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Aliases for RFC2 Gene

Aliases for RFC2 Gene

  • Replication Factor C Subunit 2 2 3 3 5
  • Replication Factor C (Activator 1) 2, 40kDa 2 3
  • Activator 1 Subunit 2 3 4
  • RF-C 40 KDa Subunit 3 4
  • A1 40 KDa Subunit 3 4
  • RFC40 3 4
  • Replication Factor C (Activator 1) 2 (40kD) 2
  • Replication Factor C 40 KDa Subunit 4
  • Activator 1 40 KDa Subunit 4
  • Activator 1 2

External Ids for RFC2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for RFC2 Gene

  • GC07M072286
  • GC07M073044
  • GC07M073057
  • GC07M073090
  • GC07M073283
  • GC07M073645
  • GC07M069527

Summaries for RFC2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for RFC2 Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the activator 1 small subunits family. The elongation of primed DNA templates by DNA polymerase delta and epsilon requires the action of the accessory proteins, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and replication factor C (RFC). Replication factor C, also called activator 1, is a protein complex consisting of five distinct subunits. This gene encodes the 40 kD subunit, which has been shown to be responsible for binding ATP and may help promote cell survival. Disruption of this gene is associated with Williams syndrome. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been described. A pseudogene of this gene has been defined on chromosome 2. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

GeneCards Summary for RFC2 Gene

RFC2 (Replication Factor C Subunit 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with RFC2 include Williams-Beuren Syndrome and Conventional Central Osteosarcoma. Among its related pathways are Gene Expression and Cell Cycle, Mitotic. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include magnesium chelatase activity and DNA clamp loader activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for RFC2 Gene

  • The elongation of primed DNA templates by DNA polymerase delta and epsilon requires the action of the accessory proteins proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and activator 1. This subunit binds ATP (By similarity).

Gene Wiki entry for RFC2 Gene

Additional gene information for RFC2 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for RFC2 Gene

Genomics for RFC2 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for RFC2 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for RFC2 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH07J074252 Promoter/Enhancer 2.3 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 661.3 -0.7 -721 4.4 HDGF PKNOX1 ARNT ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 IRF4 YY1 RFC2 GC07M074256 GC07P074254 POM121B MIR590 BAZ1B GTF2IRD2P1 NSUN5 GTF2IRD2 GTF2IRD2B
GH07J074171 Promoter/Enhancer 2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 20.7 +79.6 79610 6 HDGF PKNOX1 CLOCK ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 YY1 SLC30A9 POLR2B EIF4H GC07M074172 POM121B LIMK1 RFC2 TBL2 MIR590 NSUN5 ABHD11-AS1 FKBP6
GH07J073736 Promoter/Enhancer 2.8 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 9.8 +513.7 513733 7.8 CLOCK ZFP64 DMAP1 YY1 SLC30A9 E2F8 ZNF143 SP3 ZNF610 GLIS1 ABHD11 GC07P073742 GC07P073741 METTL27 STAG3L3 POM121B ABHD11-AS1 POM121 NSUN5P2 MIR590
GH07J073715 Promoter/Enhancer 2.6 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 9.8 +536.9 536904 4.9 CLOCK SMAD1 FOXA2 ARNT ZFP64 ARID4B NEUROD1 SIN3A FEZF1 ZNF766 STX1A POM121 POM121B NSUN5P2 MIR590 STAG3L3 NSUN5 TBL2 PMS2P7 RFC2
GH07J073575 Promoter/Enhancer 2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 12.5 +676.6 676624 4 HDGF SMAD1 SIN3A YY1 POLR2B ZNF766 ZNF143 ZNF207 SP3 SP5 TBL2 POM121B MLXIPL POM121 NSUN5P2 BCL7B STAG3L3 RFC2 BAZ1B ABHD11-AS1
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around RFC2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the RFC2 gene promoter:
  • Ik-1
  • E2F-1
  • E2F
  • FOXO1a
  • FOXO1
  • HOXA3
  • FOXD1
  • HNF-1A
  • HNF-1
  • NF-1

Genomic Locations for RFC2 Gene

Genomic Locations for RFC2 Gene
22,974 bases
Minus strand
22,946 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for RFC2 Gene

Genes around RFC2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
RFC2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for RFC2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for RFC2 Gene

Proteins for RFC2 Gene

  • Protein details for RFC2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Replication factor C subunit 2
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B5BU07
    • D3DXG3
    • P32846
    • Q9BU93

    Protein attributes for RFC2 Gene

    354 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    39157 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Heterotetramer of subunits RFC2, RFC3, RFC4 and RFC5 that can form a complex either with RFC1 or with RAD17. The former interacts with PCNA in the presence of ATP, while the latter has ATPase activity but is not stimulated by PCNA. RFC2 also interacts with PRKAR1A; the complex may be involved in cell survival (PubMed:15655353). Interacts with DDX11 (PubMed:18499658).

