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Aliases for QDPR Gene

Aliases for QDPR Gene

  • Quinoid Dihydropteridine Reductase 2 3 4 5
  • Short Chain Dehydrogenase/Reductase Family 33C Member 1 3 4
  • 6,7-Dihydropteridine Reductase 2 3
  • SDR33C1 3 4
  • HDHPR 3 4
  • DHPR 3 4
  • Short Chain Dehydrogenase/Reductase Family 33C, Member 1 2
  • Testis Secretory Sperm-Binding Protein Li 236P 3
  • Dihydropteridine Reductase 3
  • EC 4
  • PKU2 3

External Ids for QDPR Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for QDPR Gene

  • GC04M017302
  • GC04M017430
  • GC04M017176
  • GC04M017238
  • GC04M017164
  • GC04M017097
  • GC04M016842

Summaries for QDPR Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for QDPR Gene

  • This gene encodes the enzyme dihydropteridine reductase, which catalyzes the NADH-mediated reduction of quinonoid dihydrobiopterin. This enzyme is an essential component of the pterin-dependent aromatic amino acid hydroxylating systems. Mutations in this gene resulting in QDPR deficiency include aberrant splicing, amino acid substitutions, insertions, or premature terminations. Dihydropteridine reductase deficiency presents as atypical phenylketonuria due to insufficient production of biopterin, a cofactor for phenylalanine hydroxylase. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for QDPR Gene

QDPR (Quinoid Dihydropteridine Reductase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with QDPR include Hyperphenylalaninemia, Bh4-Deficient, C and Phenylketonuria. Among its related pathways are Folate biosynthesis and Histidine, lysine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, proline and tryptophan catabolism. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and electron transfer activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for QDPR Gene

  • The product of this enzyme, tetrahydrobiopterin (BH-4), is an essential cofactor for phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan hydroxylases.

Gene Wiki entry for QDPR Gene

Additional gene information for QDPR Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for QDPR Gene

Genomics for QDPR Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for QDPR Gene

Promoters and enhancers for QDPR Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH04J017510 Promoter/Enhancer 2.1 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 695.8 +0.6 621 2.6 ARNT ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF48 YY1 GLIS2 ZNF143 RXRA REST QDPR GC04M017492
GH04J017575 Promoter/Enhancer 2.3 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 10.1 -66.4 -66396 5.3 HDGF PKNOX1 FOXA2 MLX ARNT ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 IRF4 YY1 LAP3 MED28 ENSG00000249502 DCAF16 NCAPG QDPR LCORL GC04M017599
GH04J017517 Enhancer 0.4 dbSUPER 45.8 -5.5 -5508 1.2 GLIS1 KDM1A QDPR CLRN2 GC04M017552
GH04J017490 Enhancer 1.1 ENCODE dbSUPER 16 +21.8 21769 0.9 PKNOX1 FOXA2 ARID4B YY1 GATA2 RXRA ZHX2 MIER2 REST KAT8 QDPR CLRN2 SNORA75B GC04M017492 GC04P017443
GH04J017548 Enhancer 0.9 Ensembl ENCODE 17.4 -37.1 -37125 1.3 HDAC1 CTCF IRF2 ATF1 SAP130 ARNT ARID4B SIN3A RAD21 YY1 QDPR DCAF16 NCAPG ENSG00000249502 MED28 GC04M017552 CLRN2
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around QDPR on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the QDPR gene promoter:
  • CREB
  • deltaCREB
  • FOXD3
  • c-Myb
  • Ik-2
  • AML1a
  • NF-1/L
  • NF-1
  • Pax-4a
  • RFX1

Genomic Locations for QDPR Gene

Genomic Locations for QDPR Gene
51,974 bases
Minus strand
51,974 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for QDPR Gene

Genes around QDPR on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
QDPR Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for QDPR Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for QDPR Gene

Proteins for QDPR Gene

  • Protein details for QDPR Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Dihydropteridine reductase
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8K158
    • B3KW71
    • Q53F52
    • Q9H3M5

    Protein attributes for QDPR Gene

    244 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    25790 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for QDPR Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for QDPR Gene


neXtProt entry for QDPR Gene

Post-translational modifications for QDPR Gene

  • Ubiquitination at Lys138
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for QDPR Gene

Domains & Families for QDPR Gene

Gene Families for QDPR Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Disease related genes
  • Enzymes
  • Plasma proteins
  • Potential drug targets
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Protein Domains for QDPR Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDR) family.
  • Belongs to the short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDR) family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with QDPR: view

