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Aliases for REN Gene

Aliases for REN Gene

  • Renin 2 3 3 5
  • Angiotensinogenase 3 4
  • Angiotensin-Forming Enzyme 3
  • Renin Precursor, Renal 3
  • EC 4
  • HNFJ2 3

External Ids for REN Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for REN Gene

  • GC01M201847
  • GC01M199584
  • GC01M200484
  • GC01M201301
  • GC01M200855
  • GC01M202390
  • GC01M175289

Summaries for REN Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for REN Gene

  • Renin catalyzes the first step in the activation pathway of angiotensinogen--a cascade that can result in aldosterone release,vasoconstriction, and increase in blood pressure. Renin, an aspartyl protease, cleaves angiotensinogen to form angiotensin I, which is converted to angiotensin II by angiotensin I converting enzyme, an important regulator of blood pressure and electrolyte balance. Transcript variants that encode different protein isoforms and that arise from alternative splicing and the use of alternative promoters have been described, but their full-length nature has not been determined. Mutations in this gene have been shown to cause familial hyperproreninemia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for REN Gene

REN (Renin) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with REN include Hyperuricemic Nephropathy, Familial Juvenile, 2 and Renal Tubular Dysgenesis. Among its related pathways are ACE Inhibitor Pathway, Pharmacodynamics and Peptide hormone metabolism. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include signaling receptor binding and endopeptidase activity. An important paralog of this gene is NAPSA.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for REN Gene

  • Renin is a highly specific endopeptidase, whose only known function is to generate angiotensin I from angiotensinogen in the plasma, initiating a cascade of reactions that produce an elevation of blood pressure and increased sodium retention by the kidney.

Gene Wiki entry for REN Gene

Additional gene information for REN Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for REN Gene

Genomics for REN Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for REN Gene

Promoters and enhancers for REN Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH01J204189 Enhancer 0.9 Ensembl ENCODE 658.7 -0.6 -627 2.1 JUN CEBPG ZIC2 ZNF48 ZFHX2 POLR2A VEZF1 CREM EZH2 SP5 REN ETNK2 ERLNC1 ENSG00000231691 PLEKHA6 NFASC KISS1
GH01J204166 Promoter 0.6 EPDnew 650.3 +24.0 23967 0.1 ZNF140 REN ZC3H11A SNRPE MDM4 GC01M204154 ENSG00000225522
GH01J204193 Promoter/Enhancer 1.6 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 6 -6.5 -6461 6.6 PKNOX1 NEUROD1 SIN3A YBX1 TCF12 FOS MCM5 ZNF488 ZNF658 NBN KISS1 ZC3H11A MDM4 ZBED6 PPP1R15B SNRPE ETNK2 ERLNC1 ENSG00000231691 PLEKHA6
GH01J204162 Enhancer 0.9 ENCODE 10.3 +27.7 27706 0.2 PKNOX1 ARID4B SIN3A ZNF48 GLIS2 ARID2 ZNF143 ATF7 DEK RXRA REN GC01M204154 ENSG00000225522
GH01J204171 Enhancer 0.8 ENCODE 11.4 +18.2 18150 1.6 FOXA2 RARA YY1 ZNF766 FOS RXRA ZBTB11 CEBPB ELF1 ZNF592 SNRPE ZC3H11A ZBED6 GOLT1A ERLNC1 REN SOX13 ENSG00000231691 PLEKHA6 MDM4
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around REN on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the REN gene promoter:
  • ATF-2
  • deltaCREB
  • CREB
  • c-Jun
  • AP-1
  • c-Fos

Genomic Locations for REN Gene

Genomic Locations for REN Gene
35,509 bases
Minus strand
11,522 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for REN Gene

Genes around REN on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
REN Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for REN Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for REN Gene

Proteins for REN Gene

  • Protein details for REN Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q6FI38
    • Q6T5C2

    Protein attributes for REN Gene

    406 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    45057 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with ATP6AP2.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for REN Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for REN Gene


neXtProt entry for REN Gene

Post-translational modifications for REN Gene

  • Glycosylation at Asn141 and posLast=7171
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Glycosylation from GlyConnect
    • RENI_HUMAN (513)

Other Protein References for REN Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for REN Gene

Domains & Families for REN Gene

Gene Families for REN Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Candidate cardiovascular disease genes
  • Disease related genes
  • Enzymes
  • FDA approved drug targets
  • Predicted intracellular proteins
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for REN Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the peptidase A1 family.
  • Belongs to the peptidase A1 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with REN: view

