This gene belongs to the class II amino-acyl tRNA family. The encoded enzyme catalyzes the transfer of L-serine to tRNA (Ser) and is related to bacterial and yeast counterparts. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described but the biological validity of all variants is unknown. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010] See more...

Aliases for SARS1 Gene

Aliases for SARS1 Gene

  • Seryl-TRNA Synthetase 1 2 3
  • Seryl-TRNA Synthetase 2 4 5
  • Serine TRNA Ligase 1, Cytoplasmic 2 3
  • Serine--TRNA Ligase, Cytoplasmic 3 4
  • Seryl-TRNA(Ser/Sec) Synthetase 3 4
  • EC 6.1.1.11 4 54
  • SARS 3 5
  • SERS 3 4
  • Seryl-TRNA Synthetase, Cytoplasmic 3
  • NEDMAS 3
  • SERRS 3
  • SerRS 4

External Ids for SARS1 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for SARS1 Gene

  • SARS

Summaries for SARS1 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for SARS1 Gene

  • This gene belongs to the class II amino-acyl tRNA family. The encoded enzyme catalyzes the transfer of L-serine to tRNA (Ser) and is related to bacterial and yeast counterparts. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described but the biological validity of all variants is unknown. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]

GeneCards Summary for SARS1 Gene

SARS1 (Seryl-TRNA Synthetase 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with SARS1 include Neurodevelopmental Disorder With Microcephaly, Ataxia, And Seizures and Arteriovenous Malformations Of The Brain. Among its related pathways are tRNA Aminoacylation and Viral mRNA Translation. An important paralog of this gene is SARS2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for SARS1 Gene

  • Catalyzes the attachment of serine to tRNA(Ser) in a two-step reaction: serine is first activated by ATP to form Ser-AMP and then transferred to the acceptor end of tRNA(Ser) (PubMed:22353712, PubMed:24095058, PubMed:9431993, PubMed:26433229, PubMed:28236339). Is probably also able to aminoacylate tRNA(Sec) with serine, to form the misacylated tRNA L-seryl-tRNA(Sec), which will be further converted into selenocysteinyl-tRNA(Sec) (PubMed:9431993, PubMed:26433229, PubMed:28236339). In the nucleus, binds to the VEGFA core promoter and prevents MYC binding and transcriptional activation by MYC (PubMed:24940000). Recruits SIRT2 to the VEGFA promoter, promoting deacetylation of histone H4 at 'Lys-16' (H4K16). Thereby, inhibits the production of VEGFA and sprouting angiogenesis mediated by VEGFA (PubMed:19423848, PubMed:19423847, PubMed:24940000).

Gene Wiki entry for SARS1 Gene

Additional gene information for SARS1 Gene

No data available for CIViC Summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for SARS1 Gene

Genomics for SARS1 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for SARS1 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for SARS1 Gene
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around SARS1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Locations for SARS1 Gene

Genomic Locations for SARS1 Gene
chr1:109,213,893-109,238,182
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
24,290 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand
chr1:109,756,515-109,780,804
(GRCh37/hg19)
Size:
24,290 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for SARS1 Gene

Genes around SARS1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
SARS1 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for SARS1 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for SARS1 Gene

Proteins for SARS1 Gene

  • Protein details for SARS1 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P49591-SYSC_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Serine--tRNA ligase, cytoplasmic
    Protein Accession:
    P49591
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2R6Y9
    • Q5T5C8
    • Q9NSE3

    Protein attributes for SARS1 Gene

    Size:
    514 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    58777 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer (PubMed:22353712, PubMed:26433229). The tRNA molecule may bind across the dimer (PubMed:26433229). Interacts with SIRT2 (PubMed:24940000).

