Free for academic non-profit institutions. Other users need a Commercial license

Aliases for RRM2 Gene

Aliases for RRM2 Gene

  • Ribonucleotide Reductase Regulatory Subunit M2 2 3 5
  • Ribonucleotide Reductase M2 Polypeptide 2 3
  • Ribonucleotide Reductase Small Subunit 3 4
  • Ribonucleotide Reductase Small Chain 3 4
  • RR2 3 4
  • Ribonucleoside-Diphosphate Reductase Subunit M2 3
  • EC 4
  • RR2M 3
  • R2 3

External Ids for RRM2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for RRM2 Gene

  • GC02P010047
  • GC02P010314
  • GC02P010267
  • GC02P010284
  • GC02P010213
  • GC02P010262

Summaries for RRM2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for RRM2 Gene

  • This gene encodes one of two non-identical subunits for ribonucleotide reductase. This reductase catalyzes the formation of deoxyribonucleotides from ribonucleotides. Synthesis of the encoded protein (M2) is regulated in a cell-cycle dependent fashion. Transcription from this gene can initiate from alternative promoters, which results in two isoforms that differ in the lengths of their N-termini. Related pseudogenes have been identified on chromosomes 1 and X. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

CIViC summary for RRM2 Gene

GeneCards Summary for RRM2 Gene

RRM2 (Ribonucleotide Reductase Regulatory Subunit M2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with RRM2 include Pancreas Adenocarcinoma. Among its related pathways are Cell Cycle, Mitotic and Pyrimidine metabolism (KEGG). Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include oxidoreductase activity and ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase activity, thioredoxin disulfide as acceptor. An important paralog of this gene is ENSG00000284681.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for RRM2 Gene

  • Provides the precursors necessary for DNA synthesis. Catalyzes the biosynthesis of deoxyribonucleotides from the corresponding ribonucleotides. Inhibits Wnt signaling.

Gene Wiki entry for RRM2 Gene

Additional gene information for RRM2 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for RRM2 Gene

Genomics for RRM2 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for RRM2 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for RRM2 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH02J010119 Promoter/Enhancer 2.6 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 663.8 +1.7 1736 6.1 ZFP64 DMAP1 YY1 E2F8 ZNF143 SP3 NFYC MEF2D ZNF610 GLIS1 RRM2 ENSG00000284681 LOC101929882 TAF1B ENSG00000233502 CYS1 ENSG00000239300 SNORA80B HPCAL1 LOC101929691
GH02J011103 Enhancer 0.7 ENCODE 5.1 +983.5 983496 2 CTCF ZFP64 IRF4 GATA3 ETV6 FOS RUNX3 CREM SRF HCFC1 RRM2 GC02P011102 FLJ33534
GH02J010143 Enhancer 0.4 ENCODE 5.2 +23.8 23833 1.3 NFIC NFIB ZNF600 RRM2 C2orf48 ENSG00000206647 GC02M010155 ENSG00000284681
GH02J010134 Enhancer 0.3 FANTOM5 3.7 +13.7 13742 0.3 POLR2A ENSG00000206647 RRM2 C2orf48 TAF1B ENSG00000284681
GH02J010118 Enhancer 0.8 FANTOM5 ENCODE 0.7 -2.4 -2378 0.2 ELF3 MEIS2 PKNOX1 POLR2A GABPB1 RUNX3 ENSG00000233502 CYS1 C2orf48 HPCAL1 RRM2 GC02M010090 ENSG00000212558
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around RRM2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the RRM2 gene promoter:
  • AP-1
  • Sp1
  • AP-2alpha
  • AP-2alpha isoform 2
  • AP-2alpha isoform 3
  • AP-2alpha isoform 4
  • AP-2alphaA
  • deltaCREB
  • CREB

Genomic Locations for RRM2 Gene

Genomic Locations for RRM2 Gene
10,722 bases
Plus strand
9,092 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for RRM2 Gene

Genes around RRM2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
RRM2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for RRM2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for RRM2 Gene

Proteins for RRM2 Gene

  • Protein details for RRM2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase subunit M2
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2R9B5
    • J3KP43
    • Q5WRU7

    Protein attributes for RRM2 Gene

    389 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    44878 Da
    Name=Fe cation; Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:24875;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Heterodimer of a large and a small subunit.
    • Two distinct regulatory sites have been defined: the specificity site, which controls substrate specificity, and the activity site which regulates overall catalytic activity. A substrate-binding catalytic site, located on M1, is formed only in the presence of the second subunit M2.
    • Sequence=DA477511; Type=Frameshift; Positions=87; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for RRM2 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for RRM2 Gene


neXtProt entry for RRM2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for RRM2 Gene

