Ras homolog, or Rho, proteins interact with protein kinases and may serve as targets for activated GTPase. They play a critical role in muscle differentiation. The protein encoded by this gene binds GTP and is a member of the small GTPase superfamily. It is involved in endosome dynamics and reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, and it may coordinate membrane transport with ... See more...

Aliases for RHOD Gene

Aliases for RHOD Gene

  • Ras Homolog Family Member D 2 3 5
  • Rho-Related GTP-Binding Protein RhoD 2 3 4
  • Rho-Related Protein HP1 2 3 4
  • Ras Homolog Gene Family, Member D 2 3
  • RhoHP1 2 4
  • ARHD 3 4
  • Rho 2 3
  • Ras Homolog Gene Family, Member A 3
  • Ras Homolog D 3
  • RHOHP1 3
  • RHOM 3
  • RHOD 5

External Ids for RHOD Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for RHOD Gene

  • ARHD

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for RHOD Gene

  • GC11P066600
  • GC11P066580
  • GC11P066824
  • GC11P063152

Summaries for RHOD Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for RHOD Gene

  • Ras homolog, or Rho, proteins interact with protein kinases and may serve as targets for activated GTPase. They play a critical role in muscle differentiation. The protein encoded by this gene binds GTP and is a member of the small GTPase superfamily. It is involved in endosome dynamics and reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, and it may coordinate membrane transport with the function of the cytoskeleton. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]

GeneCards Summary for RHOD Gene

RHOD (Ras Homolog Family Member D) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with RHOD include Clostridium Difficile Colitis and Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome. Among its related pathways are Guidance Cues and Growth Cone Motility and Signaling by GPCR. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include GTP binding and GTPase activity. An important paralog of this gene is RHOF.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for RHOD Gene

  • Involved in endosome dynamics. May coordinate membrane transport with the function of the cytoskeleton. Involved in the internalization and trafficking of activated tyrosine kinase receptors such as PDGFRB. Participates in the reorganization of actin cytoskeleton; the function seems to involve WHAMM and includes regulation of filopodia formation and actin filament bundling. Can modulate the effect of DAPK3 in reorganization of actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesion dissolution.

Gene Wiki entry for RHOD Gene

Additional gene information for RHOD Gene

No data available for CIViC Summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for RHOD Gene

Genomics for RHOD Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements Pubs

Promoters and enhancers for RHOD Gene
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around RHOD on the GeneHancer Hub at the UCSC Golden Path

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for RHOD

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the RHOD gene promoter:
  • AREB6
  • E47
  • NF-kappaB
  • NF-kappaB1
  • Pax-5
  • PPAR-alpha
  • RelA
  • Tal-1
  • Tal-1beta

Genomic Locations for RHOD Gene

Genomic Locations for RHOD Gene
chr11:67,056,847-67,072,017
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
15,171 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand
chr11:66,824,289-66,839,488
(GRCh37/hg19)
Size:
15,200 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for RHOD Gene

Genes around RHOD on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
RHOD Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for RHOD Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for RHOD Gene

Proteins for RHOD Gene

  • Protein details for RHOD Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    O00212-RHOD_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Rho-related GTP-binding protein RhoD
    Protein Accession:
    O00212

    Protein attributes for RHOD Gene

    Size:
    210 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    23413 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts (in GTP-bound form) with DIAPH2 isoform 3, DAPK3, FILIP1 and WHAMM. Interacts with PAK5. Interacts (independent of GTP-loaded status) with ANKFY1.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for RHOD Gene

neXtProt entry for RHOD Gene

Post-translational modifications for RHOD Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for RHOD Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

  • Abcam antibodies for RHOD
  • Boster Bio Antibodies for RHOD

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for RHOD Gene

Domains & Families for RHOD Gene

Gene Families for RHOD Gene

HGNC:
Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Protein Domains for RHOD Gene

