This gene encodes a member of the serum amyloid A family of apolipoproteins. The encoded preproprotein is proteolytically processed to generate the mature protein. This protein is a major acute phase protein that is highly expressed in response to inflammation and tissue injury. This protein also plays an important role in HDL metabolism and cholesterol homeostasis. High levels... See more...

Aliases for SAA1 Gene

Aliases for SAA1 Gene

  • Serum Amyloid A1 2 3 5
  • Serum Amyloid A-1 Protein 3 4
  • TP53I4 2 3
  • PIG4 2 3
  • SAA 3 4
  • Tumor Protein P53 Inducible Protein 4 3
  • Serum Amyloid A Protein 3
  • SAA2 3
  • SAA1 5

External Ids for SAA1 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for SAA1 Gene

  • SAA

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for SAA1 Gene

  • GC11P019408
  • GC11P019230
  • GC11P018326
  • GC11P018252
  • GC11P018244
  • GC11P018287
  • GC11P017970

Summaries for SAA1 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for SAA1 Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the serum amyloid A family of apolipoproteins. The encoded preproprotein is proteolytically processed to generate the mature protein. This protein is a major acute phase protein that is highly expressed in response to inflammation and tissue injury. This protein also plays an important role in HDL metabolism and cholesterol homeostasis. High levels of this protein are associated with chronic inflammatory diseases including atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's disease and Crohn's disease. This protein may also be a potential biomarker for certain tumors. Finally, antimicrobial activity against S. aureus and E. coli resides in the N-terminal portion of the mature protein. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants that encode the same protein. A pseudogene of this gene is found on chromosome 11. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2020]

GeneCards Summary for SAA1 Gene

SAA1 (Serum Amyloid A1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with SAA1 include Amyloidosis Aa and Amyloidosis. Among its related pathways are Activated TLR4 signalling and Signaling by GPCR. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include heparin binding and chemoattractant activity. An important paralog of this gene is SAA2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for SAA1 Gene

Gene Wiki entry for SAA1 Gene

No data available for CIViC Summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for SAA1 Gene

Genomics for SAA1 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements Pubs

Promoters and enhancers for SAA1 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH11J018266 Promoter/Enhancer 0.9 EPDnew Ensembl 257 -0.5 -459 1.6 YY1 RXRA JUND HNF4A SP1 ZNF366 HLF ZNF512 ETV6 SAA1 RF00001-053 RNA5SP334 MRGPRX13P GTF2H1 HPS5 lnc-SAA2-2 SAA2 SAA2-SAA4
GH11J018255 Enhancer 0.3 Ensembl 5.2 -11.1 -11059 0.4 NBN GTF2H1 SAA1 piR-57461-029 SAA2 SAA2-SAA4
GH11J018267 Enhancer 0.6 ENCODE 0.7 +2.1 2109 1.4 BHLHE40 BATF ZNF24 IKZF1 HDGF NR2F1 ZNF217 TARDBP ATF1 IKZF2 RF00001-053 RNA5SP334 GTF2H1 HPS5 SAA1 HSALNG0082990
GH11J018259 Enhancer 0.7 ENCODE 0.4 -6.8 -6801 0.1 CEBPA YY1 FOXA2 RXRA TEAD3 ZBTB33 JUND HNF4A RAD21 MIER2 MN298678-015 piR-57461-029 SAA4 SLC25A51P4 MRGPRX13P HIGD1AP5 SAAL1 ENSG00000255470 GLTPP1 HPS5
GH11J018248 Promoter/Enhancer 0.8 EPDnew Ensembl 0.4 -17.6 -17570 0.6 YY1 RXRA JUND HNF4A MAX SP1 HLF RF00001-052 SAA2 SAA2-SAA4 RNA5SP333 lnc-SAA2-SAA4-1 piR-57461-029 SAA1
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around SAA1 on the GeneHancer Hub at the UCSC Golden Path

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for SAA1

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the SAA1 gene promoter:
  • AP-1
  • AP-2alpha
  • AP-2alpha isoform 2
  • AP-2alpha isoform 3
  • AP-2alpha isoform 4

Genomic Locations for SAA1 Gene

Latest Assembly
3,718 bases
Plus strand

Previous Assembly
(GRCh37/hg19 by Entrez Gene)
3,704 bases
Plus strand

(GRCh37/hg19 by Ensembl)
3,804 bases
Plus strand

Alternative Locations (GRCh38/hg38)

  • chr11(PATCHES):15,090-18,793 (+)

Genomic View for SAA1 Gene

Genes around SAA1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
SAA1 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for SAA1 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for SAA1 Gene

Proteins for SAA1 Gene

  • Protein details for SAA1 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Serum amyloid A-1 protein
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • P02735
    • P02736
    • P02737
    • Q16730
    • Q16834
    • Q16835
    • Q16879
    • Q3KRB3
    • Q6FG67
    • Q96QN0
    • Q9UCK9
    • Q9UCL0

