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Aliases for RRAS2 Gene

Aliases for RRAS2 Gene

  • RAS Related 2 2 3 5
  • Related RAS Viral (R-Ras) Oncogene Homolog 2 2 3
  • Teratocarcinoma Oncogene 3 4
  • Ras-Like Protein TC21 3 4
  • TC21 3 4
  • Ras-Related Protein R-Ras2 3

External Ids for RRAS2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for RRAS2 Gene

  • GC11M015479
  • GC11M015047
  • GC11M014339
  • GC11M014264
  • GC11M014256
  • GC11M013981

Summaries for RRAS2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for RRAS2 Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the R-Ras subfamily of Ras-like small GTPases. The encoded protein associates with the plasma membrane and may function as a signal transducer. This protein may play an important role in activating signal transduction pathways that control cell proliferation. Mutations in this gene are associated with the growth of certain tumors. Pseudogenes of this gene are found on chromosomes 1 and 2. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2010]

GeneCards Summary for RRAS2 Gene

RRAS2 (RAS Related 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with RRAS2 include Ovarian Cancer and Teratocarcinoma. Among its related pathways are NFAT and Cardiac Hypertrophy and PAK Pathway. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include GTP binding and GTPase activity. An important paralog of this gene is RRAS.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for RRAS2 Gene

  • It is a plasma membrane-associated GTP-binding protein with GTPase activity. Might transduce growth inhibitory signals across the cell membrane, exerting its effect through an effector shared with the Ras proteins but in an antagonistic fashion.

Gene Wiki entry for RRAS2 Gene

Additional gene information for RRAS2 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for RRAS2 Gene

Genomics for RRAS2 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for RRAS2 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for RRAS2 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH11I014357 Promoter/Enhancer 2.2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 560.4 +6.0 5997 2.6 PKNOX1 ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF48 YY1 GLIS2 ZNF207 ZNF143 RRAS2 SPON1-AS1
GH11I014334 Promoter/Enhancer 1.8 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 555 +25.3 25259 9.1 ATF1 PKNOX1 FOXA2 SIN3A ETS1 ZNF280A TCF12 CBX5 ZNF143 ATF7 RRAS2 SPON1-AS1
GH11I014518 Promoter/Enhancer 2.1 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 6 -155.4 -155430 3 PKNOX1 FOXA2 ARNT ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 YY1 SLC30A9 POLR2B PSMA1 ENSG00000256206 COPB1 CYP2R1 SPON1 RRAS2
GH11I014322 Enhancer 1.1 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 9.6 +39.4 39408 6.2 HDGF BATF ZNF335 ZFHX2 ZNF316 ATF7 PRDM10 MAFK IKZF2 RUNX3 SPON1-AS1 RRAS2
GH11I014421 Enhancer 1.4 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 6.9 -58.7 -58659 3.8 HDGF SIN3A TCF12 ZNF766 FOS DEK REST MAFF ZNF184 SMARCA4 SPON1-AS1 SPON1 COPB1 RRAS2 LOC105376670
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

GeneHancers around RRAS2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the RRAS2 gene promoter:

Genomic Locations for RRAS2 Gene

Genomic Locations for RRAS2 Gene
86,587 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for RRAS2 Gene

Genes around RRAS2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
RRAS2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for RRAS2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for RRAS2 Gene

Proteins for RRAS2 Gene

  • Protein details for RRAS2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Ras-related protein R-Ras2
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2R9Z3
    • B7Z5Z2
    • B7Z6C4
    • B7Z7H6
    • P17082

    Protein attributes for RRAS2 Gene

    204 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    23400 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available
    • Sequence=AAA36545.1; Type=Frameshift; Positions=4, 8, 12; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=AAM12638.1; Type=Frameshift; Positions=4, 8, 12; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for RRAS2 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for RRAS2 Gene


neXtProt entry for RRAS2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for RRAS2 Gene

  • May be post-translationally modified by both palmitoylation and polyisoprenylation.
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Antibody Products

