The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the S100 family of proteins containing 2 EF-hand calcium-binding motifs. S100 proteins are localized in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus of a wide range of cells, and involved in the regulation of a number of cellular processes such as cell cycle progression and differentiation. S100 genes include at least 13 members which are located... See more...

Aliases for S100A12 Gene

Aliases for S100A12 Gene

  • S100 Calcium Binding Protein A12 2 3 5
  • Extracellular Newly Identified RAGE-Binding Protein 2 3 4
  • Migration Inhibitory Factor-Related Protein 6 2 3 4
  • Calcium-Binding Protein In Amniotic Fluid 1 2 3 4
  • Neutrophil S100 Protein 2 3 4
  • CAAF1 2 3 4
  • CAGC 2 3 4
  • CGRP 2 3 4
  • P6 2 3 4
  • Protein S100-A12 3 4
  • Calgranulin C 2 3
  • EN-RAGE 3 4
  • ENRAGE 2 3
  • MRP-6 3 4
  • MRP6 2 3
  • S100 Calcium-Binding Protein A12 (Calgranulin C) 2
  • S100 Calcium-Binding Protein A12 4
  • Calgranulin-C 4
  • Calcitermin 3
  • S100A12 5

External Ids for S100A12 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for S100A12 Gene

  • GC01M151162
  • GC01M149128
  • GC01M150121
  • GC01M150562
  • GC01M150159
  • GC01M151612
  • GC01M153346
  • GC01M124709

Summaries for S100A12 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for S100A12 Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the S100 family of proteins containing 2 EF-hand calcium-binding motifs. S100 proteins are localized in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus of a wide range of cells, and involved in the regulation of a number of cellular processes such as cell cycle progression and differentiation. S100 genes include at least 13 members which are located as a cluster on chromosome 1q21. This protein is proposed to be involved in specific calcium-dependent signal transduction pathways and its regulatory effect on cytoskeletal components may modulate various neutrophil activities. The protein includes an antimicrobial peptide which has antibacterial activity. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]

GeneCards Summary for S100A12 Gene

S100A12 (S100 Calcium Binding Protein A12) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with S100A12 include Kawasaki Disease and Mooren's Ulcer. Among its related pathways are Activated TLR4 signalling and Blood-Brain Barrier and Immune Cell Transmigration: Pathways Overview. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include calcium ion binding and RAGE receptor binding. An important paralog of this gene is S100A9.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for S100A12 Gene

  • S100A12 is a calcium-, zinc- and copper-binding protein which plays a prominent role in the regulation of inflammatory processes and immune response. Its proinflammatory activity involves recruitment of leukocytes, promotion of cytokine and chemokine production, and regulation of leukocyte adhesion and migration. Acts as an alarmin or a danger associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecule and stimulates innate immune cells via binding to receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (AGER). Binding to AGER activates the MAP-kinase and NF-kappa-B signaling pathways leading to production of proinflammatory cytokines and up-regulation of cell adhesion molecules ICAM1 and VCAM1. Acts as a monocyte and mast cell chemoattractant. Can stimulate mast cell degranulation and activation which generates chemokines, histamine and cytokines inducing further leukocyte recruitment to the sites of inflammation. Can inhibit the activity of matrix metalloproteinases; MMP2, MMP3 and MMP9 by chelating Zn(2+) from their active sites. Possesses filariacidal and filariastatic activity. Calcitermin possesses antifungal activity against C.albicans and is also active against E.coli and P.aeruginosa but not L.monocytogenes and S.aureus.

