Aliases for RAN Gene
External Ids for RAN Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for RAN Gene
RAN (ras-related nuclear protein) is a small GTP binding protein belonging to the RAS superfamily that is essential for the translocation of RNA and proteins through the nuclear pore complex. The RAN protein is also involved in control of DNA synthesis and cell cycle progression. Nuclear localization of RAN requires the presence of regulator of chromosome condensation 1 (RCC1). Mutations in RAN disrupt DNA synthesis. Because of its many functions, it is likely that RAN interacts with several other proteins. RAN regulates formation and organization of the microtubule network independently of its role in the nucleus-cytosol exchange of macromolecules. RAN could be a key signaling molecule regulating microtubule polymerization during mitosis. RCC1 generates a high local concentration of RAN-GTP around chromatin which, in turn, induces the local nucleation of microtubules. RAN is an androgen receptor (AR) coactivator that binds differentially with different lengths of polyglutamine within the androgen receptor. Polyglutamine repeat expansion in the AR is linked to Kennedy's disease (X-linked spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy). RAN coactivation of the AR diminishes with polyglutamine expansion within the AR, and this weak coactivation may lead to partial androgen insensitivity during the development of Kennedy's disease. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
GeneCards Summary for RAN Gene
RAN (RAN, Member RAS Oncogene Family) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with RAN include Pancreatic Intraductal Papillary-Colloid Carcinoma and Teratocarcinoma. Among its related pathways are FoxO family signaling and HIV Life Cycle. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include GTP binding.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for RAN Gene
GTPase involved in nucleocytoplasmic transport, participating both to the import and the export from the nucleus of proteins and RNAs (PubMed:10400640, PubMed:8276887, PubMed:8896452, PubMed:8636225, PubMed:8692944, PubMed:9351834, PubMed:9428644, PubMed:9822603, PubMed:26272610). Switches between a cytoplasmic GDP- and a nuclear GTP-bound state by nucleotide exchange and GTP hydrolysis (PubMed:7819259, PubMed:8896452, PubMed:8636225, PubMed:8692944, PubMed:9351834, PubMed:9428644, PubMed:9822603, PubMed:29040603, PubMed:11336674, PubMed:26272610). Nuclear import receptors such as importin beta bind their substrates only in the absence of GTP-bound RAN and release them upon direct interaction with GTP-bound RAN, while export receptors behave in the opposite way. Thereby, RAN controls cargo loading and release by transport receptors in the proper compartment and ensures the directionality of the transport (PubMed:8896452, PubMed:9351834, PubMed:9428644). Interaction with RANBP1 induces a conformation change in the complex formed by XPO1 and RAN that triggers the release of the nuclear export signal of cargo proteins (PubMed:20485264). RAN (GTP-bound form) triggers microtubule assembly at mitotic chromosomes and is required for normal mitotic spindle assembly and chromosome segregation (PubMed:10408446, PubMed:29040603). Required for normal progress through mitosis (PubMed:8421051, PubMed:12194828, PubMed:29040603). The complex with BIRC5/survivin plays a role in mitotic spindle formation by serving as a physical scaffold to help deliver the RAN effector molecule TPX2 to microtubules (PubMed:18591255). Acts as a negative regulator of the kinase activity of VRK1 and VRK2 (PubMed:18617507). Enhances AR-mediated transactivation. Transactivation decreases as the poly-Gln length within AR increases (PubMed:10400640).