Aliases for ROS1 Gene
External Ids for ROS1 Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for ROS1 Gene
This proto-oncogene, highly-expressed in a variety of tumor cell lines, belongs to the sevenless subfamily of tyrosine kinase insulin receptor genes. The protein encoded by this gene is a type I integral membrane protein with tyrosine kinase activity. The protein may function as a growth or differentiation factor receptor. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ROS1 is a receptor tyrosine kinase that is frequently involved in genetic rearrangement in a variety of human cancers (e.g. NSCLC, gastric cancer, ovarian cancer, cholangiocarcinoma, colorectal cancer, angiosarcoma...). The resulting fusion protein harbors the constitutively active ROS1 kinase domain and drives cellular proliferation (Davies et. al.). In NSCLC about 1% harbor a ROS1 rearrangement. These patients are predominantely female and have a lower T-stage (Warth et. al.). Treatment with crizotinib leads to a reported objective response rate of appr. 70% and a median duration of response of 18 months (Shaw et. al.). Resistance mechanisms to crizotinib have been described and involve mutations in the kinase domain. More selective inhibitors of ROS1 might overcome this resistance (Davare et. al.).
GeneCards Summary for ROS1 Gene
ROS1 (ROS Proto-Oncogene 1, Receptor Tyrosine Kinase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with ROS1 include Lung Cancer Susceptibility 3 and Lung Cancer. Among its related pathways are Nanog in Mammalian ESC Pluripotency and Akt Signaling. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include transferase activity, transferring phosphorus-containing groups and protein tyrosine kinase activity. An important paralog of this gene is INSR.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for ROS1 Gene
Orphan receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) that plays a role in epithelial cell differentiation and regionalization of the proximal epididymal epithelium. May activate several downstream signaling pathways related to cell differentiation, proliferation, growth and survival including the PI3 kinase-mTOR signaling pathway. Mediates the phosphorylation of PTPN11, an activator of this pathway. May also phosphorylate and activate the transcription factor STAT3 to control anchorage-independent cell growth. Mediates the phosphorylation and the activation of VAV3, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor regulating cell morphology. May activate other downstream signaling proteins including AKT1, MAPK1, MAPK3, IRS1 and PLCG2.