  • Abcam antibodies for RRAS2
  • Santa Cruz Biotechnology (SCBT) Antibodies for RRAS2

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for RRAS2 Gene

Domains & Families for RRAS2 Gene

Gene Families for RRAS2 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Disease related genes
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the small GTPase superfamily. Ras family.
  • Belongs to the small GTPase superfamily. Ras family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with RRAS2: view

Function for RRAS2 Gene

Molecular function for RRAS2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
It is a plasma membrane-associated GTP-binding protein with GTPase activity. Might transduce growth inhibitory signals across the cell membrane, exerting its effect through an effector shared with the Ras proteins but in an antagonistic fashion.

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for RRAS2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for RRAS2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003924 GTPase activity TAS,IEA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 12620389
GO:0005525 GTP binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with RRAS2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with RRAS2: view

Animal Models for RRAS2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for RRAS2:

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for RRAS2

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for RRAS2

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for RRAS2 Gene

Localization for RRAS2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for RRAS2 Gene

Cell membrane; Lipid-anchor; Cytoplasmic side. Note=Inner surface of plasma membrane possibly with attachment requiring acylation of the C-terminal cysteine (By similarity with RAS).

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for RRAS2 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
extracellular 5
endoplasmic reticulum 4
cytosol 4
nucleus 3
mitochondrion 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Cytosol (2)
  • Nucleus (2)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for RRAS2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005622 intracellular IEA --
GO:0005783 endoplasmic reticulum NAS 10777492
GO:0005886 plasma membrane NAS,IEA --
GO:0005925 focal adhesion IDA,HDA 21423176
GO:0016020 membrane IEA,HDA 16210410
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with RRAS2: view

Pathways & Interactions for RRAS2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with RRAS2: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for RRAS2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001649 osteoblast differentiation HDA,IDA 16210410
GO:0007165 signal transduction IEA --
GO:0007265 Ras protein signal transduction IEA --
GO:0009987 cellular process IEA --
GO:0030335 positive regulation of cell migration IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with RRAS2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for RRAS2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for RRAS2 Gene

(5) Drugs for RRAS2 Gene - From: PharmGKB, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Tamoxifen Approved Pharma Antagonist TGF-β modulatory and PKC inhibitory effects, ER antagonist, Anti-Estrogens 408
Guanosine triphosphate Experimental Pharma 0

(4) Additional Compounds for RRAS2 Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with RRAS2: view

Transcripts for RRAS2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for RRAS2 Gene

Related RAS viral (r-ras) oncogene homolog 2:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for RRAS2

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for RRAS2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7
SP1: - -
SP2: -
SP3: -

Relevant External Links for RRAS2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for RRAS2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for RRAS2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for RRAS2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Bone (14.0) and Adipocyte (9.4).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for RRAS2 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for RRAS2 Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of RRAS2 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for RRAS2 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for RRAS2 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Ubiquitously present in all tissues examined, with the highest levels in heart, placenta, and skeletal muscle. Moderate levels in lung and liver; low levels in brain, kidney, and pancreas.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for RRAS2 Gene

  • Heart(4.3)
  • Liver(4.2)
  • Nervous system(4.2)
  • Bone(4)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with RRAS2: view

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for RRAS2 Gene

Orthologs for RRAS2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for RRAS2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia RRAS2 33 34
  • 98.86 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia RRAS2 34
  • 98 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia RRAS2 33 34
  • 95.66 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia RRAS2 33 34
  • 95.42 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Rras2 33 16 34
  • 92.97 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Rras2 33
  • 92.48 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia RRAS2 34
  • 92 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves RRAS2 33 34
  • 86.14 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia RRAS2 34
  • 96 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia Str.9521 33
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.11640 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii rras2 33 34
  • 79.77 (n)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP002812 33
  • 63.58 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Ras64B 35 33 34
  • 62.92 (n)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea ras-1 35 33 34
  • 61.08 (n)
ras-2 35
  • 57 (a)
C08F8.7 35
  • 45 (a)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0C13387g 33
  • 63.6 (n)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes RAS1 33 34 36
  • 63.56 (n)
RAS2 34
  • 32 (a)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_ADL262W 33
  • 58.69 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 34
  • 67 (a)
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU08823 33
  • 61.59 (n)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes ras1 33
  • 59.17 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.2254 33
Species where no ortholog for RRAS2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for RRAS2 Gene

