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Aliases for RHO Gene

Aliases for RHO Gene

  • Rhodopsin 2 3 3 5
  • Opsin 2, Rod Pigment 2 3
  • Opsin-2 3 4
  • OPN2 3 4
  • Retinitis Pigmentosa 4, Autosomal Dominant 2
  • CSNBAD1 3
  • RP4 3

External Ids for RHO Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for RHO Gene

  • RP4

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for RHO Gene

  • GC03P126073
  • GC03P129884
  • GC03P130529
  • GC03P130568
  • GC03P130730
  • GC03P129247
  • GC03P126630
  • GC03P129529
  • GC03P129607
  • GC03P129675

Summaries for RHO Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for RHO Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene is found in rod cells in the back of the eye and is essential for vision in low-light conditions. The encoded protein binds to 11-cis retinal and is activated when light hits the retinal molecule. Defects in this gene are a cause of congenital stationary night blindness. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2017]

GeneCards Summary for RHO Gene

RHO (Rhodopsin) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with RHO include Retinitis Pigmentosa 4 and Night Blindness, Congenital Stationary, Autosomal Dominant 1. Among its related pathways are Organelle biogenesis and maintenance and Peptide ligand-binding receptors. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include G-protein coupled receptor activity and photoreceptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is OPN1SW.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for RHO Gene

  • Photoreceptor required for image-forming vision at low light intensity. Required for photoreceptor cell viability after birth. Light-induced isomerization of 11-cis to all-trans retinal triggers a conformational change leading to G-protein activation and release of all-trans retinal.

Gene Wiki entry for RHO Gene

Additional gene information for RHO Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for RHO Gene

Genomics for RHO Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for RHO Gene

Promoters and enhancers for RHO Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH03I129530 Enhancer 0.7 Ensembl ENCODE 550.8 +1.8 1762 0.8 SP1 GLIS1 ZSCAN4 CTBP2 PRDM10 ZNF444 ZIC2 RHO H1FOO
GH03I129528 Promoter 0.5 EPDnew 550.8 0.0 -19 0.1 RHO GC03M129503
GH03I129591 Promoter/Enhancer 2.6 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 10.4 +72.3 72335 19.4 HDGF PKNOX1 FOXA2 MLX ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A YBX1 FEZF1 DMAP1 PLXND1 RPL32P3 IFT122 LINC02021 ACAD9 H1FX-AS1 RHO ENSG00000244932 ENSG00000203644 H1FOO
GH03I129438 Promoter/Enhancer 2.3 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 10.4 -87.9 -87917 4.5 HDGF PKNOX1 SMAD1 ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 DMAP1 ZNF2 YY1 POLR2B IFT122 MBD4 RPL32P3 PLXND1 RHO GC03P129770 PIR50923 GC03P129766
GH03I129525 Enhancer 1.1 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 18.7 -2.4 -2438 2 HDGF MAX ZIC2 ATF2 POLR2A IKZF1 ZNF24 MYC SPI1 RPL32P3 IFT122 RHO PLXND1 MBD4 GC03M129503
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

GeneHancers around RHO on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the RHO gene promoter:

Genomic Locations for RHO Gene

Genomic Locations for RHO Gene
6,706 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for RHO Gene

Genes around RHO on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
RHO Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for RHO Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for RHO Gene

Proteins for RHO Gene

  • Protein details for RHO Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q16414
    • Q2M249

    Protein attributes for RHO Gene

    348 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    38893 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for RHO Gene

neXtProt entry for RHO Gene

Post-translational modifications for RHO Gene

  • Contains one covalently linked retinal chromophore.
  • Phosphorylated on some or all of the serine and threonine residues present in the C-terminal region.
  • Glycosylation at Asn2 and isoforms=15
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for RHO Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for RHO Gene

Domains & Families for RHO Gene

Gene Families for RHO Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Disease related genes
  • G-protein coupled receptors
  • Potential drug targets
  • Predicted membrane proteins
  • Transporters

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for RHO Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family. Opsin subfamily.
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family. Opsin subfamily.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with RHO: view

Function for RHO Gene

Molecular function for RHO Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
rhodopsin,G protein coupled receptor superfamily,visual pigment of the rod cells of retina
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot BiophysicochemicalProperties:
Absorption: Abs(max)=495 nm;
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Photoreceptor required for image-forming vision at low light intensity. Required for photoreceptor cell viability after birth. Light-induced isomerization of 11-cis to all-trans retinal triggers a conformational change leading to G-protein activation and release of all-trans retinal.