Gene Wiki entry for S100A12 Gene

No data available for CIViC Summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for S100A12 Gene

Genomics for S100A12 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements Pubs

Promoters and enhancers for S100A12 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
Score
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH01J153373 Promoter/Enhancer 1 EPDnew ENCODE dbSUPER 257.6 -0.2 -168 1.9 CEBPB EP300 GABPA STAT3 POLR2A DPF2 NFIB FOS S100A12 PGLYRP4 RNU6-160P PGLYRP3 lnc-S100A12-1 S100A7A
GH01J153363 Enhancer 1.1 FANTOM5 ENCODE dbSUPER 16.8 +9.7 9685 4.3 JUND ZNF217 CEBPB MAX MBD2 ELF1 CTBP1 CUX1 STAT3 EBF1 S100A8 S100A12 S100A15A RNU6-160P S100A9 MN308987
GH01J153384 Enhancer 0.7 FANTOM5 ENCODE 25.2 -10.7 -10660 2 SPI1 POLR2A REST MAX HSALNG0007294 S100A12 S100A9 S100A8 PGLYRP4 RNU6-160P S100A4 MN308807 S100A7A
GH01J153388 Promoter/Enhancer 1.5 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 10.7 -14.7 -14698 3 CTCF CEBPB MAX EP300 CTBP1 SPI1 PKNOX1 POLR2A REST NFIB S100A8 HSALNG0007295 MN308807 lnc-S100A12-2 S100A12 S100A9 S100A7L2 S100A7A
GH01J153772 Promoter/Enhancer 2.3 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas dbSUPER 5.4 -399.6 -399572 5.6 ZNF600 ZNF10 NFIC POLR2A ZIC2 ZBTB10 YY1 FEZF1 ZNF639 ZNF341 SLC27A3 HSALNG0007344 piR-39600 ATP8B2 UBAP2L INTS3 CHTOP S100A12 NUP210L HSALNG0007343
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around S100A12 on the GeneHancer Hub at the UCSC Golden Path

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for S100A12

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the S100A12 gene promoter:
  • AML1a
  • AP-1
  • E47
  • GATA-1
  • LCR-F1
  • Lmo2
  • MyoD
  • RFX1
  • Tal-1
  • TGIF

Genomic Locations for S100A12 Gene

Latest Assembly
chr1:153,373,711-153,375,621
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
1,911 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Previous Assembly
chr1:153,346,187-153,348,097
(GRCh37/hg19 by Entrez Gene)
Size:
1,911 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

chr1:153,346,184-153,348,125
(GRCh37/hg19 by Ensembl)
Size:
1,942 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for S100A12 Gene

Genes around S100A12 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
S100A12 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for S100A12 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for S100A12 Gene

Proteins for S100A12 Gene

  • Protein details for S100A12 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P80511-S10AC_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Protein S100-A12
    Protein Accession:
    P80511
    Secondary Accessions:
    • P83219
    • Q5SY66
    • Q7M4R1

    Protein attributes for S100A12 Gene

    Size:
    92 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    10575 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer. Homooligomer (tetramer or hexamer) in the presence of calcium, zinc and copper ions. Interacts with AGER and both calcium and zinc are essential for the interaction. Interacts with CACYBP in a calcium-dependent manner.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for S100A12 Gene

neXtProt entry for S100A12 Gene

Post-translational modifications for S100A12 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for S100A12 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for S100A12 Gene

Domains & Families for S100A12 Gene

Gene Families for S100A12 Gene

HGNC:
Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted intracellular proteins
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Protein Domains for S100A12 Gene

InterPro:
Blocks:
  • Calcium-binding protein, S-100/ICaBP type

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for S100A12 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • p6 (S10AC_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P80511

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

S10AC_HUMAN :
  • The hinge domain contributes significantly to its chemotactic properties.
  • Belongs to the S-100 family.
Domain:
  • The hinge domain contributes significantly to its chemotactic properties.
Family:
  • Belongs to the S-100 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with S100A12: view