  • Phosphorylation on Ser-20 relieves the inhibitory effect on Wnt signaling.
  • Ubiquitination at posLast=311311, posLast=217217, posLast=6161, and posLast=2323
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for RRM2 Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for RRM2 Gene

Domains & Families for RRM2 Gene

Gene Families for RRM2 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Enzymes
  • FDA approved drug targets
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted intracellular proteins
  • Predicted membrane proteins

Protein Domains for RRM2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for RRM2 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase small chain family.
  • Belongs to the ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase small chain family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with RRM2: view

Function for RRM2 Gene

Molecular function for RRM2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Provides the precursors necessary for DNA synthesis. Catalyzes the biosynthesis of deoxyribonucleotides from the corresponding ribonucleotides. Inhibits Wnt signaling.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
2-deoxyribonucleoside diphosphate + thioredoxin disulfide + H(2)O = ribonucleoside diphosphate + thioredoxin.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
ribonucleotide diphosphate reductase M2 polypeptide,pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for RRM2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for RRM2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004748 ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase activity, thioredoxin disulfide as acceptor IBA,NAS 1627826
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 17726094
GO:0016491 oxidoreductase activity IEA --
GO:0046872 metal ion binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with RRM2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with RRM2: view

Animal Models for RRM2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for RRM2:
  • Rrm2 Rrm2<tm1b(KOMP)Wtsi>

Animal Model Products

miRNA for RRM2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target RRM2

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for RRM2

No data available for Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for RRM2 Gene

Localization for RRM2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for RRM2 Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for RRM2 gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
nucleus 3
peroxisome 2
mitochondrion 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for RRM2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0005971 ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase complex IBA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with RRM2: view

Pathways & Interactions for RRM2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with RRM2: view

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot P31350-RIR2_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Genetic information processing; DNA replication.

SIGNOR curated interactions for RRM2 Gene

Is inactivated by:
Other effect:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for RRM2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000083 regulation of transcription involved in G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle TAS --
GO:0006260 DNA replication IEA --
GO:0009263 deoxyribonucleotide biosynthetic process IBA,ISS --
GO:0015949 nucleobase-containing small molecule interconversion TAS --
GO:0055114 oxidation-reduction process IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with RRM2: view

Drugs & Compounds for RRM2 Gene

(27) Drugs for RRM2 Gene - From: DrugBank, PharmGKB, DGIdb, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Cladribine Approved, Investigational Pharma Target, inhibitor Apoptosis inducer in CLL cells 81
Gemcitabine Approved Pharma inhibitor, Biomarker Ribonucleotide reductase and DNA synthesis inhibitor, Nucleoside Analogs 2100
Hydroxyurea Approved Pharma inhibitor 230
Clofarabine Approved, Investigational Pharma inhibitor, binder Antimetabolite,inhibit DNA polymerase and ribonucleotide reductase 161
Gallium nitrate Approved, Investigational Pharma Target, inhibitor 6

(9) Additional Compounds for RRM2 Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • 5'-Adenylphosphoric acid
  • Adenosine 5'-diphosphate
  • ADENOSINE-5'-diphosphATE
  • H3ADP
  • 5'-Adenylphosphate
Full agonist, Agonist, Partial agonist, Antagonist, Gating inhibitor 58-64-0
  • 2'-Deoxyadenosine-5'-diphosphate
  • Deoxyadenosine diphosphate
  • 2'-Deoxycytidine 5'-diphosphate
  • 2'-Deoxycytidine diphosphate
  • D-1beta-Ribofuranosylcytosine diphosphate
  • Deoxycytidine diphosphate
  • 2'-Deoxycytidine 5'-diphosphoric acid
  • 2'-Deoxyguanosine 5'-diphosphate
  • Deoxyguanosine diphosphate
  • 2'-Deoxyguanosine 5'-diphosphoric acid
  • Deoxyguanosine diphosphoric acid
  • 2'-Deoxy-GDP
  • FE (II) ion
  • Fe(II)
  • Fe(2+)
  • Ferrous ion
  • Iron ion(2+)
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with RRM2: view

Transcripts for RRM2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for RRM2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for RRM2 Gene

Ribonucleotide reductase M2:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for RRM2

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for RRM2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b · 3c ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10
SP1: - - -
SP2: - -
SP3: - -
SP4: -
SP5: - -

Relevant External Links for RRM2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for RRM2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for RRM2 Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for RRM2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Esophagus - Mucosa (x4.6).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for RRM2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Ovary (53.3) and Breast (13.4).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for RRM2 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for RRM2 Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of RRM2 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for RRM2 Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for RRM2 Gene