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for SARS1 Gene

neXtProt entry for SARS1 Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for SARS1 Gene

P49591:
  • LREIGNLLHPSVPIS
  • AILENYQ
  • VPEKLKEFMPPGLQELIPFVK
  • DLEAWFP
  • KKYSHVDLVVMVDGF
  • HGRDTRG
  • FVHMLNATMCATTR
  • GIFRVHQF
  • DTRGIFR
  • YLIATSE
  • LKVSQIKKVRLL
  • DEAILKCDAERIKLEAERFE
  • SNCTDYQ
  • YTPFFMRKEVMQEVAQLSQFD

Post-translational modifications for SARS1 Gene

  • Glycosylation at Asn427
  • Ubiquitination at Lys376
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Glycosylation from GlyConnect

Other Protein References for SARS1 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Domains & Families for SARS1 Gene

Gene Families for SARS1 Gene

HGNC:
Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Enzymes
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for SARS1 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • SARS protein (Q0VGA5_HUMAN)
  • Seryl-tRNA(Ser/Sec) synthetase (SYSC_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P49591

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

SYSC_HUMAN :
  • Consists of two distinct domains, a catalytic core and a N-terminal extension that is involved in tRNA binding.
  • Belongs to the class-II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family. Type-1 seryl-tRNA synthetase subfamily.
Domain:
  • Consists of two distinct domains, a catalytic core and a N-terminal extension that is involved in tRNA binding.
Family:
  • Belongs to the class-II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family. Type-1 seryl-tRNA synthetase subfamily.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with SARS1: view

Function for SARS1 Gene

Molecular function for SARS1 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Catalyzes the attachment of serine to tRNA(Ser) in a two-step reaction: serine is first activated by ATP to form Ser-AMP and then transferred to the acceptor end of tRNA(Ser) (PubMed:22353712, PubMed:24095058, PubMed:9431993, PubMed:26433229, PubMed:28236339). Is probably also able to aminoacylate tRNA(Sec) with serine, to form the misacylated tRNA L-seryl-tRNA(Sec), which will be further converted into selenocysteinyl-tRNA(Sec) (PubMed:9431993, PubMed:26433229, PubMed:28236339). In the nucleus, binds to the VEGFA core promoter and prevents MYC binding and transcriptional activation by MYC (PubMed:24940000). Recruits SIRT2 to the VEGFA promoter, promoting deacetylation of histone H4 at 'Lys-16' (H4K16). Thereby, inhibits the production of VEGFA and sprouting angiogenesis mediated by VEGFA (PubMed:19423848, PubMed:19423847, PubMed:24940000).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=ATP + L-serine + tRNA(Ser) = AMP + diphosphate + H(+) + L-seryl-tRNA(Ser); Xref=Rhea:RHEA:12292, Rhea:RHEA-COMP:9669, Rhea:RHEA-COMP:9703, ChEBI:CHEBI:15378, ChEBI:CHEBI:30616, ChEBI:CHEBI:33019, ChEBI:CHEBI:33384, ChEBI:CHEBI:78442, ChEBI:CHEBI:78533, ChEBI:CHEBI:456215; EC=6.1.1.11; Evidence={ECO:0000269 PubMed:22353712, ECO:0000269 PubMed:24095058, ECO:0000269 PubMed:26433229, ECO:0000269 PubMed:28236339, ECO:0000269 PubMed:9431993};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=ATP + L-serine + tRNA(Sec) = AMP + diphosphate + H(+) + L-seryl-tRNA(Sec); Xref=Rhea:RHEA:42580, Rhea:RHEA-COMP:9742, Rhea:RHEA-COMP:10128, ChEBI:CHEBI:15378, ChEBI:CHEBI:30616, ChEBI:CHEBI:33019, ChEBI:CHEBI:33384, ChEBI:CHEBI:78442, ChEBI:CHEBI:78533, ChEBI:CHEBI:456215; EC=6.1.1.11; Evidence={ECO:0000269 PubMed:22353712, ECO:0000269 PubMed:24095058, ECO:0000269 PubMed:26433229, ECO:0000269 PubMed:28236339, ECO:0000269 PubMed:9431993};.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for SARS1 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for SARS1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000166 nucleotide binding IEA --
GO:0000978 RNA polymerase II proximal promoter sequence-specific DNA binding IDA 24940000
GO:0003677 DNA binding IEA --
GO:0003723 RNA binding TAS 9431993
GO:0004812 aminoacyl-tRNA ligase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with SARS1: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with SARS1: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for SARS1 Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for SARS1 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for SARS1:
  • Sars Sars<tm1.1(KOMP)Vlcg>