Function for S100A12 Gene

Molecular function for S100A12 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
S100A12 is a calcium-, zinc- and copper-binding protein which plays a prominent role in the regulation of inflammatory processes and immune response. Its proinflammatory activity involves recruitment of leukocytes, promotion of cytokine and chemokine production, and regulation of leukocyte adhesion and migration. Acts as an alarmin or a danger associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecule and stimulates innate immune cells via binding to receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (AGER). Binding to AGER activates the MAP-kinase and NF-kappa-B signaling pathways leading to production of proinflammatory cytokines and up-regulation of cell adhesion molecules ICAM1 and VCAM1. Acts as a monocyte and mast cell chemoattractant. Can stimulate mast cell degranulation and activation which generates chemokines, histamine and cytokines inducing further leukocyte recruitment to the sites of inflammation. Can inhibit the activity of matrix metalloproteinases; MMP2, MMP3 and MMP9 by chelating Zn(2+) from their active sites. Possesses filariacidal and filariastatic activity. Calcitermin possesses antifungal activity against C.albicans and is also active against E.coli and P.aeruginosa but not L.monocytogenes and S.aureus.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
S100 calcium binding protein A12,6.5kDa,expressed exclusively by granulocytes,independently from S100A8 and S100A9,identical to corneal associated antigen (COAG)

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for S100A12 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for S100A12 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005507 copper ion binding TAS 18443896
GO:0005509 calcium ion binding IBA,TAS 18443896
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 19386136
GO:0008270 zinc ion binding TAS 11522286
GO:0046872 metal ion binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with S100A12: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with S100A12: view

miRNA for S100A12 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target S100A12

Inhibitory RNAs for research

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for S100A12

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for S100A12 Gene

Localization for S100A12 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for S100A12 Gene

Secreted. Cytoplasm. Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton. Cell membrane. Peripheral membrane protein. Note=Predominantly localized in the cytoplasm. Upon elevation of the intracellular calcium level, translocated from the cytoplasm to the cytoskeleton and the cell membrane. Upon neutrophil activation is secreted via a microtubule-mediated, alternative pathway.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for S100A12 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
extracellular 5
cytoskeleton 5
nucleus 5
cytosol 5
mitochondrion 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1
endosome 1
lysosome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for S100A12 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS 18443896
GO:0005615 extracellular space IBA 21873635
GO:0005634 nucleus IDA 15033494
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IBA,IDA 15033494
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS 18443896
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with S100A12: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for S100A12 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for S100A12 Gene

PathCards logo

SuperPathways for S100A12 Gene

SuperPathway Contained pathways
1 Activated TLR4 signalling
2 Cytosolic sensors of pathogen-associated DNA
3 Innate Immune System
4 Blood-Brain Barrier and Immune Cell Transmigration: Pathways Overview
5 Advanced glycosylation endproduct receptor signaling
genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with S100A12: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for S100A12 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001816 cytokine production TAS 18443896
GO:0002376 immune system process IEA --
GO:0002548 monocyte chemotaxis TAS 18443896
GO:0006805 xenobiotic metabolic process IDA 11522286
GO:0006954 inflammatory response TAS,IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with S100A12: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for S100A12 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for S100A12 Gene

(6) Drugs for S100A12 Gene - From: DrugBank and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Amlexanox Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn Pharma Target, antagonist Inhibitor of TBK1 and IKKepsilon; antiallergic agent 3
Olopatadine Approved Pharma Target, antagonist 0

(4) Additional Compounds for S100A12 Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with S100A12: view

Transcripts for S100A12 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for S100A12 Gene

1 REFSEQ mRNAs :
4 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
1 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

Inhibitory RNAs for research

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for S100A12

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for S100A12 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for S100A12 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
S100A12

Expression for S100A12 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for S100A12 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for S100A12 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Whole Blood (x48.4).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for S100A12 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Saliva (12.3), Nasal epithelium (11.6), Neutrophil (9.2), Lavage (6.5), and Monocytes (6.3).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for S100A12 Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for S100A12 Gene

- Elite partner

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for S100A12

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for S100A12 Gene:

Hs.19413

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for S100A12 Gene:

P80511-S10AC_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Predominantly expressed by neutrophils, monocytes and activated macrophages. Expressed by eosinophils and macrophages in asthmatic airways in regions where mast cells accumulate. Found in high concentrations in the serum of patients suffering from various inflammatory disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and Kawasaki disease.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for S100A12 Gene

  • Blood(4.7)
  • Lung(4.6)
  • Liver(4.5)
  • Spleen(3.5)
  • Bone marrow(3.5)
  • Heart(3.1)
  • Intestine(2.8)
  • Lymph node(2.6)
  • Nervous system(2.4)
  • Skin(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with S100A12: view

