Aliases for RTN4 Gene
External Ids for RTN4 Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for RTN4 Gene
This gene belongs to the family of reticulon encoding genes. Reticulons are associated with the endoplasmic reticulum, and are involved in neuroendocrine secretion or in membrane trafficking in neuroendocrine cells. The product of this gene is a potent neurite outgrowth inhibitor which may also help block the regeneration of the central nervous system in higher vertebrates. Alternatively spliced transcript variants derived both from differential splicing and differential promoter usage and encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
GeneCards Summary for RTN4 Gene
RTN4 (Reticulon 4) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with RTN4 include Temporal Lobe Epilepsy and Demyelinating Disease. Among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and Spinal Cord Injury. An important paralog of this gene is RTN1.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for RTN4 Gene
Required to induce the formation and stabilization of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) tubules (PubMed:27619977, PubMed:25612671, PubMed:24262037). They regulate membrane morphogenesis in the ER by promoting tubular ER production (PubMed:27619977, PubMed:25612671, PubMed:24262037, PubMed:27786289). They influence nuclear envelope expansion, nuclear pore complex formation and proper localization of inner nuclear membrane proteins (PubMed:26906412). However each isoform have specific functions mainly depending on their tissue expression specificities (Probable).
[Isoform A]: Developmental neurite growth regulatory factor with a role as a negative regulator of axon-axon adhesion and growth, and as a facilitator of neurite branching. Regulates neurite fasciculation, branching and extension in the developing nervous system. Involved in down-regulation of growth, stabilization of wiring and restriction of plasticity in the adult CNS (PubMed:10667797, PubMed:11201742). Regulates the radial migration of cortical neurons via an RTN4R-LINGO1 containing receptor complex (By similarity). Acts as a negative regulator of central nervous system angiogenesis. Inhibits spreading, migration and sprouting of primary brain microvascular endothelial cells (MVECs). Also induces the retraction of MVECs lamellipodia and filopodia in a ROCK pathway-dependent manner (By similarity).
[Isoform B]: Mainly function in endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells, is also involved in immune system regulation (Probable). Modulator of vascular remodeling, promotes the migration of endothelial cells but inhibits the migration of vascular smooth muscle cells. Regulates endothelial sphingolipid biosynthesis with direct effects on vascular function and blood pressure. Inhibits serine palmitoyltransferase, SPTLC1, the rate-limiting enzyme of the novo sphingolipid biosynthetic pathway, thereby controlling production of endothelial sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). Required to promote macrophage homing and functions such as cytokine/chemokine gene expression involved in angiogenesis, arteriogenesis and tissue repair. Mediates ICAM1 induced transendothelial migration of leukocytes such as monocytes and neutrophils and acute inflammation. Necessary for immune responses triggered by nucleic acid sensing TLRs, such as TLR9, is required for proper TLR9 location to endolysosomes. Also involved in immune response to LPS. Plays a role in liver regeneration through the modulation of hepatocytes proliferation (By similarity). Reduces the anti-apoptotic activity of Bcl-xl and Bcl-2. This is likely consecutive to their change in subcellular location, from the mitochondria to the endoplasmic reticulum, after binding and sequestration (PubMed:11126360). With isoform C, inhibits BACE1 activity and amyloid precursor protein processing (PubMed:16965550).
[Isoform C]: Regulates cardiomyocyte apoptosis upon hypoxic conditions (By similarity). With isoform B, inhibits BACE1 activity and amyloid precursor protein processing (PubMed:16965550).