    Protein attributes for SAA1 Gene

    122 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    13532 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homohexamer; dimer of trimers. Can form amyloid fibrils after partial proteolysis; the native, undenatured protein does not form amyloid fibrils (in vitro). Apolipoprotein of the HDL complex. Binds to heparin.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for SAA1 Gene

neXtProt entry for SAA1 Gene

Post-translational modifications for SAA1 Gene

  • This protein is the precursor of amyloid protein A, which is formed by the removal of approximately 24 residues from the C-terminal end.
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for SAA1 Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for SAA1 Gene

Domains & Families for SAA1 Gene

Gene Families for SAA1 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Disease related genes
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Protein Domains for SAA1 Gene


Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for SAA1 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • Serum amyloid A protein (D3DQX7_HUMAN)
  • Serum amyloid A protein (E9PQD6_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the SAA family.
  • Belongs to the SAA family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with SAA1: view

Function for SAA1 Gene

Molecular function for SAA1 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Major acute phase protein.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
Upon cytokine stimulation.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
serum amyloid A,1,acute phase reactant,susceptibility gene for juvenile chronic arthritis and AA amyloidosis

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for SAA1 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for SAA1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001664 G protein-coupled receptor binding IDA 9892621
GO:0008201 heparin binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with SAA1: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with SAA1: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for SAA1 Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for SAA1 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for SAA1:

Animal Models for research

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for SAA1

Inhibitory RNAs for research

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for SAA1

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for SAA1 Gene

Localization for SAA1 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for SAA1 Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for SAA1 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
cytoskeleton 4
plasma membrane 2
mitochondrion 2
nucleus 2
endoplasmic reticulum 2
cytosol 2
lysosome 2
peroxisome 1
endosome 1
golgi apparatus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for SAA1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0005881 cytoplasmic microtubule IDA 22131810
GO:0034364 high-density lipoprotein particle IEA --
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome HDA 19199708
GO:0071682 endocytic vesicle lumen TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with SAA1: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for SAA1 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for SAA1 Gene

PathCards logo

SuperPathways for SAA1 Gene

SuperPathway Contained pathways
1 Activated TLR4 signalling
2 Cytosolic sensors of pathogen-associated DNA
3 Peptide ligand-binding receptors
4 Signaling by GPCR
5 Folate Metabolism
genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with SAA1: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for SAA1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000187 activation of MAPK activity IDA 22532826
GO:0001819 positive regulation of cytokine production IDA 12857601
GO:0006898 receptor-mediated endocytosis TAS --
GO:0006953 acute-phase response NAS 9815279
GO:0007186 G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with SAA1: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for SAA1 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for SAA1 Gene

(12) Drugs for SAA1 Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials

(5) Additional Compounds for SAA1 Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with SAA1: view

Transcripts for SAA1 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for SAA1 Gene

16 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
4 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

Inhibitory RNAs for research

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for SAA1

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for SAA1 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for SAA1 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for

Expression for SAA1 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for SAA1 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for SAA1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (x46.5).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for SAA1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Lavage (63.6).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for SAA1 Gene

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for SAA1

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for SAA1 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for SAA1 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Expressed by the liver; secreted in plasma (at protein level).

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for SAA1 Gene

  • Liver(5)
  • Thyroid gland(4.3)
  • Spleen(3.4)
  • Intestine(3.3)
  • Heart(3.3)
  • Muscle(3.2)
  • Kidney(3)
  • Lung(2.8)
  • Blood(2.8)
  • Adrenal gland(2.6)
  • Skin(2.5)
  • Pancreas(2.4)
  • Nervous system(2.2)
  • Gall bladder(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with SAA1: view

No data available for Protein tissue co-expression partners and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for SAA1 Gene

Orthologs for SAA1 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for SAA1 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia SAA1 29 30
  • 99.18 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia SAA2 29
  • 83.75 (n)
-- 30
  • 76 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia LOC100684663 29
  • 82.24 (n)
SAA1 30
  • 75 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Saa1 29 16 30
  • 76.5 (n)
Saa3 30
  • 70 (a)
Saa2 16
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 30
  • 67 (a)
-- 30
  • 64 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 30
  • 64 (a)
-- 30
  • 62 (a)
-- 30
  • 45 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves -- 30
  • 65 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii saa 29 30
  • 61.71 (n)
Species where no ortholog for SAA1 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Eremothecium gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • Alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • Amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • Beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • Common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • Corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • Filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute Bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • Fission Yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • Fruit Fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • Green Algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. Lactis Yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • Lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • Loblloly Pine (Pinus taeda)
  • Malaria Parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • Medicago Trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • Moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • Pig (Sus scrofa)
  • Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • Rat (Rattus norvegicus)
  • Rice (Oryza sativa)
  • Rice Blast Fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • Schistosome Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • Sea Anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • Sea Vase (Ciona intestinalis)
  • Sea Squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • Soybean (Glycine max)
  • Stem Rust Fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • Thale Cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • Tropical Clawed Frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • Wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • Worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for SAA1 Gene

