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Aliases for RRM1 Gene

Aliases for RRM1 Gene

  • Ribonucleotide Reductase Catalytic Subunit M1 2 3 5
  • Ribonucleoside-Diphosphate Reductase Subunit M1 3 4
  • Ribonucleotide Reductase M1 Polypeptide 2 3
  • RR1 3 4
  • Ribonucleoside-Diphosphate Reductase Large Subunit 3
  • Ribonucleotide Reductase Large Subunit 4
  • Ribonucleotide Reductase, R1 Subunit 3
  • EC 4
  • RIR1 3
  • R1 3

External Ids for RRM1 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for RRM1 Gene

  • GC11P004668
  • GC11P004381
  • GC11P004075
  • GC11P004080
  • GC11P004072
  • GC11P003849

Summaries for RRM1 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for RRM1 Gene

  • This gene encodes the large and catalytic subunit of ribonucleotide reductase, an enzyme essential for the conversion of ribonucleotides into deoxyribonucleotides. A pool of available deoxyribonucleotides is important for DNA replication during S phase of the cell cycle as well as multiple DNA repair processes. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2015]

CIViC summary for RRM1 Gene

GeneCards Summary for RRM1 Gene

RRM1 (Ribonucleotide Reductase Catalytic Subunit M1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with RRM1 include Lung Papillary Adenocarcinoma and Granuloma Inguinale. Among its related pathways are Pyrimidine metabolism (KEGG) and Metabolism. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include purine nucleotide binding and ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase activity, thioredoxin disulfide as acceptor.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for RRM1 Gene

  • Provides the precursors necessary for DNA synthesis. Catalyzes the biosynthesis of deoxyribonucleotides from the corresponding ribonucleotides.

Gene Wiki entry for RRM1 Gene

Additional gene information for RRM1 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for RRM1 Gene

Genomics for RRM1 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for RRM1 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for RRM1 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH11J004093 Promoter/Enhancer 2.1 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 677.6 +0.4 375 3.5 HDGF FOXA2 PKNOX1 MLX ARNT ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 RRM1 NUP98 LOC100506082 RRM1-AS1 STIM1
GH11J003830 Promoter/Enhancer 2.6 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 15.6 -258.3 -258253 12.5 HDGF PKNOX1 SMAD1 ARNT ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 YY1 SLC30A9 POLR2B RHOG NUP98 RRM1 ENSG00000206976 ART1 ART5 CHRNA10 STIM1 PPIAP40 ENSG00000236710
GH11J003377 Promoter/Enhancer 2.3 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 13.6 -714.7 -714734 4.6 HDGF PKNOX1 CLOCK FOXA2 ARNT ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 TSSC2 ZNF195 NUP98 RRM1 TSSC4
GH11J003942 Enhancer 1.5 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 18.4 -147.6 -147568 10.5 PKNOX1 FOXA2 IRF4 YY1 RUNX3 RXRA REST NFIL3 SMARCA4 GLIS1 STIM1 RRM1 ENSG00000206976 ENSG00000229368 LOC105376527 RHOG GC11P003932 ENSG00000255232
GH11J004186 Promoter/Enhancer 1.4 Ensembl ENCODE 19.5 +93.1 93115 1.4 ARNT SIN3A ZNF48 YY1 GLIS2 ZNF207 ZNF143 ZFP91 KLF7 ATF7 LOC100506082 RRM1 GC11M004210
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around RRM1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the RRM1 gene promoter:
  • p53
  • E2F-1
  • HOXA5
  • E2F
  • E2F-2
  • E2F-3a
  • E2F-4
  • E2F-5
  • Lmo2

Genomic Locations for RRM1 Gene

Genomic Locations for RRM1 Gene
44,321 bases
Plus strand
44,183 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for RRM1 Gene

Genes around RRM1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
RRM1 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for RRM1 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for RRM1 Gene

Proteins for RRM1 Gene

  • Protein details for RRM1 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase large subunit
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q9UNN2

    Protein attributes for RRM1 Gene

    792 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    90070 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Heterodimer of a large and a small subunit. Heterodimer with small subunit RRM2 or RRM2B. The heterodimer with RRM2 has higher catalytic activity than the heterodimer with RRM2B. Interacts with AHCYL1 which inhibits its activity.
    • Two distinct regulatory sites have been defined: the specificity site, which controls substrate specificity, and the activity site which regulates overall catalytic activity. A substrate-binding catalytic site, located on M1, is formed only in the presence of the second subunit M2.
    • The level of the enzyme activity is closely correlated with the growth rate of a cell and appears to vary with the cell cycle.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for RRM1 Gene

neXtProt entry for RRM1 Gene

Post-translational modifications for RRM1 Gene

  • Ubiquitination at isoforms=754, isoforms=733, isoforms=729, posLast=719719, isoforms=693, isoforms=689, isoforms=681, posLast=656656, isoforms=643, posLast=479479, posLast=471471, isoforms=465, isoforms=414, isoforms=376, posLast=243243, posLast=180180, posLast=158158, posLast=149149, isoforms=128, posLast=111111, posLast=9292, posLast=7070, and posLast=2424
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for RRM1 Gene