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for SARS1

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for SARS1

Clone Products

No data available for Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for SARS1 Gene

Localization for SARS1 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for SARS1 Gene

Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Note=Predominantly cytoplasmic, but a minor proportion is also found in the nucleus. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:22353712}.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for SARS1 gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
nucleus 4
mitochondrion 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for SARS1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus IEA --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA,IBA 28236339
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS,IDA --
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome HDA 20458337
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with SARS1: view

Pathways & Interactions for SARS1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with SARS1: view

Pathways by source for SARS1 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot P49591-SYSC_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis; selenocysteinyl-tRNA(Sec) biosynthesis; L-seryl-tRNA(Sec) from L-serine and tRNA(Sec): step 1/1.

SIGNOR curated interactions for SARS1 Gene

Inactivates:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for SARS1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000122 negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IDA 24940000
GO:0006412 translation TAS 9431993
GO:0006418 tRNA aminoacylation for protein translation TAS,IEA --
GO:0006434 seryl-tRNA aminoacylation IEA,IMP 28236339
GO:0008033 tRNA processing TAS 9431993
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with SARS1: view

Drugs & Compounds for SARS1 Gene

(6) Drugs for SARS1 Gene - From: DrugBank, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Serine Approved Nutra Full agonist, Agonist, Target Weak endogenous glycine receptor agonist 1317
Phosphoric acid Approved Pharma 0
Adenosine monophosphate Approved, Investigational Nutra 0
ATP Investigational Nutra Agonist, Activator, Full agonist, Antagonist, Pore Blocker, Potentiation 0

(5) Additional Compounds for SARS1 Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
pyrophosphate
  • [(ho)2P(O)OP(O)(OH)2]
  • Acide diphosphorique
  • Diphosphorsaeure
  • H4P2O7
  • PYROphosphATE
14000-31-8
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with SARS1: view

Transcripts for SARS1 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for SARS1 Gene

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for SARS1

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for SARS1 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for SARS1 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
SARS1
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
SARS1

Expression for SARS1 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of SARS1 Gene:

SARS1

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for SARS1 Gene:

Hs.531176

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for SARS1 Gene:

P49591-SYSC_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Brain.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for SARS1 Gene

  • Nervous system(5)
  • Liver(4.6)
  • Lung(4)
  • Skin(3.7)
  • Intestine(3.4)
  • Blood(3)
  • Eye(2.8)
  • Muscle(2.8)
  • Kidney(2.4)
  • Heart(2.1)
  • Thyroid gland(2.1)
  • Spleen(2)

No data available for mRNA expression in normal human tissues , mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein expression , Protein tissue co-expression partners and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for SARS1 Gene