InterPro:
Blocks:
  • Transforming protein P21 RAS signature
  • Ras small GTPase, Rho type
ProtoNet:

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for RHOD Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • Rho-related protein HP1 (RHOD_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

O00212

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

RHOD_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the small GTPase superfamily. Rho family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the small GTPase superfamily. Rho family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with RHOD: view

Function for RHOD Gene

Molecular function for RHOD Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Involved in endosome dynamics. May coordinate membrane transport with the function of the cytoskeleton. Involved in the internalization and trafficking of activated tyrosine kinase receptors such as PDGFRB. Participates in the reorganization of actin cytoskeleton; the function seems to involve WHAMM and includes regulation of filopodia formation and actin filament bundling. Can modulate the effect of DAPK3 in reorganization of actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesion dissolution.

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for RHOD Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for RHOD Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000166 nucleotide binding IEA --
GO:0003924 GTPase activity IEA,IBA 21873635
GO:0005525 GTP binding IEA,IBA 21873635
GO:0019901 protein kinase binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with RHOD: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with RHOD: view

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for RHOD

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for RHOD Gene

Localization for RHOD Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for RHOD Gene

Cell membrane. Lipid-anchor. Cytoplasmic side. Early endosome. Note=Colocalizes with RAB5 to early endosomes (By similarity). {ECO:0000250 UniProtKB:P97348}.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for RHOD gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
cytosol 5
endosome 4
extracellular 3
cytoskeleton 3
mitochondrion 2
nucleus 2
endoplasmic reticulum 2
lysosome 2
golgi apparatus 2
peroxisome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for RHOD Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IBA 21873635
GO:0005768 endosome IEA --
GO:0005769 early endosome IEA --
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0005856 cytoskeleton IBA 21873635
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with RHOD: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for RHOD Gene

Pathways & Interactions for RHOD Gene

PathCards logo

SuperPathways for RHOD Gene

SuperPathway Contained pathways
1 G-AlphaQ Signaling
.47
.47
.40
2 GPCR Pathway
.73
.62
.59
3 ERK Signaling
.61
.51
.49
4 Actin Nucleation by ARP-WASP Complex
.66
.66
5 Apoptotic Pathways in Synovial Fibroblasts
.64
.62
genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with RHOD: view

Pathways by source for RHOD Gene

33 Qiagen pathways for RHOD Gene
  • Actin Nucleation and Branching
  • Actin Nucleation by ARP-WASP Complex
  • Actin-Based Motility by Rho Family GTPases
  • Activation of PKC through GPCR
  • Antioxidant Action of Vitamin-C

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for RHOD Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006605 protein targeting IEA --
GO:0007015 actin filament organization IBA 21873635
GO:0007163 establishment or maintenance of cell polarity IBA --
GO:0007264 small GTPase mediated signal transduction IEA --
GO:0007266 Rho protein signal transduction TAS 9116026
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with RHOD: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for RHOD Gene

Drugs & Compounds for RHOD Gene

(46) Drugs for RHOD Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Guanosine triphosphate Experimental Pharma 0

(36) Additional Compounds for RHOD Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with RHOD: view

Transcripts for RHOD Gene

mRNA/cDNA for RHOD Gene

2 REFSEQ mRNAs :
8 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
3 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for RHOD

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for RHOD Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5
SP1:
SP2: - -

Relevant External Links for RHOD Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
RHOD

Expression for RHOD Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for RHOD Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for RHOD Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Esophagus - Mucosa (x9.4) and Liver (x7.0).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for RHOD Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Placenta (69.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for RHOD Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for RHOD Gene

- Elite partner

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for RHOD

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for RHOD Gene:

Hs.15114

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for RHOD Gene:

O00212-RHOD_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Heart, placenta, liver, skeletal muscle, and pancreas and, with weaker intensity, in several other tissues.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for RHOD Gene

