This gene encodes a member of the Rho family of GTPases. This protein can activate PAK1 and JNK1, and can induce filopodium formation and stress fiber dissolution. It may also mediate the effects of WNT1 signaling in the regulation of cell morphology, cytoskeletal organization, and cell proliferation. A non-coding transcript variant of this gene results from naturally occurring... See more...

Aliases for RHOU Gene

Aliases for RHOU Gene

  • Ras Homolog Family Member U 2 3 5
  • Ryu GTPase 2 3 4
  • CDC42L1 2 3 4
  • WRCH1 2 3 4
  • Rho-Related GTP-Binding Protein RhoU 3 4
  • Ras Homolog Gene Family, Member U 2 3
  • Wnt-1 Responsive Cdc42 Homolog 1 3 4
  • Ras-Like Gene Family Member U 2 3
  • Rho GTPase-Like Protein ARHU 3 4
  • GTP-Binding Protein Like 1 2 3
  • GTP-Binding Protein SB128 2 3
  • CDC42-Like GTPase 1 3 4
  • 2310026M05Rik 2 3
  • WRCH-1 2 4
  • HG28K 2 3
  • ARHU 3 4
  • G28K 3 4
  • Wnt-1 Responsive Cdc42 Homolog 2
  • GTP-Binding Protein-Like 1 4
  • CDC42-Like GTPase 2
  • DJ646B12.2 2
  • FJ646B12.2 2
  • FLJ10616 2
  • RHOU 5

External Ids for RHOU Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for RHOU Gene

  • ARHU

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for RHOU Gene

  • GC01P225833
  • GC01P225177
  • GC01P226937
  • GC01P228870
  • GC01P199361
  • GC01P228785

Summaries for RHOU Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for RHOU Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the Rho family of GTPases. This protein can activate PAK1 and JNK1, and can induce filopodium formation and stress fiber dissolution. It may also mediate the effects of WNT1 signaling in the regulation of cell morphology, cytoskeletal organization, and cell proliferation. A non-coding transcript variant of this gene results from naturally occurring read-through transcription between this locus and the neighboring DUSP5P (dual specificity phosphatase 5 pseudogene) locus.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]

GeneCards Summary for RHOU Gene

RHOU (Ras Homolog Family Member U) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with RHOU include Myopathy, Centronuclear, 2 and Non-Functioning Pituitary Adenoma. Among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and Interleukin-4 and 13 signaling. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include GTP binding and GTPase activity. An important paralog of this gene is RHOV.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for RHOU Gene

  • Acts upstream of PAK1 to regulate the actin cytoskeleton, adhesion turnover and increase cell migration. Stimulates quiescent cells to reenter the cell cycle. Has no detectable GTPase activity but its high intrinsic guanine nucleotide exchange activity suggests it is constitutively GTP-bound. Plays a role in the regulation of cell morphology and cytoskeletal organization. Required in the control of cell shape.

No data available for CIViC Summary , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for RHOU Gene

Genomics for RHOU Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements Pubs

Promoters and enhancers for RHOU Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
Score
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH01J228608 Promoter/Enhancer 2.3 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas 610.6 -15.9 -15925 41.4 RNF2 HNRNPL GATAD2A YBX1 PRDM10 ZNF629 TFE3 ZNF512 IKZF1 ZNF692 RHOU MF281437-008 MF281437-009 RNA5S10 RNA5S9 CICP26 HMGN2P19 C1orf35 NUP133 H3-4
GH01J228734 Promoter/Enhancer 2.3 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas dbSUPER 600.2 +92.2 92231 4.6 GATAD2A ZNF629 PRDM10 REST CTCF ZNF692 TARDBP PRDM1 ZIC2 RBFOX2 RHOU lnc-RNF187-3 MF281430-007 TMEM78
GH01J228781 Enhancer 1.7 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas dbSUPER 6.5 +138.4 138353 4 GATAD2A PRDM10 ZNF629 ZNF692 ZNF300 ZIC2 ZNF776 ZSCAN4 POLR2A PATZ1 HSALNG0011271 NUP133 CICP26 C1orf35 HMGN2P19 H3-4 ABCB10 TAF5L URB2 MRPL55
GH01J229064 Enhancer 1 ENCODE dbSUPER 4.5 +419.9 419938 0.9 HNRNPL GATAD2A TFE3 SOX13 NFKBIZ RCOR2 ZIC2 RXRB IRF2 CEBPB RHOU HSALNG0011286 piR-55705-005 LINC02815 TMEM78
GH01J228666 Enhancer 0.5 Ensembl ENCODE 9 +22.5 22463 1.1 FOXA1 ZNF341 RHOU piR-60246-016 lnc-RHOU-4 TMEM78
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around RHOU on the GeneHancer Hub at the UCSC Golden Path

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for RHOU

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the RHOU gene promoter:
  • MIF-1
  • Nkx2-5
  • Nkx5-1
  • YY1

