RRAGD is a monomeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein, or G protein. By binding GTP or GDP, small G proteins act as molecular switches in numerous cell processes and signaling pathways.[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2004] See more...

Aliases for RRAGD Gene

Aliases for RRAGD Gene

  • Ras Related GTP Binding D 2 3 5
  • Ras-Related GTP-Binding Protein D 3 4
  • BA11D8.2.1 2 3
  • Ras-Related GTP Binding D 2
  • Rag D Protein 3
  • DKFZP761H171 2
  • EC 3.6.5.- 4
  • RRAGD 5
  • Rag D 4
  • RAGD 3
  • RagD 4

External Ids for RRAGD Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for RRAGD Gene

  • GC06M090024
  • GC06M090070
  • GC06M090073
  • GC06M090131
  • GC06M087291
  • GC06M090074

Summaries for RRAGD Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for RRAGD Gene

  • RRAGD is a monomeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein, or G protein. By binding GTP or GDP, small G proteins act as molecular switches in numerous cell processes and signaling pathways.[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2004]

GeneCards Summary for RRAGD Gene

RRAGD (Ras Related GTP Binding D) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Macroautophagy and TP53 Regulates Metabolic Genes. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include protein heterodimerization activity and GTPase activity. An important paralog of this gene is RRAGC.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for RRAGD Gene

  • Guanine nucleotide-binding protein that plays a crucial role in the cellular response to amino acid availability through regulation of the mTORC1 signaling cascade (PubMed:20381137, PubMed:24095279). Forms heterodimeric Rag complexes with RRAGA or RRAGB and cycles between an inactive GTP-bound and an active GDP-bound form (PubMed:24095279). In its active form participates in the relocalization of mTORC1 to the lysosomes and its subsequent activation by the GTPase RHEB (PubMed:20381137, PubMed:24095279). This is a crucial step in the activation of the TOR signaling cascade by amino acids (PubMed:20381137, PubMed:24095279).

No data available for CIViC Summary , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for RRAGD Gene

Genomics for RRAGD Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements Pubs

Promoters and enhancers for RRAGD Gene
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around RRAGD on the GeneHancer Hub at the UCSC Golden Path

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for RRAGD

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the RRAGD gene promoter:
  • AP-1
  • ATF-2
  • c-Jun
  • COUP
  • COUP-TF
  • COUP-TF1
  • HNF-4alpha1
  • HNF-4alpha2
  • PPAR-gamma1
  • PPAR-gamma2

Genomic Locations for RRAGD Gene

Latest Assembly
chr6:89,363,509-89,412,273
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
48,765 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Previous Assembly
chr6:90,074,335-90,121,992
(GRCh37/hg19 by Entrez Gene)
Size:
47,658 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

chr6:90,074,355-90,121,989
(GRCh37/hg19 by Ensembl)
Size:
47,635 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for RRAGD Gene

Genes around RRAGD on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
RRAGD Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for RRAGD Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for RRAGD Gene

Proteins for RRAGD Gene

  • Protein details for RRAGD Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q9NQL2-RRAGD_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Ras-related GTP-binding protein D
    Protein Accession:
    Q9NQL2
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8K184
    • Q7L8F9
    • Q9NPG0

    Protein attributes for RRAGD Gene

    Size:
    400 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    45588 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Forms a heterodimer with RRAGA in a sequence-independent manner and RRAGB (PubMed:11073942, PubMed:14660641). Heterodimerization stabilizes RRAG proteins (PubMed:11073942, PubMed:14660641, PubMed:25561175, PubMed:25567906). In complex with RRAGB, interacts with RPTOR; this interaction is particularly efficient with GTP-loaded RRAGB and GDP-loaded RRAGC (PubMed:18497260). Component of the lysosomal folliculin complex (LFC), composed of FLCN, FNIP1 (or FNIP2), RRAGA/RagA or RRAGB/RagB GDP-bound, RRAGC/RagC or RRAGD/RagD GTP-bound, and Ragulator (By similarity). Interacts with NOL8 (PubMed:14660641). Interacts with SH3BP4; the interaction with this negative regulator is most probably direct, preferentially occurs with the inactive GDP-bound form of RRAGD and is negatively regulated by amino acids (PubMed:22575674). The Rag heterodimer interacts with SLC38A9; the probable amino acid sensor (PubMed:25561175, PubMed:25567906). Interacts with SESN1, SESN2 and SESN3 (PubMed:25259925).
    SequenceCaution:
    • Sequence=AAH03088.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Truncated N-terminus.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for RRAGD Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for RRAGD Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for RRAGD Gene