  • Skin(3.1)
  • Nervous system(3)
  • Muscle(3)
  • Liver(2.7)
  • Heart(2.7)
  • Kidney(2.6)
  • Blood(2.5)
  • Intestine(2.3)
  • Lung(2.3)
  • Lymph node(2.1)
  • Spleen(2.1)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with RHOD: view

No data available for Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for RHOD Gene

Orthologs for RHOD Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for RHOD Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
Chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia RHOD 30 31
  • 99.84 (n)
OneToOne
Cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia RHOD 30 31
  • 89.37 (n)
OneToOne
Dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia RHOD 30 31
  • 88.84 (n)
OneToOne
Rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Rhod 30
  • 83.17 (n)
Mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Rhod 30 17 31
  • 82.7 (n)
OneToOne
Oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia RHOD 31
  • 60 (a)
OneToOne
Chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves RHOD 31
  • 52 (a)
OneToOne
Baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes RHO1 31
  • 46 (a)
OneToMany
Species where no ortholog for RHOD was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Eremothecium gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • Alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • Amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • Beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • Common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • Corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • Filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute Bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • Fission Yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • Fruit Fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • Green Algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. Lactis Yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • Lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • Loblloly Pine (Pinus taeda)
  • Malaria Parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • Medicago Trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • Moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • Pig (Sus scrofa)
  • Platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • Rice (Oryza sativa)
  • Rice Blast Fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • Schistosome Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • Sea Anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • Sea Vase (Ciona intestinalis)
  • Sea Squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • Soybean (Glycine max)
  • Stem Rust Fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • Thale Cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • Tropical Clawed Frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • Wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • Worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)
  • Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Evolution for RHOD Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for RHOD (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for RHOD (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for RHOD: view image

Paralogs for RHOD Gene

Variants for RHOD Gene

Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for RHOD Gene

SNP ID Clinical significance and condition Chr 11 pos Variation AA Info Type
788600 Benign: not provided 67,071,530(+) C/T SYNONYMOUS_VARIANT
rs4930409 - p.Cys134Arg

Additional dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for RHOD Gene

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for RHOD Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv555226 CNV gain 21841781

Variation tolerance for RHOD Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 72.1% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.95; 36.13% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for RHOD Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
RHOD

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for RHOD Gene

Disorders for RHOD Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(10) MalaCards diseases for RHOD Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
clostridium difficile colitis
  • pseudomembranous colitis
wiskott-aldrich syndrome
  • was
neutrophil immunodeficiency syndrome
  • neuid
toxic megacolon
  • megacolon, toxic
histiocytosis-lymphadenopathy plus syndrome
  • histiocytosis and lymphadenopathy with or without cutaneous, cardiac, and/or endocrine features, joint contractures, and/or deafness
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search RHOD in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for RHOD

genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with RHOD: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for RHOD Gene

Publications for RHOD Gene

  1. Isolation of a novel human cDNA (rhoHP1) homologous to rho genes. (PMID: 9116026) Shimizu F … Nakamura Y (Biochimica et biophysica acta 1997) 2 3 4
  2. RhoD binds the Rab5 effector Rabankyrin-5 and has a role in trafficking of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor. (PMID: 24102721) Nehru V … Aspenström P (Traffic (Copenhagen, Denmark) 2013) 3 4
  3. Interaction of RhoD and ZIP kinase modulates actin filament assembly and focal adhesion dynamics. (PMID: 23454120) Nehru V … Aspenström P (Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2013) 3 4
  4. RhoD regulates cytoskeletal dynamics via the actin nucleation-promoting factor WASp homologue associated with actin Golgi membranes and microtubules. (PMID: 23087206) Gad AK … Aspenström P (Molecular biology of the cell 2012) 3 4
  5. Hundreds of variants clustered in genomic loci and biological pathways affect human height. (PMID: 20881960) Lango Allen H … Hirschhorn JN (Nature 2010) 3 41

Products for RHOD Gene

  • Signalway Proteins for RHOD

Sources for RHOD Gene