    Alternative splice isoforms for RFC2 Gene


neXtProt entry for RFC2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for RFC2 Gene

  • Ubiquitination at Lys192, posLast=176176, and Lys82
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for RFC2 Gene

Domains & Families for RFC2 Gene

Gene Families for RFC2 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Disease related genes
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the activator 1 small subunits family.
  • Belongs to the activator 1 small subunits family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with RFC2: view

Function for RFC2 Gene

Molecular function for RFC2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
The elongation of primed DNA templates by DNA polymerase delta and epsilon requires the action of the accessory proteins proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and activator 1. This subunit binds ATP (By similarity).
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
replication factor C2,component of complex A-1,DNA polymerase accessory protein "clamp loader",ATP dependent,required to assemble PCNA and polymerase delta on the DNA template

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for RFC2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003677 DNA binding IEA --
GO:0003689 contributes_to DNA clamp loader activity IDA 12930902
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 9488738
GO:0005524 ATP binding IEA,TAS --
GO:0019899 enzyme binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with RFC2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with RFC2: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for RFC2 Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Model Products

miRNA for RFC2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target RFC2

Clone Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for RFC2 Gene

Localization for RFC2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for RFC2 Gene

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for RFC2 gene
Compartment Confidence
nucleus 5
cytosol 3
golgi apparatus 2
extracellular 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Nucleoplasm (3)
  • Golgi apparatus (2)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for RFC2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus IBA --
GO:0005654 nucleoplasm TAS --
GO:0005663 DNA replication factor C complex IDA 9488738
GO:0031390 Ctf18 RFC-like complex IDA 12930902
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with RFC2: view

Pathways & Interactions for RFC2 Gene

SuperPathway Contained pathways
1 Telomere C-strand (Lagging Strand) Synthesis
2 Translesion synthesis by Y family DNA polymerases bypasses lesions on DNA template
3 DNA Double-Strand Break Repair
4 Transcription-Coupled Nucleotide Excision Repair (TC-NER)
5 Homologous DNA Pairing and Strand Exchange
genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with RFC2: view

Pathways by source for RFC2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for RFC2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006260 DNA replication TAS,IEA --
GO:0006261 DNA-dependent DNA replication IBA --
GO:0006281 DNA repair IBA --
GO:0006283 transcription-coupled nucleotide-excision repair TAS --
GO:0006296 nucleotide-excision repair, DNA incision, 5-to lesion TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with RFC2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for RFC2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for RFC2 Gene

(1) Drugs for RFC2 Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with RFC2: view

Transcripts for RFC2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for RFC2 Gene

(8) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(4) Additional mRNA sequences :
(10) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(13) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for RFC2 Gene

Replication factor C (activator 1) 2, 40kDa:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for RFC2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7a · 7b · 7c ^ 8a · 8b ^ 9a · 9b · 9c ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12a · 12b · 12c
SP1: - - - -
SP2: -
SP4: - -
SP5: -
SP6: -

Relevant External Links for RFC2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for RFC2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for RFC2 Gene

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for RFC2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Lung (10.7), Bone (10.3), and Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (6.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for RFC2 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for RFC2 Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of RFC2 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for RFC2 Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for RFC2 Gene

  • Liver(4.2)
  • Nervous system(3.8)
  • Skin(3.4)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for RFC2 Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • endoderm
  • mesoderm
  • cardiovascular
  • digestive
  • endocrine
  • immune
  • integumentary
  • nervous
  • reproductive
  • respiratory
  • skeletal muscle
  • skeleton
  • urinary
Head and neck:
  • brain
  • cerebellum
  • cheek
  • chin
  • cranial nerve
  • ear
  • eye
  • eyelid
  • face
  • forehead
  • head
  • jaw
  • larynx
  • lip
  • mandible
  • maxilla
  • middle ear
  • mouth
  • neck
  • nose
  • outer ear
  • skull
  • tongue
  • tooth
  • vocal cord
  • aorta
  • chest wall
  • clavicle
  • esophagus
  • heart
  • heart valve
  • lung
  • rib
  • rib cage
  • scapula
  • sternum
  • duodenum
  • intestine
  • kidney
  • large intestine
  • pancreas
  • small intestine
  • stomach
  • anus
  • pelvis
  • rectum
  • ureter
  • urethra
  • urinary bladder
  • ankle
  • arm
  • digit
  • elbow
  • femur
  • fibula
  • finger
  • foot
  • forearm
  • hand
  • hip
  • humerus
  • knee
  • lower limb
  • nail
  • radius
  • shin
  • shoulder
  • thigh
  • tibia
  • toe
  • ulna
  • upper limb
  • wrist
  • blood
  • blood vessel
  • coagulation system
  • hair
  • peripheral nerve
  • peripheral nervous system
  • skin
  • spinal column
  • spinal cord
  • vertebrae
  • white blood cell
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with RFC2: view

