Aliases for SAT2 Gene

Aliases for SAT2 Gene

  • Spermidine/Spermine N1-Acetyltransferase Family Member 2 2 3 5
  • Spermidine/Spermine N(1)-Acetyltransferase 2 3 4
  • Thialysine N-Epsilon-Acetyltransferase 3 4
  • Polyamine N-Acetyltransferase 2 3 4
  • Diamine N-Acetyltransferase 2 2 3
  • Diamine Acetyltransferase 2 3 4
  • SSAT2 3 4
  • Spermidine/Spermine N1-Acetyltransferase 2 2
  • EC 4

External Ids for SAT2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for SAT2 Gene

  • GC17M007472
  • GC17M007730
  • GC17M007470
  • GC17M007529
  • GC17M007423

Summaries for SAT2 Gene

GeneCards Summary for SAT2 Gene

SAT2 (Spermidine/Spermine N1-Acetyltransferase Family Member 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Arginine and proline metabolism and Metabolism. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include transferase activity, transferring acyl groups other than amino-acyl groups and diamine N-acetyltransferase activity. An important paralog of this gene is SAT1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for SAT2 Gene

  • Enzyme which catalyzes the acetylation of polyamines. Substrate specificity: norspermidine > spermidine = spermine >> N(1)acetylspermine = putrescine.

Gene Wiki entry for SAT2 Gene

Additional gene information for SAT2 Gene

No data available for Entrez Gene Summary , CIViC Summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for SAT2 Gene

Genomics for SAT2 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for SAT2 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for SAT2 Gene
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around SAT2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for SAT2

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the SAT2 gene promoter:
  • COUP
  • COUP-TF1
  • HNF-4alpha1
  • HNF-4alpha2
  • PPAR-gamma1
  • PPAR-gamma2

Genomic Locations for SAT2 Gene

Genomic Locations for SAT2 Gene
1,643 bases
Minus strand
1,643 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for SAT2 Gene

Genes around SAT2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
SAT2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for SAT2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for SAT2 Gene

Proteins for SAT2 Gene

  • Protein details for SAT2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Diamine acetyltransferase 2
    Protein Accession:

    Protein attributes for SAT2 Gene

    170 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    19155 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer.
    • Under physiological conditions, SSAT2 is expressed at lower level that SSAT1 (SSAT). Many tissues express only SSAT1, several tissues express both SSAT1 and SSAT2, and bone, cervix, ovary and pineal gland expressed only SSAT2.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for SAT2 Gene

neXtProt entry for SAT2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for SAT2 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for SAT2 Gene

Domains & Families for SAT2 Gene

Gene Families for SAT2 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Enzymes
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Protein Domains for SAT2 Gene

  • GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for SAT2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • SAT2 protein (Q502X4_HUMAN)
  • Thialysine N-epsilon-acetyltransferase (SAT2_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the acetyltransferase family.
  • Belongs to the acetyltransferase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with SAT2: view

Function for SAT2 Gene

Molecular function for SAT2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Enzyme which catalyzes the acetylation of polyamines. Substrate specificity: norspermidine > spermidine = spermine >> N(1)acetylspermine = putrescine.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=acetyl-CoA + an alkane-alpha,omega-diamine = an N-acetylalkane-alpha,omega-diamine + CoA + H(+); Xref=Rhea:RHEA:11116, Rhea:RHEA-COMP:9766, Rhea:RHEA-COMP:9767, ChEBI:CHEBI:15378, ChEBI:CHEBI:57287, ChEBI:CHEBI:57288, ChEBI:CHEBI:70977, ChEBI:CHEBI:70988; EC=;.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
Not inducible by polyamine analogs.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for SAT2 Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for SAT2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for SAT2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004145 diamine N-acetyltransferase activity IDA 12803540
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 16189514
GO:0008080 N-acetyltransferase activity IBA,IEA 21873635
GO:0016740 transferase activity IEA --
GO:0016746 transferase activity, transferring acyl groups IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with SAT2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with SAT2: view

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for SAT2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target SAT2

Clone Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for SAT2 Gene

Localization for SAT2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for SAT2 Gene

Cytoplasm. Note=Intracellular organelles.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for SAT2 gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 3
nucleus 2
plasma membrane 1
extracellular 1
cytoskeleton 1
mitochondrion 1
lysosome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for SAT2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome HDA 19056867
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with SAT2: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for SAT2 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for SAT2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with SAT2: view

Pathways by source for SAT2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Q96F10-SAT2_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Amine and polyamine degradation; putrescine degradation; N-acetylputrescine from putrescine: step 1/1.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for SAT2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0009447 putrescine catabolic process IEA --
GO:0032918 spermidine acetylation IDA 12803540
GO:0032919 spermine acetylation IDA 12803540
GO:0032920 putrescine acetylation IDA 12803540
GO:0046204 nor-spermidine metabolic process IDA 12803540
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with SAT2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for SAT2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for SAT2 Gene