Domains & Families for RRM1 Gene

Gene Families for RRM1 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Enzymes
  • FDA approved drug targets
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for RRM1 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase large chain family.
  • Belongs to the ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase large chain family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with RRM1: view

Function for RRM1 Gene

Molecular function for RRM1 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Provides the precursors necessary for DNA synthesis. Catalyzes the biosynthesis of deoxyribonucleotides from the corresponding ribonucleotides.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
2-deoxyribonucleoside diphosphate + thioredoxin disulfide + H(2)O = ribonucleoside diphosphate + thioredoxin.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Under complex allosteric control mediated by deoxynucleoside triphosphates and ATP binding to separate specificity and activation sites on the M1 subunit. The type of nucleotide bound at the specificity site determines substrate preference. It seems probable that ATP makes the enzyme reduce CDP and UDP, dGTP favors ADP reduction and dTTP favors GDP reduction. Stimulated by ATP and inhibited by dATP binding to the activity site, the dATP inhibition is mediated by AHCYL1 which stabilizes dATP in the site.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
ribonucleotide diphosphate reductase M1 polypeptide,pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway,putative metastasis suppressor (see TSG11D)

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for RRM1 Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for RRM1 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for RRM1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003824 catalytic activity IEA --
GO:0004748 ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase activity, thioredoxin disulfide as acceptor IEA,ISS --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 17726094
GO:0005524 ATP binding IEA --
GO:0016491 oxidoreductase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with RRM1: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with RRM1: view

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for RRM1

Clone Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for RRM1 Gene

Localization for RRM1 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for RRM1 Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for RRM1 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
cytosol 5
nucleus 4
plasma membrane 2
cytoskeleton 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for RRM1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005635 nuclear envelope IEA --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS,IDA --
GO:0005971 ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase complex IEA --
GO:0016020 membrane IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with RRM1: view

Pathways & Interactions for RRM1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with RRM1: view

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot P23921-RIR1_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Genetic information processing; DNA replication.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for RRM1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000278 mitotic cell cycle IEA --
GO:0006206 pyrimidine nucleobase metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006260 DNA replication IEA --
GO:0008152 metabolic process IEA --
GO:0008584 male gonad development IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with RRM1: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for RRM1 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for RRM1 Gene

(52) Drugs for RRM1 Gene - From: DrugBank, PharmGKB, ClinicalTrials, ApexBio, DGIdb, FDA Approved Drugs, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Gemcitabine Approved Pharma inhibitor, Biomarker, Target Ribonucleotide reductase and DNA synthesis inhibitor, Nucleoside Analogs 2100
Clofarabine Approved, Investigational Pharma inhibitor, binder, Target Antimetabolite,inhibit DNA polymerase and ribonucleotide reductase 161
Hydroxyurea Approved Pharma inhibitor, Target 230
Cladribine Approved, Investigational Pharma Target, inhibitor Apoptosis inducer in CLL cells 81
Fludarabine Approved Pharma inhibitor, Target DNA synthsis inhibitor 1231,1231

(11) Additional Compounds for RRM1 Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • 5'-Adenylphosphoric acid
  • Adenosine 5'-diphosphate
  • ADENOSINE-5'-diphosphATE
  • H3ADP
  • 5'-Adenylphosphate
Full agonist, Agonist, Partial agonist, Antagonist, Gating inhibitor 58-64-0
  • 2'-Deoxyadenosine-5'-diphosphate
  • Deoxyadenosine diphosphate
  • 2'-Deoxycytidine 5'-diphosphate
  • 2'-Deoxycytidine diphosphate
  • D-1beta-Ribofuranosylcytosine diphosphate
  • Deoxycytidine diphosphate
  • 2'-Deoxycytidine 5'-diphosphoric acid
  • 2'-Deoxyguanosine 5'-diphosphate
  • Deoxyguanosine diphosphate
  • 2'-Deoxyguanosine 5'-diphosphoric acid
  • Deoxyguanosine diphosphoric acid
  • 2'-Deoxy-GDP
  • FE (II) ion
  • Fe(II)
  • Fe(2+)
  • Ferrous ion
  • Iron ion(2+)
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with RRM1: view

Transcripts for RRM1 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for RRM1 Gene

Unigene Clusters for RRM1 Gene

Ribonucleotide reductase M1:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for RRM1

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for RRM1 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11a · 11b ^ 12a · 12b ^ 13 ^ 14 ^ 15 ^ 16 ^ 17 ^ 18 ^ 19 ^ 20
SP1: - - - -
SP2: - - -
SP3: -
SP4: -

Relevant External Links for RRM1 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for RRM1 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for RRM1 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for RRM1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Lymph node (16.9), Fetal Brain (8.2), and Uterus (7.9).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for RRM1 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for RRM1 Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of RRM1 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for RRM1 Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for RRM1 Gene