Orthologs for SARS1 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for SARS1 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia SARS 33 32
  • 99.81 (n)
OneToOne
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia SARS 33
  • 94 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia SARS 33
  • 93 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia SARS 33 32
  • 92.14 (n)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia SARS 33 32
  • 91.57 (n)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Sars 17 33 32
  • 90.49 (n)
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Sars 32
  • 90.3 (n)
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves SARS 33 32
  • 78.4 (n)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia SARS 33
  • 87 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia sars 32
  • 73.32 (n)
Str.657 32
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia sars-prov 32
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii sars 33 32
  • 72.89 (n)
OneToOne
Dr.29078 32
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG17259 33 32
  • 66.67 (n)
OneToOne
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP008265 32
  • 66.6 (n)
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea sars-1 33 32
  • 61.52 (n)
OneToOne
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0A10593g 32
  • 55.66 (n)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_ABL088C 32
  • 55.15 (n)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes SES1 35 33 32
  • 53.17 (n)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons AT5G27470 32
  • 58.3 (n)
soybean
(Glycine max)
eudicotyledons Gma.9981 32
Alicante grape
(Vitis vinifera)
eudicotyledons Vvi.311 32
rice
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os01g0559100 32
  • 58.96 (n)
Os.5952 32
corn
(Zea mays)
Liliopsida Zm.15927 32
barley
(Hordeum vulgare)
Liliopsida Hv.6290 32
wheat
(Triticum aestivum)
Liliopsida Ta.20463 32
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 33
  • 78 (a)
OneToMany
-- 33
  • 70 (a)
OneToMany
Cin.3798 32
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes SPAC29A4.15 32
  • 55.2 (n)
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU01443 32
  • 55.11 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.3798 32
Species where no ortholog for SARS1 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)

Evolution for SARS1 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for SARS1 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for SARS1 (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for SARS1: view image

Paralogs for SARS1 Gene

Paralogs for SARS1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with SARS1: view

Variants for SARS1 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for SARS1 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 01 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1553178049 pathogenic, NEURODEVELOPMENTAL DISORDER WITH MICROCEPHALY, ATAXIA, AND SEIZURES, Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, ataxia, and seizures (NEDMAS) [MIM:617709] 109,230,944(+) G/A coding_sequence_variant, genic_downstream_transcript_variant, missense_variant
rs1553178399 pathogenic, Cerebral arteriovenous malformation 109,235,978(+) T/C coding_sequence_variant, genic_downstream_transcript_variant, missense_variant
rs1000021436 -- 109,235,717(+) C/T genic_downstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant
rs1000263706 -- 109,214,305(+) C/A intron_variant
rs1000367586 -- 109,214,974(+) A/G intron_variant, non_coding_transcript_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for SARS1 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv1008458 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1012267 CNV gain 25217958

Variation tolerance for SARS1 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 29.3% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.58; 30.44% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for SARS1 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
SARS1

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for SARS1 Gene

Disorders for SARS1 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(5) MalaCards diseases for SARS1 Gene - From: OMIM, ClinVar, Orphanet, DISEASES, and GeneCards

- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search SARS1 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

SYSC_HUMAN
  • Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, ataxia, and seizures (NEDMAS) [MIM:617709]: An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, intellectual disability, seizures apparent in infancy, impaired speech, and aggressive behavior. Additional features include microcephaly, ataxia, and muscle weakness. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:28236339}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with SARS1: view

No data available for Genatlas and External Links for SARS1 Gene

Publications for SARS1 Gene

  1. Genomic organization, cDNA sequence, bacterial expression, and purification of human seryl-tRNA synthase. (PMID: 9431993) Vincent C … Härtlein M (European journal of biochemistry 1997) 2 3 4 23 56
  2. Genetic evidence for a noncanonical function of seryl-tRNA synthetase in vascular development. (PMID: 19423847) Herzog W … Stainier DY (Circulation research 2009) 3 4 23 56
  3. Mutations of the aminoacyl-tRNA-synthetases SARS and WARS2 are implicated in the etiology of autosomal recessive intellectual disability. (PMID: 28236339) Musante L … Kuss AW (Human mutation 2017) 3 4 56
  4. SerRS-tRNASec complex structures reveal mechanism of the first step in selenocysteine biosynthesis. (PMID: 26433229) Wang C … Xie W (Nucleic acids research 2015) 3 4 56
  5. tRNA synthetase counteracts c-Myc to develop functional vasculature. (PMID: 24940000) Shi Y … Yang XL (eLife 2014) 3 4 56

Products for SARS1 Gene

Sources for SARS1 Gene