(4) Drugs for SAT2 Gene - From: DrugBank, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
spermine Experimental Nutra Full agonist, Agonist, Antagonist, Pore Blocker, Channel blocker, Enzyme, substrate 0
putrescine Experimental Pharma Antagonist, Pore Blocker 0
Coenzyme A Investigational Nutra 0

(4) Additional Compounds for SAT2 Gene - From: HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • AcCoA
  • Acetyl coenzyme A
  • S-Acetyl-CoA
  • S-Acetyl-coenzyme A
  • Ac-CoA
  • 1-N-Acetylspermidine
  • An N-acetylspermidine
  • N(1)-Acetylspermidine
  • N-(3-((4-Aminobutyl)amino)propyl)-acetamide
  • N-(3-((4-Aminobutyl)amino)propyl)acetamide
  • N'-acetylspermine
  • N'-monoacetylspermine
  • N(1)-Acetylspermine
  • N-(3-((4-((3-Aminopropyl)amino)butyl)amino)propyl)-acetamide
  • N-Acetylspermine
  • Acetylputrescine
  • Monoacetylputrescine
  • N-(4-Aminobutyl)acetamide
  • N-Acetylputrescine monohydrochloride
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with SAT2: view

Transcripts for SAT2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for SAT2 Gene

7 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
14 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

CRISPR Products

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for SAT2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d · 1e · 1f · 1g · 1h · 1i ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b · 4c ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6a · 6b · 6c · 6d · 6e · 6f · 6g
SP1: - -
SP2: - - -
SP3: - -
SP4: - - - -
SP5: - - - - -
SP6: - - -
SP7: -
SP8: - - -
SP11: -

Relevant External Links for SAT2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for

Expression for SAT2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for SAT2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for SAT2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver, secretome (12.7), Kidney (11.4), Liver (9.6), and Adrenal (7.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for SAT2 Gene

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for SAT2

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for SAT2 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for SAT2 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Widely expressed.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for SAT2 Gene

  • Liver(4.4)
  • Lung(4.4)
  • Nervous system(3)
  • Kidney(2.2)
  • Adrenal gland(2.1)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with SAT2: view

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , Protein tissue co-expression partners and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for SAT2 Gene

Orthologs for SAT2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for SAT2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia SAT2 31 30
  • 99.8 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia SAT2 31 30
  • 88.63 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia SAT2 31 30
  • 86.27 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Sat2 30
  • 84.42 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Sat2 17 31 30
  • 82.75 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia SAT2 31
  • 60 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia SAT2 31
  • 41 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia LOC100487185 30
  • 58.82 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii sat2b 31 30
  • 57.67 (n)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP002239 30
  • 51.72 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG4210 31 30
  • 47.59 (n)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea CELE_D2023.4 30
  • 46.41 (n)
D2023.4 31
  • 37 (a)
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU07589 30
  • 51.57 (n)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes ats1 30
  • 47.38 (n)
Species where no ortholog for SAT2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for SAT2 Gene

Gene Tree for SAT2 (if available)
Gene Tree for SAT2 (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for SAT2: view image

Paralogs for SAT2 Gene

Paralogs for SAT2 Gene

(4) SIMAP similar genes for SAT2 Gene using alignment to 4 proteins:

  • I3L0W4_HUMAN
  • I3L2W7_HUMAN
  • Q502X4_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with SAT2: view

Variants for SAT2 Gene

Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for SAT2 Gene

SNP ID Clinical significance and condition Chr 17 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs13894 - p.Arg126Cys

Additional dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for SAT2 Gene

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for SAT2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv2422288 CNV deletion 17116639
nsv457659 CNV loss 19166990
nsv574322 CNV loss 21841781

Variation tolerance for SAT2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 61.8% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 5.03; 68.56% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for SAT2 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for SAT2 Gene

Disorders for SAT2 Gene

Additional Disease Information for SAT2

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology

No disorders were found for SAT2 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for SAT2 Gene

Publications for SAT2 Gene

  1. Spermidine/spermine-N1-acetyltransferase-2 (SSAT2) acetylates thialysine and is not involved in polyamine metabolism. (PMID: 15283699) Coleman CS … Pegg AE (The Biochemical journal 2004) 2 3 23 26 54
  2. Genomic identification and biochemical characterization of a second spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase. (PMID: 12803540) Chen Y … Porter CW (The Biochemical journal 2003) 3 4 23 26 54
  3. Spermidine/spermine-N1-acetyltransferase 2 is an essential component of the ubiquitin ligase complex that regulates hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha. (PMID: 17558023) Baek JH … Semenza GL (The Journal of biological chemistry 2007) 2 3 23 54
  4. Genetic susceptibility to distinct bladder cancer subphenotypes. (PMID: 19692168) Guey LT … EPICURO/Spanish Bladder Cancer Study investigators (European urology 2010) 3 41 54
  5. Polymorphisms in innate immunity genes and lung cancer risk in Xuanwei, China. (PMID: 19170196) Shen M … Lan Q (Environmental and molecular mutagenesis 2009) 3 41 54

Products for SAT2 Gene

Sources for SAT2 Gene