  • Nervous system(4.9)
  • Bone marrow(4.3)
  • Kidney(3.8)
  • Lung(3.6)
  • Blood(3.2)
  • Intestine(3)
  • Skin(2.8)
  • Heart(2.6)
  • Eye(2.1)
  • Muscle(2.1)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with RRM1: view

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for RRM1 Gene

Orthologs for RRM1 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for RRM1 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia RRM1 34 33
  • 99.71 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia RRM1 34
  • 96 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia RRM1 34
  • 94 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia RRM1 34 33
  • 92.79 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia RRM1 34 33
  • 92.68 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Rrm1 33
  • 90.53 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Rrm1 16 34 33
  • 90.11 (n)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves RRM1 34 33
  • 82.24 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia RRM1 34
  • 89 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia rrm1 33
  • 78.2 (n)
Str.591 33
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.1365 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii rrm1 34 33 33
  • 76.47 (n)
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.10214 33
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta RnrL 34 35 33
  • 66.58 (n)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP010198 33
  • 65.82 (n)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea rnr-1 34 35 33
  • 67.82 (n)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0C07887g 33
  • 65.38 (n)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes RNR1 36 33
  • 64.1 (n)
RNR3 34
  • 59 (a)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_ADL057W 33
  • 63.31 (n)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons RNR1 33
  • 64.23 (n)
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os06g0168600 33
  • 64.23 (n)
Os.4222 33
(Hordeum vulgare)
Liliopsida Hv.9033 33
(Zea mays)
Liliopsida Zm.5173 33
(Triticum aestivum)
Liliopsida Ta.6274 33
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.7111 34
  • 71 (a)
Cin.2172 33
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU03539 33
  • 66.4 (n)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes cdc22 33
  • 65.07 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.2172 33
Species where no ortholog for RRM1 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)

Evolution for RRM1 Gene

Gene Tree for RRM1 (if available)
Gene Tree for RRM1 (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for RRM1: view image

Paralogs for RRM1 Gene

(5) SIMAP similar genes for RRM1 Gene using alignment to 8 proteins:

  • E9PD78_HUMAN
  • E9PJ62_HUMAN
  • E9PL69_HUMAN
  • E9PP77_HUMAN
  • F5H861_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with RRM1: view

No data available for Paralogs for RRM1 Gene

Variants for RRM1 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for RRM1 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 11 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000039596 -- 4,120,662(+) C/T intron_variant
rs1000065003 -- 4,097,113(+) C/T genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant
rs1000149197 -- 4,102,435(+) A/T genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant
rs1000244192 -- 4,102,274(+) T/C genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant
rs1000260922 -- 4,108,530(+) G/A genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for RRM1 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv1431944 CNV insertion 17803354
esv2759797 CNV gain+loss 17122850
esv3578116 CNV gain 25503493
nsv1053189 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1053482 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1070004 CNV deletion 25765185
nsv428248 CNV gain+loss 18775914
nsv832053 CNV gain 17160897
nsv8777 CNV gain+loss 18304495

Variation tolerance for RRM1 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 13.4% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.38; 27.19% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for RRM1 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for RRM1 Gene

Disorders for RRM1 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(8) MalaCards diseases for RRM1 Gene - From: HGMD, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
lung papillary adenocarcinoma
  • papillary adenocarcinoma of the lung
granuloma inguinale
  • donovanosis
adenosquamous pancreas carcinoma
  • adenosquamous carcinoma of pancreas
brachial plexus neuritis
  • brachial neuritis
autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia
  • adpeo
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search RRM1 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for RRM1

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with RRM1: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for RRM1 Gene

Publications for RRM1 Gene

  1. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of gemcitabine metabolic genes and pancreatic cancer survival and drug toxicity. (PMID: 20028759) Okazaki T … Li D (Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research 2010) 3 22 44 58
  2. RRM1 single nucleotide polymorphism -37C-->A correlates with progression-free survival in NSCLC patients after gemcitabine-based chemotherapy. (PMID: 20226083) Dong S … Wu YL (Journal of hematology & oncology 2010) 3 22 44 58
  3. Polymorphisms of the ribonucleotide reductase M1 gene and sensitivity to platin-based chemotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer. (PMID: 19304340) Feng JF … Chen BA (Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 2009) 3 22 44 58
  4. Efficacy of gemcitabine in patients with non-small cell lung cancer according to promoter polymorphisms of the ribonucleotide reductase M1 gene. (PMID: 18483375) Kim SO … Kim YC (Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research 2008) 3 22 44 58
  5. Involvement of ribonucleotide reductase M1 subunit overexpression in gemcitabine resistance of human pancreatic cancer. (PMID: 17131328) Nakahira S … Monden M (International journal of cancer 2007) 3 22 25 58

Products for RRM1 Gene

Sources for RRM1 Gene

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