Primer products for research

No data available for Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for S100A12 Gene

Orthologs for S100A12 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for S100A12 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
Chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia S100A12 29 30
  • 98.91 (n)
OneToOne
Cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia S100A12 29 30
  • 76.81 (n)
OneToOne
Dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia S100A12 29 30
  • 76.45 (n)
OneToOne
Oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia S100A12 30
  • 35 (a)
OneToOne
Mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gm5849 30
  • 26 (a)
ManyToMany
Platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 30
  • 19 (a)
OneToMany
Chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves -- 30
  • 33 (a)
OneToMany
Lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 30
  • 44 (a)
ManyToMany
-- 30
  • 39 (a)
ManyToMany
Species where no ortholog for S100A12 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Eremothecium gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • Alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • Amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • Beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • Common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • Corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • Filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute Bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • Fission Yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • Fruit Fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • Green Algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. Lactis Yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • Loblloly Pine (Pinus taeda)
  • Malaria Parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • Medicago Trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • Moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • Pig (Sus scrofa)
  • Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • Rat (Rattus norvegicus)
  • Rice (Oryza sativa)
  • Rice Blast Fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • Schistosome Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • Sea Anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • Sea Vase (Ciona intestinalis)
  • Sea Squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • Soybean (Glycine max)
  • Stem Rust Fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • Thale Cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • Tropical Clawed Frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • Wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • Worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)
  • Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Evolution for S100A12 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for S100A12 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for S100A12 (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for S100A12: view image
Alliance of Genome Resources:
Additional Orthologs for S100A12

Paralogs for S100A12 Gene

(24) SIMAP similar genes for S100A12 Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

  • S10AC_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with S100A12: view

Variants for S100A12 Gene

Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for S100A12 Gene

SNP ID Clinical significance and condition Chr 01 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs146698875 Benign: not provided 153,374,575(-) C/T
NM_005621.2(S100A12):c.18G>A (p.Glu6=)
SYNONYMOUS

dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for variants without ClinVar clinical significance for S100A12 Gene

All consequence types are included: molecular consequences (e.g. missense, synonymous), and location-based (e.g. intron, upstream).

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for S100A12 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv1002705 CNV gain 25217958

Variation tolerance for S100A12 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 55.5% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.25; 5.62% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for S100A12 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
S100A12
Leiden Open Variation Database (LOVD)
S100A12

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assays for research

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for S100A12 Gene

Disorders for S100A12 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(21) MalaCards diseases for S100A12 Gene - From: COP and GCD

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
kawasaki disease
  • kd
mooren's ulcer
  • mooren ulcer
funisitis
psoriatic arthritis
  • psoriatic arthritis, susceptibility to
chorioamnionitis
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards

Additional Disease Information for S100A12

Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
(HuGE)
Atlas
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
Open Targets Platform
Open Targets Platform
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with S100A12: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for S100A12 Gene

Publications for S100A12 Gene

  1. Characterization of the human S100A12 (calgranulin C, p6, CAAF1, CGRP) gene, a new member of the S100 gene cluster on chromosome 1q21. (PMID: 8985590) Wicki R … Heizmann CW (Cell calcium 1996) 2 3 4 22
  2. Both Ca2+ and Zn2+ are essential for S100A12 protein oligomerization and function. (PMID: 19386136) Moroz OV … Bronstein IB (BMC biochemistry 2009) 3 4 22
  3. CacyBP/SIP, a calcyclin and Siah-1-interacting protein, binds EF-hand proteins of the S100 family. (PMID: 12042313) Filipek A … Kuznicki J (The Journal of biological chemistry 2002) 3 4 22
  4. The three-dimensional structure of human S100A12. (PMID: 11134923) Moroz OV … Bronstein IB (Acta crystallographica. Section D, Biological crystallography 2001) 3 4 22
  5. Calcitermin, a novel antimicrobial peptide isolated from human airway secretions. (PMID: 11522286) Cole AM … Ganz T (FEBS letters 2001) 3 4 22

Products for S100A12 Gene

Sources for S100A12 Gene