Aliases for RAC1 Gene
External Ids for RAC1 Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for RAC1 Gene
The protein encoded by this gene is a GTPase which belongs to the RAS superfamily of small GTP-binding proteins. Members of this superfamily appear to regulate a diverse array of cellular events, including the control of cell growth, cytoskeletal reorganization, and the activation of protein kinases. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]
The RAC1 P29S mutation is the third most common protein-coding hotspot mutation in melanomas, ocurring in 4-9%. A preclinical study has shown that this mutation confers resistance to BRAF inhibition in-vitro.
GeneCards Summary for RAC1 Gene
RAC1 (Rac Family Small GTPase 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with RAC1 include Mental Retardation, Autosomal Dominant 48 and Microcephaly-Corpus Callosum And Cerebellar Vermis Hypoplasia-Facial Dysmorphism-Intellectual Disability Syndrom. Among its related pathways are Regulation of activated PAK-2p34 by proteasome mediated degradation and Semaphorin interactions. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include GTP binding and enzyme binding. An important paralog of this gene is RAC3.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for RAC1 Gene
Plasma membrane-associated small GTPase which cycles between active GTP-bound and inactive GDP-bound states. In its active state, binds to a variety of effector proteins to regulate cellular responses such as secretory processes, phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, epithelial cell polarization, neurons adhesion, migration and differentiation, and growth-factor induced formation of membrane ruffles (PubMed:1643658, PubMed:28886345). Rac1 p21/rho GDI heterodimer is the active component of the cytosolic factor sigma 1, which is involved in stimulation of the NADPH oxidase activity in macrophages. Essential for the SPATA13-mediated regulation of cell migration and adhesion assembly and disassembly. Stimulates PKN2 kinase activity (PubMed:9121475). In concert with RAB7A, plays a role in regulating the formation of RBs (ruffled borders) in osteoclasts (PubMed:1643658). In podocytes, promotes nuclear shuttling of NR3C2; this modulation is required for a proper kidney functioning. Required for atypical chemokine receptor ACKR2-induced LIMK1-PAK1-dependent phosphorylation of cofilin (CFL1) and for up-regulation of ACKR2 from endosomal compartment to cell membrane, increasing its efficiency in chemokine uptake and degradation. In neurons, is involved in dendritic spine formation and synaptic plasticity (By similarity). In synapses, seems to mediate the regulation of F-actin cluster formation performed by SHANK3.
Isoform B has an accelerated GEF-independent GDP/GTP exchange and an impaired GTP hydrolysis, which is restored partially by GTPase-activating proteins. It is able to bind to the GTPase-binding domain of PAK but not full-length PAK in a GTP-dependent manner, suggesting that the insertion does not completely abolish effector interaction.
Small G proteins (small GTPases) are homologous to Galpha proteins and are often referred to as the Ras proto-oncogene superfamily. Small GTPases regulate a wide variety of processes in the cell, including growth, differentiation, movement and lipid vesicle transport.