Gene Tree for SAA1 (if available)
Gene Tree for SAA1 (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for SAA1: view image
Alliance of Genome Resources:
Additional Orthologs for SAA1

Paralogs for SAA1 Gene

Paralogs for SAA1 Gene

(3) SIMAP similar genes for SAA1 Gene using alignment to 3 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with SAA1: view

Variants for SAA1 Gene

Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for SAA1 Gene

At least 5 different SAA1 alleles have been described: SAA1.1 (SAA1alpha), SAA1.2 (SAA1beta), SAA1.3 (SAA1gamma), SAA1.4 (SAA1delta), SAA1.5 (also named SAA1beta but which differs from SAA1.2). We use here the revised nomenclature described in PubMed:10211414. The sequence shown is that of SAA1.1.

Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for SAA1 Gene

SNP ID Clinical significance and condition Chr 11 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1059559 Likely Benign: not provided 18,269,742(+) T/Cp.Phe86Leu
NM_199161.5(SAA1):c.256T>C (p.Phe86Leu)
rs1059560 Likely Benign: not provided 18,269,746(+) T/C
NM_199161.5(SAA1):c.260T>C (p.Phe87Ser)
rs11024597 Benign: not provided 18,269,190(+) T/G
rs1136743 Likely Benign: Serum amyloid a variant; not provided 18,269,312(+) C/T
NM_199161.5(SAA1):c.209C>T (p.Ala70Val)
rs1136745 Likely Benign: not provided 18,269,319(+) T/C
NM_199161.5(SAA1):c.216T>C (p.Ala72=)

dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for variants without ClinVar clinical significance for SAA1 Gene

All consequence types are included: molecular consequences (e.g. missense, synonymous), and location-based (e.g. intron, upstream).

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for SAA1 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv54e215 CNV deletion 23714750
esv1009214 CNV deletion 20482838
esv1646005 CNV deletion 17803354
esv3146978 CNV deletion 24192839
nsv1119864 CNV deletion 24896259

Variation tolerance for SAA1 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 91.7% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 3.63; 56.62% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for SAA1 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
Leiden Open Variation Database (LOVD)

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assays for research

Disorders for SAA1 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(24) MalaCards diseases for SAA1 Gene - From: ORP, COP, and GCD

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
amyloidosis aa
  • aa amyloidosis
  • amyloid disease
familial mediterranean fever
  • fmf
splenic artery aneurysm
  • aneurysm of splenic artery
amyloidosis, familial visceral
  • amyloidosis viii
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search SAA1 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Note=Reactive, secondary amyloidosis is characterized by the extracellular accumulation in various tissues of the SAA1 protein. These deposits are highly insoluble and resistant to proteolysis; they disrupt tissue structure and compromise function. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:1463770}.
  • Note=Elevated serum SAA1 protein levels may be associated with lung cancer. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:1463770}.

Additional Disease Information for SAA1

Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
Open Targets Platform
Open Targets Platform
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with SAA1: view

No data available for Genatlas for SAA1 Gene

Publications for SAA1 Gene

  1. Genetic risk factors of amyloidogenesis in familial Mediterranean fever. (PMID: 16118480) Delibaş A … Yilmaz E (American journal of nephrology 2005) 3 22 40 72
  2. Association of genetic variation in serum amyloid-A with cardiovascular disease and interactions with IL6, IL1RN, IL1beta and TNF genes in the Cardiovascular Health Study. (PMID: 19729864) Carty CL … Reiner AP (Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis 2009) 3 22 40
  3. Analysis of SAA1 gene polymorphisms in the Greek population: rheumatoid arthritis and FMF patients relative to normal controls. Homogeneous distribution and low incidence of AA amyloidosis. (PMID: 17968686) Mavragani CP … Skopouli FN (Amyloid : the international journal of experimental and clinical investigation : the official journal of the International Society of Amyloidosis 2007) 3 22 40
  4. SAA1 gene polymorphisms and the risk of AA amyloidosis in Japanese patients with rheumatoid arthritis. (PMID: 17039310) Ajiro J … Gejyo F (Modern rheumatology 2006) 3 22 40
  5. Significance of SAA1.3 allele genotype in Japanese patients with amyloidosis secondary to rheumatoid arthritis. (PMID: 16219644) Nakamura T … Shono M (Rheumatology (Oxford, England) 2006) 3 40 72

Products for SAA1 Gene

Sources for SAA1 Gene