Function for REN Gene

Molecular function for REN Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Renin is a highly specific endopeptidase, whose only known function is to generate angiotensin I from angiotensinogen in the plasma, initiating a cascade of reactions that produce an elevation of blood pressure and increased sodium retention by the kidney.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Cleavage of Leu- -Xaa bond in angiotensinogen to generate angiotensin I.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Interaction with ATP6AP2 results in a 5-fold increased efficiency in angiotensinogen processing.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot BiophysicochemicalProperties:
Kinetic parameters: KM=1 uM for angiotensinogen (in absence of ATP6AP2); KM=0.15 uM for angiotensinogen (in presence of membrane-bound ATP6AP2);
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
renin,40kDa,angiotensin-forming enzyme

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for REN Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for REN Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for REN Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004175 endopeptidase activity IEA --
GO:0004190 aspartic-type endopeptidase activity IDA,IEA 12045255
GO:0005102 signaling receptor binding IEA,IPI 12045255
GO:0005159 insulin-like growth factor receptor binding IEA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 20927107
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with REN: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with REN: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for REN Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for REN Gene

MGI Knock Outs for REN:

Animal Model Products

miRNA for REN Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target REN

Clone Products

No data available for Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for REN Gene

Localization for REN Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for REN Gene

Secreted. Membrane. Note=Associated to membranes via binding to ATP6AP2.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for REN gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
extracellular 5
lysosome 4
mitochondrion 3
cytosol 3
cytoskeleton 2
peroxisome 2
nucleus 2
endoplasmic reticulum 2
golgi apparatus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for REN Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0005615 extracellular space IEA,IDA 12045255
GO:0005622 intracellular IEA --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with REN: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for REN Gene

Pathways & Interactions for REN Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with REN: view

Pathways by source for REN Gene

2 KEGG pathways for REN Gene
1 Qiagen pathway for REN Gene
1 Cell Signaling Technology pathway for REN Gene

SIGNOR curated interactions for REN Gene


Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for REN Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001822 kidney development IMP 16116425
GO:0001823 mesonephros development IEA --
GO:0002003 angiotensin maturation IEA,TAS --
GO:0002016 regulation of blood volume by renin-angiotensin IEA --
GO:0002018 renin-angiotensin regulation of aldosterone production IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with REN: view

Drugs & Compounds for REN Gene

(125) Drugs for REN Gene - From: DrugBank, PharmGKB, ApexBio, DGIdb, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Aliskiren Approved, Investigational Pharma inhibitor, Target Direct renin inhibitor 0
Remikiren Approved Pharma inhibitor, Target 0
Minoxidil Approved, Investigational Pharma Activator, Target Kir6 channel (KATP) opener 35
N,N-Dimethylformamide Experimental Pharma Target 0
Enalkiren Experimental Pharma Target, inhibitor 0

(47) Additional Compounds for REN Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • Na(+)
  • Na+
  • SODIUM ion
angiotensin I
  • I, angiotensin
Full agonist, Agonist
  • 1-HYDROXY-3-methylbutane
  • 2-Methyl-4-butanol
  • 3-Methyl-1-butanol
  • 3-Methylbutanol
  • Alcool isoamylique
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with REN: view

Transcripts for REN Gene

mRNA/cDNA for REN Gene

(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(5) Additional mRNA sequences :
(47) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(2) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for REN Gene

Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for REN Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for REN Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for REN Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for REN Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for REN Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Kidney - Cortex (x43.6).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for REN Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Fetal ovary (45.5), Kidney (15.6), and Fetal testis (7.9).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for REN Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for REN Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of REN Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for REN Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for REN Gene

  • Intestine(4.4)
  • Kidney(4.3)
  • Blood(4)
  • Heart(3.8)
  • Adrenal gland(3.6)
  • Urine(3.4)
  • Nervous system(3.3)
  • Muscle(3.2)
  • Liver(2.5)
  • Lung(2.4)
  • Thyroid gland(2)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for REN Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • endoderm
  • mesoderm
  • cardiovascular
  • endocrine
  • integumentary
  • nervous
  • reproductive
  • respiratory
  • skeleton
  • urinary
Head and neck:
  • brain
  • ear
  • eye
  • face
  • head
  • skull
  • heart
  • lung
  • kidney
  • placenta
  • uterus
  • ankle
  • digit
  • elbow
  • finger
  • foot
  • hand
  • hip
  • knee
  • lower limb
  • shoulder
  • toe
  • upper limb
  • wrist
  • blood
  • blood vessel
  • red blood cell
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with REN: view