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for RFC2 Gene

Orthologs for RFC2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for RFC2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia RFC2 34 33
  • 99.25 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia RFC2 34
  • 94 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia RFC2 34 33
  • 87.78 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia RFC2 34 33
  • 86.84 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Rfc2 16 34 33
  • 84.43 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Rfc2 33
  • 84.43 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia RFC2 34
  • 74 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves -- 34
  • 86 (a)
RFC2 34 33
  • 77.29 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia RFC2 34
  • 93 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia rfc2 33
  • 76.65 (n)
Str.11896 33
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.3920 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii rfc2 34 33
  • 75.07 (n)
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.4413 33
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta RfC40 35
  • 76 (a)
RfC4 34 33
  • 68.71 (n)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP007477 33
  • 64.81 (n)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea rfc-2 34 35 33
  • 60.06 (n)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_ADR111W 33
  • 62.09 (n)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0C03718g 33
  • 60.66 (n)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes RFC4 36 34 33
  • 59.07 (n)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons RFC2 33
  • 63.46 (n)
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os04g0569000 33
  • 63.66 (n)
Os.13010 33
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 34
  • 74 (a)
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU10467 33
  • 61.28 (n)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes rfc4 33
  • 60.8 (n)
Species where no ortholog for RFC2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for RFC2 Gene

Gene Tree for RFC2 (if available)
Gene Tree for RFC2 (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for RFC2: view image

Paralogs for RFC2 Gene

(2) SIMAP similar genes for RFC2 Gene using alignment to 13 proteins:

  • F8WC37_HUMAN
  • H7C596_HUMAN
  • H7C5A0_HUMAN
  • H7C5G4_HUMAN
  • H7C5P1_HUMAN
  • H7C5P4_HUMAN
  • H7C5Q7_HUMAN
  • H7C5S7_HUMAN
  • Q75MT5_HUMAN Pseudogenes for RFC2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with RFC2: view

No data available for Paralogs for RFC2 Gene

Variants for RFC2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for RFC2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 07 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000034531 -- 74,247,554(-) C/T intron_variant
rs1000134831 -- 74,254,311(-) T/C 5_prime_UTR_variant, coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant, non_coding_transcript_variant
rs1000217670 -- 74,254,077(-) G/A intron_variant
rs1001141045 -- 74,234,880(-) A/C intron_variant
rs1001220356 -- 74,255,119(-) C/T upstream_transcript_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for RFC2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv3613698 CNV loss 21293372
esv3613705 CNV loss 21293372
nsv464563 CNV gain 19166990
nsv607480 CNV gain 21841781
nsv607481 CNV loss 21841781
nsv819656 CNV loss 19587683
nsv831030 CNV gain 17160897

Variation tolerance for RFC2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 27.9% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.92; 19.03% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for RFC2 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for RFC2 Gene

Disorders for RFC2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(4) MalaCards diseases for RFC2 Gene - From: HGMD, Orphanet, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
williams-beuren syndrome
  • wbs
conventional central osteosarcoma
  • conventional osteosarcoma
bone osteosarcoma
  • osteosarcoma of bone
blepharophimosis, ptosis, and epicanthus inversus
  • bpes
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search RFC2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Note=RFC2 is located in the Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) critical region. WBS results from a hemizygous deletion of several genes on chromosome 7q11.23, thought to arise as a consequence of unequal crossing over between highly homologous low-copy repeat sequences flanking the deleted region (PubMed:11003705). {ECO:0000269 PubMed:11003705}.

Additional Disease Information for RFC2

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with RFC2: view

No data available for Genatlas for RFC2 Gene

Publications for RFC2 Gene

  1. Comparative genomic sequence analysis of the Williams syndrome region (LIMK1-RFC2) of human chromosome 7q11.23. (PMID: 11003705) Martindale DW … Koop BF (Mammalian genome : official journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society 2000) 3 4 22 58
  2. Sequence and expression in Escherichia coli of the 40-kDa subunit of activator 1 (replication factor C) of HeLa cells. (PMID: 1313560) Chen M … Hurwitz J (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1992) 2 3 4 58
  3. Association between genetic variants in the base excision repair pathway and outcomes after hematopoietic cell transplantations. (PMID: 20226869) Thyagarajan B … Arora M (Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation 2010) 3 44 58
  4. Variation within DNA repair pathway genes and risk of multiple sclerosis. (PMID: 20522537) Briggs FB … International Multiple Sclerosis Genetics Consortium (American journal of epidemiology 2010) 3 44 58
  5. Polymorphisms in the base excision repair pathway and graft-versus-host disease. (PMID: 20574454) Arora M … Thyagarajan B (Leukemia 2010) 3 44 58

Products for RFC2 Gene

Sources for RFC2 Gene