Aliases for RXRA Gene
External Ids for RXRA Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for RXRA Gene
Retinoid X receptors (RXRs) and retinoic acid receptors (RARs) are nuclear receptors that mediate the biological effects of retinoids by their involvement in retinoic acid-mediated gene activation. These receptors function as transcription factors by binding as homodimers or heterodimers to specific sequences in the promoters of target genes. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the steroid and thyroid hormone receptor superfamily of transcriptional regulators. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]
GeneCards Summary for RXRA Gene
RXRA (Retinoid X Receptor Alpha) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with RXRA include Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma and Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma. Among its related pathways are Signaling by Retinoic Acid and Farnesoid X Receptor Pathway. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include DNA-binding transcription factor activity and protein heterodimerization activity. An important paralog of this gene is RXRG.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for RXRA Gene
Receptor for retinoic acid that acts as a transcription factor (PubMed:11162439, PubMed:11915042). Forms homo- or heterodimers with retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and binds to target response elements in response to their ligands, all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acid, to regulate gene expression in various biological processes (PubMed:10195690, PubMed:11162439, PubMed:11915042, PubMed:28167758, PubMed:17761950, PubMed:16107141, PubMed:18800767, PubMed:19167885). The RAR/RXR heterodimers bind to the retinoic acid response elements (RARE) composed of tandem 5'-AGGTCA-3' sites known as DR1-DR5 to regulate transcription (PubMed:10195690, PubMed:11162439, PubMed:11915042, PubMed:17761950, PubMed:28167758). The high affinity ligand for retinoid X receptors (RXRs) is 9-cis retinoic acid (PubMed:1310260). In the absence of ligand, the RXR-RAR heterodimers associate with a multiprotein complex containing transcription corepressors that induce histone deacetylation, chromatin condensation and transcriptional suppression (PubMed:20215566). On ligand binding, the corepressors dissociate from the receptors and coactivators are recruited leading to transcriptional activation (PubMed:20215566, PubMed:9267036). Serves as a common heterodimeric partner for a number of nuclear receptors, such as RARA, RARB and PPARA (PubMed:10195690, PubMed:11915042, PubMed:28167758, PubMed:29021580). The RXRA/RARB heterodimer can act as a transcriptional repressor or transcriptional activator, depending on the RARE DNA element context (PubMed:29021580). The RXRA/PPARA heterodimer is required for PPARA transcriptional activity on fatty acid oxidation genes such as ACOX1 and the P450 system genes (PubMed:10195690). Together with RARA, positively regulates microRNA-10a expression, thereby inhibiting the GATA6/VCAM1 signaling response to pulsatile shear stress in vascular endothelial cells (PubMed:28167758). Acts as an enhancer of RARA binding to RARE DNA element (PubMed:28167758). May facilitate the nuclear import of heterodimerization partners such as VDR and NR4A1 (PubMed:12145331, PubMed:15509776). Promotes myelin debris phagocytosis and remyelination by macrophages (PubMed:26463675). Plays a role in the attenuation of the innate immune system in response to viral infections, possibly by negatively regulating the transcription of antiviral genes such as type I IFN genes (PubMed:25417649). Involved in the regulation of calcium signaling by repressing ITPR2 gene expression, thereby controlling cellular senescence (PubMed:30216632).
Retinoid X receptors (RXR) are members of the NR2B nuclear receptor family and are common binding partners to many other nuclear receptors, including PPARs, liver X receptors (LXRs) and vitamin D receptors (VDRs). There are three RXR subtypes; alpha, beta and gamma.