Aliases for SMAD2 Gene
External Ids for SMAD2 Gene
Previous HGNC Symbols for SMAD2 Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for SMAD2 Gene
The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the SMAD, a family of proteins similar to the gene products of the Drosophila gene 'mothers against decapentaplegic' (Mad) and the C. elegans gene Sma. SMAD proteins are signal transducers and transcriptional modulators that mediate multiple signaling pathways. This protein mediates the signal of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta, and thus regulates multiple cellular processes, such as cell proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation. This protein is recruited to the TGF-beta receptors through its interaction with the SMAD anchor for receptor activation (SARA) protein. In response to TGF-beta signal, this protein is phosphorylated by the TGF-beta receptors. The phosphorylation induces the dissociation of this protein with SARA and the association with the family member SMAD4. The association with SMAD4 is important for the translocation of this protein into the nucleus, where it binds to target promoters and forms a transcription repressor complex with other cofactors. This protein can also be phosphorylated by activin type 1 receptor kinase, and mediates the signal from the activin. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]
GeneCards Summary for SMAD2 Gene
SMAD2 (SMAD Family Member 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with SMAD2 include Melorheostosis and Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis. Among its related pathways are Factors and pathways affecting insulin-like growth factor (IGF1)-Akt signaling and Human T-cell leukemia virus 1 infection. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include DNA-binding transcription factor activity and transcription factor binding. An important paralog of this gene is SMAD3.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for SMAD2 Gene
Receptor-regulated SMAD (R-SMAD) that is an intracellular signal transducer and transcriptional modulator activated by TGF-beta (transforming growth factor) and activin type 1 receptor kinases. Binds the TRE element in the promoter region of many genes that are regulated by TGF-beta and, on formation of the SMAD2/SMAD4 complex, activates transcription. May act as a tumor suppressor in colorectal carcinoma. Positively regulates PDPK1 kinase activity by stimulating its dissociation from the 14-3-3 protein YWHAQ which acts as a negative regulator.