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for REN Gene

Orthologs for REN Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for REN Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia REN 34 33
  • 99.51 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia REN 34 33
  • 81.16 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia REN 34 33
  • 80.1 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Ren1 16 34 33
  • 77.47 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Ren 33
  • 76.17 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 57 (a)
-- 34
  • 54 (a)
-- 34
  • 52 (a)
-- 34
  • 51 (a)
-- 34
  • 50 (a)
-- 34
  • 48 (a)
-- 34
  • 42 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia REN 34
  • 52 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves REN 34 33
  • 65.32 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia REN 34
  • 52 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia ren 33
  • 60.79 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii ren 34 33
  • 58.95 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG10104 35 33
  • 49.55 (n)
CG5860 35
  • 36 (a)
pcl 35
  • 35 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea asp-3 34
  • 33 (a)
C11D2.2 35
  • 32 (a)
asp-2 35
  • 31 (a)
F59D6.2 35
  • 29 (a)
F28A12.4 35
  • 26 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes PEP4 34
  • 33 (a)
Species where no ortholog for REN was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for REN Gene

Gene Tree for REN (if available)
Gene Tree for REN (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for REN: view image

Paralogs for REN Gene

Paralogs for REN Gene

(7) SIMAP similar genes for REN Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with REN: view

Variants for REN Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for REN Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 01 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs11571117 benign, Familial juvenile hyperuricemic nephropathy, Renal dysplasia 204,159,439(-) C/T coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs121917740 pathogenic, Hyperproreninemia, familial 204,155,078(-) G/A coding_sequence_variant, stop_gained
rs121917741 pathogenic, Renal dysplasia 204,162,117(-) G/A coding_sequence_variant, stop_gained
rs121917742 pathogenic, Renal dysplasia, Renal tubular dysgenesis (RTD) [MIM:267430] 204,159,399(-) C/T coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs121917743 pathogenic, likely-pathogenic, Hyperuricemic nephropathy, familial juvenile, 2, Familial juvenile hyperuricemic nephropathy 2 (HNFJ2) [MIM:613092] 204,166,247(-) A/C/T coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for REN Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv2762138 CNV gain 21179565
esv3588613 CNV loss 21293372

Variation tolerance for REN Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 24% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.23; 24.68% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for REN Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for REN Gene

Disorders for REN Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(121) MalaCards diseases for REN Gene - From: HGMD, OMIM, ClinVar, GTR, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
hyperuricemic nephropathy, familial juvenile, 2
  • hnfj2
renal tubular dysgenesis
  • rtd
renal dysplasia
  • renal cell dysplasia
renovascular hypertension
  • hypertension renovascular
conn's syndrome
  • adrenal cortical adenoma
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search REN in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Renal tubular dysgenesis (RTD) [MIM:267430]: Autosomal recessive severe disorder of renal tubular development characterized by persistent fetal anuria and perinatal death, probably due to pulmonary hypoplasia from early-onset oligohydramnios (the Potter phenotype). {ECO:0000269 PubMed:16116425}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Familial juvenile hyperuricemic nephropathy 2 (HNFJ2) [MIM:613092]: A renal disease characterized by juvenile onset of hyperuricemia, slowly progressive renal failure and anemia. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:19664745}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Additional Disease Information for REN

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with REN: view

No data available for Genatlas for REN Gene

Publications for REN Gene

  1. Renin gene polymorphisms and haplotypes, blood pressure, and responses to renin-angiotensin system inhibition. (PMID: 17562974) Moore N … Stanton AV (Hypertension (Dallas, Tex. : 1979) 2007) 3 22 44 58
  2. Human variation in alcohol response is influenced by variation in neuronal signaling genes. (PMID: 20201926) Joslyn G … White RL (Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research 2010) 3 44 58
  3. Personalized smoking cessation: interactions between nicotine dose, dependence and quit-success genotype score. (PMID: 20379614) Rose JE … Uhl GR (Molecular medicine (Cambridge, Mass.) 2010) 3 44 58
  4. Variation at the NFATC2 locus increases the risk of thiazolidinedione-induced edema in the Diabetes REduction Assessment with ramipril and rosiglitazone Medication (DREAM) study. (PMID: 20628086) Bailey SD … DREAM investigators (Diabetes care 2010) 3 44 58
  5. Identification of fetal and maternal single nucleotide polymorphisms in candidate genes that predispose to spontaneous preterm labor with intact membranes. (PMID: 20452482) Romero R … Menon R (American journal of obstetrics and gynecology 2010) 3 44 58

Products for REN Gene

Sources for REN Gene

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