Function for QDPR Gene

Molecular function for QDPR Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
The product of this enzyme, tetrahydrobiopterin (BH-4), is an essential cofactor for phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan hydroxylases.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
A 5,6,7,8-tetrahydropteridine + NAD(P)(+) = a 6,7-dihydropteridine + NAD(P)H.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
quininoid dihydropteridine reductase,tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) cycle,phenylalanine hydroxylation system

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for QDPR Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for QDPR Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for QDPR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004155 6,7-dihydropteridine reductase activity EXP,TAS 3033643
GO:0009055 electron transfer activity TAS 3033643
GO:0016491 oxidoreductase activity IEA --
GO:0042803 protein homodimerization activity IEA --
GO:0070402 NADPH binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with QDPR: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with QDPR: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for QDPR Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for QDPR Gene

MGI Knock Outs for QDPR:

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for QDPR

CRISPR Products

miRNA for QDPR Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target QDPR

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for QDPR

No data available for Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for QDPR Gene

Localization for QDPR Gene

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for QDPR gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
cytosol 5
mitochondrion 4
plasma membrane 2
endoplasmic reticulum 2
nucleus 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for QDPR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA --
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IEA --
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0043005 neuron projection IEA --
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome HDA 19056867
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with QDPR: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for QDPR Gene

Pathways & Interactions for QDPR Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with QDPR: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for QDPR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001889 liver development IEA --
GO:0006520 cellular amino acid metabolic process TAS 3033643
GO:0006559 L-phenylalanine catabolic process TAS --
GO:0006729 tetrahydrobiopterin biosynthetic process IEA --
GO:0010044 response to aluminum ion IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with QDPR: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for QDPR Gene

Drugs & Compounds for QDPR Gene

(27) Drugs for QDPR Gene - From: DrugBank, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
NADH Approved Nutra Target 0
Sapropterin Approved, Investigational Pharma 0
dihydrobiopterin Experimental Pharma 0
2-(N-Morpholino)-Ethanesulfonic Acid Experimental Pharma Target 0
Tetrahydrobiopterin Pharma 0

(28) Additional Compounds for QDPR Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • 6,7-Dihydropteridine
  • 2'-(Dihydrogen phosphate) 5'-(trihydrogen pyrophosphate) adenosine 5'-ester with 1,4-dihydro-1-b-D-ribofuranosylnicotinamide
  • 2'-(Dihydrogen phosphate) 5'-(trihydrogen pyrophosphate) adenosine 5'-ester with 1,4-dihydro-1-beta-delta-ribofuranosylnicotinamide
  • Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate) 2'-(dihydrogen phosphate) p'-5'-ester with 1,4-dihydro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-3-pyridinecarboxamide
  • Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate) 2'-(dihydrogen phosphate) p'-5'-ester with 1,4-dihydro-1-beta-delta-ribofuranosyl-3-pyridinecarboxamide
  • b-NADPH
4a-Carbinolamine tetrahydrobiopterin
  • 6,7-Dihydrobiopterin
  • Quinoid-dihydrobiopterin
  • (6R)-6-(L-erythro-1,2-Dihydroxypropyl)-7,8-dihydro-6H-pterin
  • 1,3,5-Benzenetriol
  • 1,3,5-Trihydroxybenzene
Hydrogen Ion
  • H+
  • H(+)
  • Hydrogen cation
  • Hydron
  • Proton
  • (-)-(6R)-2-amino-6-((1R,2S)-1,2-Dihydroxypropyl)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-4(3H)-pteridinone
  • (6R)-L-erythro-Tetrahydrobiopterin
  • 2-amino-6-(1,2-Dihydroxypropyl)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydoro-4(1H)-pteridinone
  • 5,6,7,8-Tetrahydrobiopterin
  • 6R-5,6,7,8-Tetrahydrobiopterin
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with QDPR: view

Transcripts for QDPR Gene

mRNA/cDNA for QDPR Gene

Unigene Clusters for QDPR Gene

Quinoid dihydropteridine reductase:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for QDPR

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for QDPR Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4a · 4b · 4c ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7a · 7b · 7c ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b · 9c · 9d · 9e · 9f · 9g
SP1: - - - -
SP2: - - -
SP3: - - -
SP4: - - - - -
SP5: - - - - - -
SP6: - - - - - - - -
SP7: - - - - - - -
SP8: - - - - -
SP9: - - - - - - -
SP10: - - - - - - - - - -
SP11: -
SP12: -