Post-translational modifications for RRAGD Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for RRAGD Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for RRAGD Gene

Domains & Families for RRAGD Gene

Gene Families for RRAGD Gene

HGNC:
Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Protein Domains for RRAGD Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for RRAGD Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • Ras-related GTP-binding protein D (RRAGD_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q9NQL2

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

RRAGD_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the GTR/RAG GTP-binding protein family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the GTR/RAG GTP-binding protein family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with RRAGD: view

Function for RRAGD Gene

Molecular function for RRAGD Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Guanine nucleotide-binding protein that plays a crucial role in the cellular response to amino acid availability through regulation of the mTORC1 signaling cascade (PubMed:20381137, PubMed:24095279). Forms heterodimeric Rag complexes with RRAGA or RRAGB and cycles between an inactive GTP-bound and an active GDP-bound form (PubMed:24095279). In its active form participates in the relocalization of mTORC1 to the lysosomes and its subsequent activation by the GTPase RHEB (PubMed:20381137, PubMed:24095279). This is a crucial step in the activation of the TOR signaling cascade by amino acids (PubMed:20381137, PubMed:24095279).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=GTP + H2O = GDP + H(+) + phosphate; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:19669, ChEBI:CHEBI:15377, ChEBI:CHEBI:15378, ChEBI:CHEBI:37565, ChEBI:CHEBI:43474, ChEBI:CHEBI:58189; Evidence={ECO:0000305|PubMed:24095279};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
In high-amino acid conditions, activated by GTPase activating protein (GAP) FLCN that stimulates RRAGD GTPase activity to turn it into its active GDP-bound form.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for RRAGD Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for RRAGD Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for RRAGD Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000166 nucleotide binding IEA --
GO:0003924 GTPase activity IMP 22424946
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 11073942
GO:0005525 GTP binding IMP 22424946
GO:0016787 hydrolase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with RRAGD: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with RRAGD: view

miRNA for RRAGD Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target RRAGD

Inhibitory RNAs for research

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for RRAGD

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for RRAGD Gene

Localization for RRAGD Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for RRAGD Gene

Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Lysosome. Note=Predominantly cytoplasmic. May shuttle between the cytoplasm and nucleus, depending on the bound nucleotide state of associated RRAGA (PubMed:11073942). {ECO:0000269 PubMed:11073942}.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for RRAGD gene
Compartment Confidence
nucleus 5
cytosol 5
lysosome 5
cytoskeleton 4
endosome 4
plasma membrane 1
extracellular 1
mitochondrion 1
peroxisome 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1
golgi apparatus 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Nucleoplasm (3)
  • Vesicles (3)
  • Centrosome (2)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for RRAGD Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus IDA 11073942
GO:0005654 nucleoplasm IDA --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA 11073942
GO:0005764 lysosome IBA,IDA 20381137
GO:0005813 centrosome IDA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with RRAGD: view

Pathways & Interactions for RRAGD Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with RRAGD: view

Pathways by source for RRAGD Gene

SIGNOR curated interactions for RRAGD Gene

Activates:
Is activated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for RRAGD Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007050 cell cycle arrest TAS --
GO:0009267 cellular response to starvation IBA 21873635
GO:0010506 regulation of autophagy IBA 21873635
GO:0016241 regulation of macroautophagy TAS --
GO:0032008 positive regulation of TOR signaling IBA,NAS 20381137
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with RRAGD: view

Drugs & Compounds for RRAGD Gene

(3) Drugs for RRAGD Gene - From: HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Guanosine diphosphate Experimental Pharma 0
Guanosine monophosphate Experimental Pharma 0
Guanosine triphosphate Experimental Pharma 0
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with RRAGD: view

Transcripts for RRAGD Gene

mRNA/cDNA for RRAGD Gene

1 REFSEQ mRNAs :
8 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
3 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

Inhibitory RNAs for research

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for RRAGD

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for RRAGD Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for RRAGD Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
RRAGD

Expression for RRAGD Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for RRAGD Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for RRAGD Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Muscle - Skeletal (x6.4).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for RRAGD Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Skin (24.5), Heart (22.2), Spinal cord (8.2), Testis (7.4), and Retina (6.7).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for RRAGD Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for RRAGD Gene

