  • 75.19 (n)
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia SMOX 34
  • 80 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia smox 33
  • 73.75 (n)
Str.11519 33
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.1474 33
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii smox 34
  • 71 (a)
OneToOne
Dr.11707 33
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP002616 33
  • 51.33 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG8032 33 34
  • 48.73 (n)
CG5653 34
  • 30 (a)
ManyToMany
CG7460 34
  • 30 (a)
ManyToMany
CG10561 34
  • 29 (a)
ManyToMany
CG6034 34
  • 29 (a)
ManyToMany
CG7737 34
  • 28 (a)
ManyToMany
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea amx-3 34
  • 28 (a)
ManyToMany
hpo-15 34
  • 23 (a)
ManyToMany
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons PAO5 33
  • 44.22 (n)
rice
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os01g0710200 33
  • 48.84 (n)
Species where no ortholog for SMOX was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for SMOX Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for SMOX (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for SMOX (if available)

Paralogs for SMOX Gene

Paralogs for SMOX Gene

(1) SIMAP similar genes for SMOX Gene using alignment to 2 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with SMOX: view

Variants for SMOX Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for SMOX Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 20 pos Variation AA Info Type
VAR_036546 A breast cancer sample p.Gln340Lys
rs1000030121 -- 4,166,591(+) C/A/G intron_variant
rs1000065137 -- 4,181,430(+) AAA/AA intron_variant
rs1000094963 -- 4,156,624(+) C/T intron_variant
rs1000264299 -- 4,148,771(+) A/G upstream_transcript_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for SMOX Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv1176085 CNV deletion 17803354
esv2632874 CNV deletion 19546169
esv2722126 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2762057 CNV loss 21179565
nsv472563 CNV novel sequence insertion 20440878
nsv828673 CNV gain 20364138
nsv833900 CNV loss 17160897
nsv952980 CNV deletion 24416366

Variation tolerance for SMOX Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 9.82% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.26; 25.12% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for SMOX Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
SMOX

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for SMOX Gene

Disorders for SMOX Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(4) MalaCards diseases for SMOX Gene - From: DISEASES

- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search SMOX in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for SMOX

Genetic Association Database
(GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
(HuGE)
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with SMOX: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for SMOX Gene

Publications for SMOX Gene

  1. Cloning and characterization of multiple human polyamine oxidase splice variants that code for isoenzymes with different biochemical characteristics. (PMID: 12398765) Murray-Stewart T … Casero RA (The Biochemical journal 2002) 2 3 4 22 58
  2. Identification and characterization of a novel flavin-containing spermine oxidase of mammalian cell origin. (PMID: 12141946) Vujcic S … Porter CW (The Biochemical journal 2002) 3 4 22 25 58
  3. Cloning and characterization of a human polyamine oxidase that is inducible by polyamine analogue exposure. (PMID: 11454677) Wang Y … Casero RA (Cancer research 2001) 2 3 4 22 58
  4. Nuclear localization of human spermine oxidase isoforms - possible implications in drug response and disease etiology. (PMID: 18422650) Murray-Stewart T … Casero RA (The FEBS journal 2008) 3 4 22 58
  5. Properties of purified recombinant human polyamine oxidase, PAOh1/SMO. (PMID: 12727196) Wang Y … Casero RA (Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2003) 3 4 25 58

Products for SMOX Gene

Sources for SMOX Gene

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