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for RHO Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for RHO Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004871 signal transducer activity IEA --
GO:0004930 G-protein coupled receptor activity TAS 8107847
GO:0005502 11-cis retinal binding ISS --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 12754272
GO:0008020 G-protein coupled photoreceptor activity IBA,ISS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with RHO: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with RHO: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for RHO Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for RHO Gene

MGI Knock Outs for RHO:
  • Rho tm1Jlem
  • Rho tm4.1(RHO*/EGFP)Jhw
  • Rho tm1(EDNRB)Fji
  • Rho tm2Jlem
  • Rho tm2(RHO/GFP)Jhw
  • Rho tm1Phm
  • Rho tm3(RHO/GFP)Jhw
  • Rho tm1Jhw

miRNA for RHO Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target RHO

Clone Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for RHO Gene

Localization for RHO Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for RHO Gene

Membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein. Note=Synthesized in the inner segment (IS) of rod photoreceptor cells before vectorial transport to the rod outer segment (OS) photosensory cilia.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for RHO gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
golgi apparatus 5
extracellular 2
cytoskeleton 2
mitochondrion 2
nucleus 2
endoplasmic reticulum 2
cytosol 2
lysosome 1
endosome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for RHO Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000139 Golgi membrane TAS --
GO:0001750 photoreceptor outer segment IEA,IDA 11767049
GO:0001917 photoreceptor inner segment IEA,IDA 11767049
GO:0005794 Golgi apparatus IDA 11767049
GO:0005886 plasma membrane IDA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with RHO: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for RHO Gene

Pathways & Interactions for RHO Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with RHO: view

Pathways by source for RHO Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for RHO Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001523 retinoid metabolic process TAS --
GO:0006468 protein phosphorylation IEA --
GO:0007165 signal transduction IEA --
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS --
GO:0007601 visual perception IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with RHO: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for RHO Gene

Drugs & Compounds for RHO Gene

(44) Drugs for RHO Gene - From: DrugBank, ApexBio, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Halothane Approved, Vet_approved Pharma Activator, Target, other 2
Palmitic Acid Approved, Experimental Pharma Full agonist, Agonist, Target 23
Zoledronic acid Approved Pharma Inhibition, Inhibitor Potent nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates, Osteoclast function modifiers (important in bone metastasis) 304
Hexadecanal Experimental Pharma Target 0
N-Acetylmethionine Experimental Pharma Target 0

(55) Additional Compounds for RHO Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
trifluoroacetic acid
  • Acide trifluoroacetique
  • Kyselina trifluoroctova
  • Perfluoroacetic acid
  • Trifluoracetic acid

(1) ApexBio Compounds for RHO Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Zoledronic Acid Potent nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates 118072-93-8
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with RHO: view

Drug Products

Transcripts for RHO Gene

mRNA/cDNA for RHO Gene

(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(3) Additional mRNA sequences :
(364) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(1) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for RHO Gene

Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for RHO Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for RHO Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for RHO Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for RHO Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for RHO Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain - Cortex (x8.9), Brain - Frontal Cortex (BA9) (x8.4), Brain - Cerebellar Hemisphere (x5.5), and Brain - Cerebellum (x5.2).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for RHO Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Retina (69.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for RHO Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for RHO Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of RHO Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for RHO Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for RHO Gene:

Tissue specificity: Rod shaped photoreceptor cells which mediates vision in dim light.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for RHO Gene

  • Eye(5)
  • Muscle(3.2)
  • Nervous system(2.5)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for RHO Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • endoderm
  • mesoderm
  • cardiovascular
  • immune
  • integumentary
  • nervous
  • reproductive
  • respiratory
  • skeletal muscle
  • skeleton
Head and neck:
  • brain
  • cerebellum
  • cranial nerve
  • ear
  • eye
  • eyelid
  • face
  • head
  • middle ear
  • nose
  • outer ear
  • skull
  • penis
  • testicle
  • blood
  • blood vessel
  • peripheral nervous system
  • red blood cell
  • skin
  • white blood cell
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with RHO: view

Orthologs for RHO Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for RHO Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia RHO 33 34
  • 99.43 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia RHO 34
  • 93 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia RHO 33 34
  • 92.72 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia RHO 34
  • 91 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia RHO 33 34
  • 89.66 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Rho 33
  • 88.7 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Rho 33 16 34
  • 88.31 (n)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves RHO 33 34
  • 83.72 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia RHO 34
  • 81 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia rho 33
  • 77.87 (n)
Str.5791 33
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia rho-prov 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii RHO (4 of 4) 34
  • 85 (a)
rho 33 34
  • 79 (a)
exorh 33
  • 77.3 (n)
rhol 34
  • 72 (a)
opn1sw2 34
  • 45 (a)
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.11367 33
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.11297 34
  • 34 (a)
-- 34
  • 33 (a)
Species where no ortholog for RHO was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for RHO Gene