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for RRAGD

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for RRAGD Gene:

Hs.31712

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for RRAGD Gene

  • Nervous system(4.7)
  • Kidney(2.6)
  • Muscle(2.6)
  • Heart(2.3)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with RRAGD: view

Primer products for research

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for RRAGD Gene

Orthologs for RRAGD Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for RRAGD Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
Chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia RRAGD 29 30
  • 99.83 (n)
OneToOne
Platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia RRAGD 30
  • 96 (a)
OneToOne
Oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia RRAGD 30
  • 95 (a)
OneToOne
Cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia RRAGD 29 30
  • 92.36 (n)
OneToOne
Dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia RRAGD 29 30
  • 91.64 (n)
OneToOne
Mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Rragd 29 16 30
  • 89.06 (n)
OneToOne
Rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Rragd 29
  • 87.64 (n)
Chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves RRAGD 30
  • 95 (a)
OneToOne
Lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia RRAGD 30
  • 86 (a)
OneToOne
Tropical Clawed Frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia rragd 29
  • 78.97 (n)
Zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii rragd 29 30
  • 75.5 (n)
OneToOne
Fruit Fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta RagC 30
  • 64 (a)
OneToMany
Worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea ragc-1 30
  • 48 (a)
OneToMany
Baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes GTR2 30
  • 44 (a)
OneToMany
Sea Squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.9757 30
  • 61 (a)
OneToMany
Sea Vase
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.4891 29
Species where no ortholog for RRAGD was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Eremothecium gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • Alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • Amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • Beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • Common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • Corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • Filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute Bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • Fission Yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • Green Algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. Lactis Yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • Loblloly Pine (Pinus taeda)
  • Malaria Parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • Medicago Trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • Moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • Pig (Sus scrofa)
  • Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • Rice (Oryza sativa)
  • Rice Blast Fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • Schistosome Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • Sea Anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • Soybean (Glycine max)
  • Stem Rust Fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • Thale Cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • Wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for RRAGD Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for RRAGD (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for RRAGD (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for RRAGD: view image
Alliance of Genome Resources:
Additional Orthologs for RRAGD

Paralogs for RRAGD Gene

Paralogs for RRAGD Gene

(1) SIMAP similar genes for RRAGD Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

  • RRAGD_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with RRAGD: view

Variants for RRAGD Gene

dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for variants without ClinVar clinical significance for RRAGD Gene

All consequence types are included: molecular consequences (e.g. missense, synonymous), and location-based (e.g. intron, upstream).

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for RRAGD Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv3890901 CNV gain 25118596
nsv1027007 CNV gain 25217958
nsv526829 CNV loss 19592680

Variation tolerance for RRAGD Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 40.3% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.05; 21.42% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for RRAGD Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
RRAGD
Leiden Open Variation Database (LOVD)
RRAGD

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assays for research

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for RRAGD Gene

Disorders for RRAGD Gene

Additional Disease Information for RRAGD

Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
(HuGE)
Atlas
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
Open Targets Platform
Open Targets Platform

No disorders were found for RRAGD Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for RRAGD Gene

Publications for RRAGD Gene

  1. Novel G proteins, Rag C and Rag D, interact with GTP-binding proteins, Rag A and Rag B. (PMID: 11073942) Sekiguchi T … Nishimoto T (The Journal of biological chemistry 2001) 2 3 4
  2. SLC38A9 is a component of the lysosomal amino acid sensing machinery that controls mTORC1. (PMID: 25561175) Rebsamen M … Superti-Furga G (Nature 2015) 3 4
  3. Sestrins function as guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors for Rag GTPases to control mTORC1 signaling. (PMID: 25259925) Peng M … Li MO (Cell 2014) 3 4
  4. The folliculin tumor suppressor is a GAP for the RagC/D GTPases that signal amino acid levels to mTORC1. (PMID: 24095279) Tsun ZY … Sabatini DM (Molecular cell 2013) 3 4
  5. SH3BP4 is a negative regulator of amino acid-Rag GTPase-mTORC1 signaling. (PMID: 22575674) Kim YM … Kim DH (Molecular cell 2012) 3 4

Products for RRAGD Gene

Sources for RRAGD Gene