  • Skin(4.8)
  • Nervous system(4.6)
  • Muscle(4.5)
  • Intestine(3.7)
  • Kidney(3.7)
  • Liver(3.5)
  • Blood(3.4)
  • Stomach(3.2)
  • Lung(2.5)
  • Heart(2.2)
  • Lymph node(2.1)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with RRM2: view

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for RRM2 Gene

Orthologs for RRM2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for RRM2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia RRM2 33
  • 96.44 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia RRM2 34 33
  • 91.52 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia RRM2 34 33
  • 91.43 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 91 (a)
-- 34
  • 91 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia RRM2 34
  • 89 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Rrm2 16 34 33
  • 88.17 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia LOC100359539 33
  • 86.89 (n)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves RRM2 34 33
  • 79.67 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia RRM2 34
  • 84 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia rrm2.2 33
  • 77.75 (n)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia rrm2-prov 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii rrm2 34 34 33
  • 84 (a)
LOC100330864 33
  • 74.78 (n)
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.12256 33
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP006818 33
  • 70.62 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta RnrS 34 35 33
  • 70.52 (n)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea rnr-2 34 35 33
  • 64.9 (n)
F58F9.1 34
  • 13 (a)
F19G12.2 34 35
  • 10 (a)
Y57G11C.21 34
  • 9 (a)
F54H12.2 34
  • 6 (a)
K09F6.5 34
  • 5 (a)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_AAL136C 33
  • 67.18 (n)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes RNR2 36 34 33
  • 64.39 (n)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0F15103g 33
  • 64.18 (n)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons TSO2 33
  • 62.04 (n)
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os06g0127900 33
  • 62.48 (n)
Os.9043 33
(Hordeum vulgare)
Liliopsida Hv.2712 33
(Zea mays)
Liliopsida Zm.5996 33
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.2425 34
  • 70 (a)
Cin.4812 33
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU07887 33
  • 65.96 (n)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes suc22 33
  • 64.69 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.4812 33
Species where no ortholog for RRM2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for RRM2 Gene

Gene Tree for RRM2 (if available)
Gene Tree for RRM2 (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for RRM2: view image

Paralogs for RRM2 Gene

Paralogs for RRM2 Gene

(2) SIMAP similar genes for RRM2 Gene using alignment to 2 proteins:

  • C9JXC1_HUMAN Pseudogenes for RRM2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with RRM2: view

Variants for RRM2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for RRM2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 02 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000349879 -- 10,120,711(+) C/T upstream_transcript_variant
rs1000548204 -- 10,131,664(+) G/A downstream_transcript_variant
rs1000931076 -- 10,124,201(+) G/A intron_variant
rs1001662393 -- 10,121,078(+) A/C upstream_transcript_variant
rs1001724121 -- 10,128,836(+) T/A intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for RRM2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv3715n100 CNV gain 25217958

Variation tolerance for RRM2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 27.2% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.69; 14.64% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for RRM2 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for RRM2 Gene

Disorders for RRM2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(1) MalaCards diseases for RRM2 Gene - From: DISEASES and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
pancreas adenocarcinoma
  • pancreatic adenocarcinoma
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search RRM2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for RRM2

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with RRM2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for RRM2 Gene

Publications for RRM2 Gene

  1. Characterization of the human ribonucleotide reductase M2 subunit gene; genomic structure and promoter analyses. (PMID: 11978970) Zhou B … Yen Y (Cytogenetics and cell genetics 2001) 3 4 22 58
  2. Expression of nucleoside transporters, deoxycitidine kinase, ribonucleotide reductase regulatory subunits, and gemcitabine catabolic enzymes in primary ovarian cancer. (PMID: 19639316) Ferrandina G … Del Tacca M (Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology 2010) 3 22 58
  3. Essential role of Tip60-dependent recruitment of ribonucleotide reductase at DNA damage sites in DNA repair during G1 phase. (PMID: 20159953) Niida H … Nakanishi M (Genes & development 2010) 3 22 58
  4. Examination of genetic polymorphisms in newborns for signatures of sex-specific prenatal selection. (PMID: 20587610) Ucisik-Akkaya E … Dorak MT (Molecular human reproduction 2010) 3 44 58
  5. Hepatitis B virus activates deoxynucleotide synthesis in nondividing hepatocytes by targeting the R2 gene. (PMID: 20155784) Cohen D … Shaul Y (Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.) 2010) 3 22 58

Products for RRM2 Gene

Sources for RRM2 Gene

Loading form....