Gene Tree for RRAS2 (if available)
Gene Tree for RRAS2 (if available)

Paralogs for RRAS2 Gene

Paralogs for RRAS2 Gene Pseudogenes for RRAS2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with RRAS2: view

Variants for RRAS2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for RRAS2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 11 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs113954997 pathogenic, Neoplasm of ovary, An ovarian cancer sample 14,294,844(-) T/A/C 5_prime_UTR_variant, coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs1000005268 -- 14,364,391(-) C/T genic_upstream_transcript_variant, initiator_codon_variant, missense_variant
rs1000034384 -- 14,319,346(-) T/C intron_variant
rs1000061246 -- 14,313,593(-) G/A intron_variant
rs1000065197 -- 14,346,799(-) G/A genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for RRAS2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv1660n54 CNV gain 21841781
dgv1661n54 CNV gain+loss 21841781
esv1753534 CNV deletion 17803354
esv25684 CNV loss 19812545
esv2744128 CNV deletion 23290073
esv3547346 CNV deletion 23714750
esv3578250 CNV gain 25503493
esv4848 CNV loss 18987735
esv6194 CNV loss 19470904
esv990130 CNV insertion 20482838
esv990812 CNV deletion 20482838
nsv1076498 CNV deletion 25765185
nsv1122585 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv1131021 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv1136125 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv1146392 CNV deletion 26484159
nsv38548 CNV deletion 16902084
nsv957175 CNV deletion 24416366
nsv975887 CNV duplication 23825009

Variation tolerance for RRAS2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 39.5% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.36; 7.86% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for RRAS2 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for RRAS2 Gene

Disorders for RRAS2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(3) MalaCards diseases for RRAS2 Gene - From: ClinVar, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
ovarian cancer
  • ovarian cancer, somatic
  • mixed embryonal carcinoma and teratoma
breast cancer
  • breast cancer, familial
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search RRAS2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Ovarian cancer (OC) [MIM:167000]: The term ovarian cancer defines malignancies originating from ovarian tissue. Although many histologic types of ovarian tumors have been described, epithelial ovarian carcinoma is the most common form. Ovarian cancers are often asymptomatic and the recognized signs and symptoms, even of late-stage disease, are vague. Consequently, most patients are diagnosed with advanced disease. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:8052619}. Note=Disease susceptibility is associated with variations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Additional Disease Information for RRAS2

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with RRAS2: view

No data available for Genatlas for RRAS2 Gene

Publications for RRAS2 Gene

  1. A polymorphism in the TC21 promoter associates with an unfavorable tamoxifen treatment outcome in breast cancer. (PMID: 19047159) Rokavec M … Brauch H (Cancer research 2008) 3 22 44 58
  2. A human oncogene of the RAS superfamily unmasked by expression cDNA cloning. (PMID: 8052619) Chan AM … Aaronson SA (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1994) 2 3 4 58
  3. Characterization of four novel ras-like genes expressed in a human teratocarcinoma cell line. (PMID: 2108320) Drivas GT … D'Eustachio P (Molecular and cellular biology 1990) 2 3 4 58
  4. Essential function for the GTPase TC21 in homeostatic antigen receptor signaling. (PMID: 19561613) Delgado P … Alarcón B (Nature immunology 2009) 3 22 58
  5. Structural and spatial determinants regulating TC21 activation by RasGRF family nucleotide exchange factors. (PMID: 19692568) Calvo F … Crespo P (Molecular biology of the cell 2009) 3 22 58

Products for RRAS2 Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for RRAS2

Sources for RRAS2 Gene

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