Aliases for RARA Gene
External Ids for RARA Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for RARA Gene
This gene represents a nuclear retinoic acid receptor. The encoded protein, retinoic acid receptor alpha, regulates transcription in a ligand-dependent manner. This gene has been implicated in regulation of development, differentiation, apoptosis, granulopoeisis, and transcription of clock genes. Translocations between this locus and several other loci have been associated with acute promyelocytic leukemia. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this locus.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]
GeneCards Summary for RARA Gene
RARA (Retinoic Acid Receptor Alpha) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with RARA include Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia and Leukemia. Among its related pathways are Transcriptional misregulation in cancer and Signaling by GPCR. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include DNA-binding transcription factor activity and protein heterodimerization activity. An important paralog of this gene is RARB.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for RARA Gene
Receptor for retinoic acid (PubMed:19850744, PubMed:16417524, PubMed:20215566). Retinoic acid receptors bind as heterodimers to their target response elements in response to their ligands, all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acid, and regulate gene expression in various biological processes (PubMed:28167758). The RXR/RAR heterodimers bind to the retinoic acid response elements (RARE) composed of tandem 5'-AGGTCA-3' sites known as DR1-DR5 (PubMed:28167758). In the absence of ligand, the RXR-RAR heterodimers associate with a multiprotein complex containing transcription corepressors that induce histone deacetylation, chromatin condensation and transcriptional suppression (PubMed:16417524). On ligand binding, the corepressors dissociate from the receptors and associate with the coactivators leading to transcriptional activation (PubMed:9267036, PubMed:19850744, PubMed:20215566). Formation of a complex with histone deacetylases might lead to inhibition of RARE DNA element binding and to transcriptional repression (PubMed:28167758). Transcriptional activation and RARE DNA element binding might be supported by the transcription factor KLF2 (PubMed:28167758). RARA plays an essential role in the regulation of retinoic acid-induced germ cell development during spermatogenesis (By similarity). Has a role in the survival of early spermatocytes at the beginning prophase of meiosis (By similarity). In Sertoli cells, may promote the survival and development of early meiotic prophase spermatocytes (By similarity). In concert with RARG, required for skeletal growth, matrix homeostasis and growth plate function (By similarity). Together with RXRA, positively regulates microRNA-10a expression, thereby inhibiting the GATA6/VCAM1 signaling response to pulsatile shear stress in vascular endothelial cells (PubMed:28167758). In association with HDAC3, HDAC5 and HDAC7 corepressors, plays a role in the repression of microRNA-10a and thereby promotes the inflammatory response (PubMed:28167758).
Retinoic acid receptors (RARs) are nuclear hormone receptors of the NR1B class, which function as heterodimers with retinoid X receptors (RXRs). There are three distinct RAR subtypes: RARalpha, present in most tissue types; and RARbeta and RARgamma, with more selective expression.