Genomic Locations for RHOU Gene

Genomic Locations for RHOU Gene
chr1:228,644,647-228,746,669
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
102,023 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand
chr1:228,780,394-228,882,416
(GRCh37/hg19)
Size:
102,023 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for RHOU Gene

Genes around RHOU on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
RHOU Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for RHOU Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for RHOU Gene

Proteins for RHOU Gene

  • Protein details for RHOU Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q7L0Q8-RHOU_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Rho-related GTP-binding protein RhoU
    Protein Accession:
    Q7L0Q8
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B1AKN1
    • Q59FE9
    • Q8TDQ2

    Protein attributes for RHOU Gene

    Size:
    258 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    28218 Da
    Cofactor:
    Name=Mg(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:18420;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with PAK3. Interacts with ARHGAP30 in a GTP-independent manner. In its GTP-loaded conformation, interacts with ARHGAP31. Interacts with PTK2B/PYK2.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for RHOU Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for RHOU Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for RHOU Gene

Post-translational modifications for RHOU Gene

  • Tyrosine phosphorylated by SRC in response to PTK2B/PYK2 activation.
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for RHOU Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for RHOU Gene

Domains & Families for RHOU Gene

Gene Families for RHOU Gene

HGNC:
Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Protein Domains for RHOU Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for RHOU Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • Wnt-1 responsive Cdc42 homolog 1 (RHOU_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q7L0Q8

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

RHOU_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the small GTPase superfamily. Rho family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the small GTPase superfamily. Rho family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with RHOU: view

Function for RHOU Gene

Molecular function for RHOU Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Acts upstream of PAK1 to regulate the actin cytoskeleton, adhesion turnover and increase cell migration. Stimulates quiescent cells to reenter the cell cycle. Has no detectable GTPase activity but its high intrinsic guanine nucleotide exchange activity suggests it is constitutively GTP-bound. Plays a role in the regulation of cell morphology and cytoskeletal organization. Required in the control of cell shape.

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for RHOU Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for RHOU Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000166 nucleotide binding IEA --
GO:0003924 GTPase activity IBA 21873635
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 14521508
GO:0005525 GTP binding IBA 21873635
GO:0019901 protein kinase binding IBA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with RHOU: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with RHOU: view

Animal Models for RHOU Gene

MGI Knock Outs for RHOU:
  • Rhou Rhou<tm1a(KOMP)Wtsi>

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for RHOU

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for RHOU Gene

Localization for RHOU Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for RHOU Gene

Cell membrane. Lipid-anchor. Cytoplasmic side. Golgi apparatus membrane. Lipid-anchor. Cell junction, focal adhesion. Cell projection, podosome. Note=Localizes to podosomes in SRC-transformed cells. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:16046391, ECO:0000269 PubMed:16472646, ECO:0000269 PubMed:17620058}.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for RHOU gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
plasma membrane 4
cytoskeleton 4
golgi apparatus 4
extracellular 3
nucleus 3
endosome 2
lysosome 2
mitochondrion 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for RHOU Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000139 Golgi membrane IEA --
GO:0002102 podosome IEA --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IBA --
GO:0005794 Golgi apparatus IEA --
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with RHOU: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for RHOU Gene

Pathways & Interactions for RHOU Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with RHOU: view

SIGNOR curated interactions for RHOU Gene

Is inactivated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for RHOU Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000082 G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle IEA --
GO:0006897 endocytosis IBA 21873635
GO:0007010 cytoskeleton organization IMP 21834987
GO:0007015 actin filament organization IBA --
GO:0007163 establishment or maintenance of cell polarity IBA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with RHOU: view

Drugs & Compounds for RHOU Gene

(4) Drugs for RHOU Gene - From: HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Magnesium Approved, Experimental, Investigational Pharma 0
Guanosine diphosphate Experimental Pharma 0
Guanosine monophosphate Experimental Pharma 0
Guanosine triphosphate Experimental Pharma 0
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with RHOU: view

Transcripts for RHOU Gene

mRNA/cDNA for RHOU Gene

1 REFSEQ mRNAs :
12 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
1 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for RHOU

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for RHOU Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for RHOU Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
RHOU

Expression for RHOU Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for RHOU Gene

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for RHOU Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Tlymphocyte (22.8), Monocytes (17.0), Pancreas (16.3), and Heart (7.3).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for RHOU Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for RHOU Gene

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for RHOU

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for RHOU Gene:

Hs.647774

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for RHOU Gene:

Q7L0Q8-RHOU_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Ubiquitously expressed in all tissues examined. Expressed at high levels in the stomach, small intestine, brain, skeletal muscle and placenta.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for RHOU Gene

  • Nervous system(4.9)
  • Heart(2.6)
  • Spleen(2.5)
  • Liver(2.5)
  • Muscle(2.5)
  • Blood(2.5)
  • Kidney(2.4)
  • Intestine(2.4)
  • Skin(2.4)
  • Lung(2.3)
  • Pancreas(2.1)
  • Lymph node(2)
  • Adrenal gland(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with RHOU: view