Gene Tree for RHO (if available)
Gene Tree for RHO (if available)

Paralogs for RHO Gene

Paralogs for RHO Gene

(8) SIMAP similar genes for RHO Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with RHO: view

Variants for RHO Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for RHO Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 03 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs104893768 pathogenic, Retinitis pigmentosa 4, not provided, Retinitis pigmentosa 4 (RP4) [MIM:613731] 129,528,801(+) C/A coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs104893769 pathogenic, Retinitis pigmentosa 4, Retinitis pigmentosa 4 (RP4) [MIM:613731] 129,528,783(+) C/T coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs104893770 pathogenic, Retinitis pigmentosa 4, Retinitis pigmentosa 4 (RP4) [MIM:613731] 129,528,866(+) T/C coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs104893771 pathogenic, Retinitis pigmentosa 4, Retinitis pigmentosa 4 (RP4) [MIM:613731] 129,528,993(+) T/A coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs104893772 pathogenic, Retinitis pigmentosa 4, Retinitis pigmentosa 4 (RP4) [MIM:613731] 129,528,999(+) G/A coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for RHO Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv4858n100 CNV gain 25217958
nsv3998 CNV deletion 18451855
nsv822251 CNV loss 20364138
nsv955346 CNV deletion 24416366

Variation tolerance for RHO Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 21.2% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.72; 32.77% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for RHO Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for RHO Gene

Disorders for RHO Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(46) MalaCards diseases for RHO Gene - From: HGMD, OMIM, ClinVar, GTR, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search RHO in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Night blindness, congenital stationary, autosomal dominant 1 (CSNBAD1) [MIM:610445]: A non-progressive retinal disorder characterized by impaired night vision, often associated with nystagmus and myopia. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:7846071, ECO:0000269 PubMed:8358437, ECO:0000269 PubMed:9888392}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Retinitis pigmentosa 4 (RP4) [MIM:613731]: A retinal dystrophy belonging to the group of pigmentary retinopathies. Retinitis pigmentosa is characterized by retinal pigment deposits visible on fundus examination and primary loss of rod photoreceptor cells followed by secondary loss of cone photoreceptors. Patients typically have night vision blindness and loss of midperipheral visual field. As their condition progresses, they lose their far peripheral visual field and eventually central vision as well. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:1302614, ECO:0000269 PubMed:1391967, ECO:0000269 PubMed:1833777, ECO:0000269 PubMed:1840561, ECO:0000269 PubMed:1862076, ECO:0000269 PubMed:1897520, ECO:0000269 PubMed:1985460, ECO:0000269 PubMed:19934218, ECO:0000269 PubMed:19960070, ECO:0000269 PubMed:2137202, ECO:0000269 PubMed:2215617, ECO:0000269 PubMed:22334370, ECO:0000269 PubMed:2239971, ECO:0000269 PubMed:7633434, ECO:0000269 PubMed:7981701, ECO:0000269 PubMed:7987326, ECO:0000269 PubMed:7987331, ECO:0000269 PubMed:8045708, ECO:0000269 PubMed:8076945, ECO:0000269 PubMed:8081400, ECO:0000269 PubMed:8088850, ECO:0000269 PubMed:8317502, ECO:0000269 PubMed:8353500, ECO:0000269 PubMed:8554077, ECO:0000269 PubMed:9452035}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Additional Disease Information for RHO

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
Tumor Gene Database
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with RHO: view

No data available for Genatlas for RHO Gene

Publications for RHO Gene

  1. [Digenic association of RHO and RP1 genes with retinitis pigmentosa among Chinese population in Hong Kong]. (PMID: 16185528) Wang DY … Pang CP (Zhonghua yi xue za zhi 2005) 3 22 44 58
  2. Retinitis punctata albescens associated with the Arg135Trp mutation in the rhodopsin gene. (PMID: 8554077) Souied E … Kaplan J (American journal of ophthalmology 1996) 3 4 44 58
  3. Rhodopsin mutation proline347-to-alanine in a family with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa indicates an important role for proline at position 347. (PMID: 7633434) Macke JP … Nathans J (Human molecular genetics 1995) 3 4 22 58
  4. Simultaneous mutation detection in 90 retinal disease genes in multiple patients using a custom-designed 300-kb retinal resequencing chip. (PMID: 20801516) Booij JC … Florijn RJ (Ophthalmology 2011) 3 44 58
  5. Spectrum of rhodopsin mutations in French autosomal dominant rod-cone dystrophy patients. (PMID: 20164459) Audo I … Zeitz C (Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 2010) 3 44 58

Products for RHO Gene

Sources for RHO Gene

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