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for RHOU Gene

Orthologs for RHOU Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for RHOU Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
Chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia RHOU 31
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
Dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia RHOU 30 31
  • 92.64 (n)
OneToOne
Cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia RHOU 30 31
  • 87.58 (n)
OneToOne
Mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Rhou 30 17 31
  • 86.12 (n)
OneToOne
Oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia RHOU 31
  • 86 (a)
OneToOne
Platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia RHOU 31
  • 76 (a)
OneToOne
Chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves RHOU 30 31
  • 84.99 (n)
OneToOne
Lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia RHOU 31
  • 78 (a)
OneToOne
Tropical Clawed Frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia rhou 30
  • 66.99 (n)
Str.181 30
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.4621 30
Zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii rhoua 30 31
  • 74.88 (n)
OneToMany
rhoub 31
  • 65 (a)
OneToMany
RHOU (1 of 3) 31
  • 58 (a)
OneToMany
Rainbow Trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.1184 30
Fruit Fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG34104 31
  • 18 (a)
OneToMany
Worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea chw-1 31
  • 48 (a)
OneToMany
Sea Squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.9013 31
  • 55 (a)
OneToMany
Species where no ortholog for RHOU was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Eremothecium gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • Alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • Amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • Beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • Common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • Corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • Filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute Bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • Fission Yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • Green Algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. Lactis Yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • Loblloly Pine (Pinus taeda)
  • Malaria Parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • Medicago Trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • Moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • Pig (Sus scrofa)
  • Rat (Rattus norvegicus)
  • Rice (Oryza sativa)
  • Rice Blast Fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • Schistosome Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • Sea Anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • Sea Vase (Ciona intestinalis)
  • Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • Soybean (Glycine max)
  • Stem Rust Fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • Thale Cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • Wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for RHOU Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for RHOU (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for RHOU (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for RHOU: view image

Paralogs for RHOU Gene

(22) SIMAP similar genes for RHOU Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

  • RHOU_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with RHOU: view

Variants for RHOU Gene

Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for RHOU Gene

SNP ID Clinical significance and condition Chr 01 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs3820264 - p.Thr121Ala

Additional dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for RHOU Gene

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for RHOU Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv287n106 CNV duplication 24896259
dgv288n106 CNV deletion 24896259
esv1454255 CNV deletion 17803354
esv24714 CNV gain+loss 19812545
esv2678504 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2724395 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2724406 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2762224 CNV gain 21179565
esv32853 CNV gain 17666407
esv3547900 CNV deletion 23714750
esv3589053 CNV gain 21293372
esv3589054 CNV loss 21293372
esv3589055 CNV loss 21293372
esv3589057 CNV loss 21293372
esv3891181 CNV gain 25118596
esv6055 CNV loss 19470904
nsv1009511 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1013500 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1069364 CNV deletion 25765185
nsv1075809 CNV duplication 25765185
nsv1127064 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv1150538 CNV deletion 26484159
nsv509635 CNV insertion 20534489
nsv511020 OTHER complex 20534489
nsv511738 CNV loss 21212237
nsv549299 CNV gain 21841781
nsv549300 CNV loss 21841781
nsv827075 CNV loss 20364138
nsv945355 CNV duplication 23825009
nsv945357 CNV duplication 23825009
nsv952144 CNV duplication 24416366
nsv957478 CNV deletion 24416366
nsv998255 CNV gain 25217958

Variation tolerance for RHOU Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 37.2% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.31; 6.85% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for RHOU Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
RHOU

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for RHOU Gene

Disorders for RHOU Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(4) MalaCards diseases for RHOU Gene - From: DISEASES and GeneCards

- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search RHOU in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for RHOU

Genetic Association Database
(GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
(HuGE)
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
Open Targets Platform
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with RHOU: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for RHOU Gene

Publications for RHOU Gene

  1. The atypical Rho GTPase Wrch1 collaborates with the nonreceptor tyrosine kinases Pyk2 and Src in regulating cytoskeletal dynamics. (PMID: 18086875) Ruusala A … Aspenström P (Molecular and cellular biology 2008) 3 4 23
  2. Expression of WRCH1 in human cancer and down-regulation of WRCH1 by beta-estradiol in MCF-7 cells. (PMID: 11894124) Kirikoshi H … Katoh M (International journal of oncology 2002) 3 4 23
  3. Wrch-1, a novel member of the Rho gene family that is regulated by Wnt-1. (PMID: 11459829) Tao W … Levine AJ (Genes & development 2001) 2 3 4
  4. Identification and characterization of a set of conserved and new regulators of cytoskeletal organization, cell morphology and migration. (PMID: 21834987) Bai SW … Ridley AJ (BMC biology 2011) 3 4
  5. ARHGAP30 is a Wrch-1-interacting protein involved in actin dynamics and cell adhesion. (PMID: 21565175) Naji L … Aspenström P (Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2011) 3 4

Products for RHOU Gene

Sources for RHOU Gene