Relevant External Links for QDPR Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for QDPR Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for QDPR Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for QDPR Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain - Substantia nigra (x6.8), Brain - Spinal cord (cervical c-1) (x6.5), Brain - Putamen (basal ganglia) (x4.4), Brain - Hippocampus (x4.2), and Brain - Amygdala (x4.1).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for QDPR Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Frontal cortex (12.0), Liver, secretome (7.4), and Retina (6.8).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for QDPR Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for QDPR Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of QDPR Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for QDPR Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for QDPR Gene

  • Nervous system(5)
  • Liver(4.5)
  • Muscle(3.1)
  • Skin(2.6)
  • Pancreas(2.4)
  • Heart(2)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for QDPR Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • endoderm
  • mesoderm
  • digestive
  • integumentary
  • nervous
  • skeletal muscle
  • skeleton
  • urinary
Head and neck:
  • brain
  • head
  • mouth
  • pharynx
  • salivary gland
  • skull
  • esophagus
  • kidney
  • stomach
  • skin
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with QDPR: view

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for QDPR Gene

Orthologs for QDPR Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for QDPR Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia QDPR 34 33
  • 99.18 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia QDPR 34
  • 91 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia QDPR 34 33
  • 90.18 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia QDPR 34
  • 89 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Qdpr 16 34 33
  • 88.61 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Qdpr 33
  • 87.62 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia QDPR 34 33
  • 87.17 (n)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves QDPR 34 33
  • 75.74 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia QDPR 34
  • 77 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia qdpr 33
  • 68.08 (n)
Str.6689 33
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.16704 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii qdpra 34
  • 70 (a)
qdprb1 34 33
  • 67.38 (n)
qdprb2 34 34 34 34
  • 58 (a)
QDPR (7 of 7) 34
  • 58 (a)
Dr.19525 33
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.10724 33
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Dhpr 34 35 33
  • 61.35 (n)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP002534 33
  • 58.88 (n)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea T03F6.1 35
  • 51 (a)
qdpr-1 34 33
  • 50.87 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.2743 34
  • 55 (a)
Cin.788 33
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.788 33
Species where no ortholog for QDPR was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for QDPR Gene

Gene Tree for QDPR (if available)
Gene Tree for QDPR (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for QDPR: view image

Paralogs for QDPR Gene

No data available for Paralogs for QDPR Gene

Variants for QDPR Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for QDPR Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 04 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1028029163 BH4-deficient, C (HPABH4C) [MIM:261630] 17,492,332(-) C/T coding_sequence_variant, intron_variant, missense_variant
rs1031326 benign, BH4-Deficient Hyperphenylalaninemia 17,486,441(-) T/C 3_prime_UTR_variant, non_coding_transcript_variant
rs1031327 benign, BH4-Deficient Hyperphenylalaninemia 17,486,621(-) G/A 3_prime_UTR_variant, non_coding_transcript_variant
rs104893863 pathogenic, Dihydropteridine reductase deficiency, Hyperphenylalaninemia, BH4-deficient, C (HPABH4C) [MIM:261630] 17,511,987(-) C/T coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant, non_coding_transcript_variant
rs104893864 pathogenic, Dihydropteridine reductase deficiency, Hyperphenylalaninemia, BH4-deficient, C (HPABH4C) [MIM:261630] 17,501,833(-) A/C coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant, non_coding_transcript_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for QDPR Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv1003127 CNV gain 25217958
nsv593781 CNV gain 21841781

Variation tolerance for QDPR Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 28% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.49; 10.72% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for QDPR Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for QDPR Gene

Disorders for QDPR Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(19) MalaCards diseases for QDPR Gene - From: HGMD, OMIM, ClinVar, GTR, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search QDPR in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Hyperphenylalaninemia, BH4-deficient, C (HPABH4C) [MIM:261630]: Rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by hyperphenylalaninemia and severe neurologic symptoms (malignant hyperphenylalaninemia) including axial hypotonia and truncal hypertonia, abnormal thermogenesis, and microcephaly. These signs are attributable to depletion of the neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin, whose syntheses are controlled by tryptophan and tyrosine hydroxylases that use BH-4 as cofactor. Patients do not respond to phenylalanine-restricted diet. HPABH4C is lethal if untreated. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:10408783, ECO:0000269 PubMed:11153907, ECO:0000269 PubMed:2116088, ECO:0000269 PubMed:8326489, ECO:0000269 PubMed:9744478}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Genatlas disease for QDPR Gene

hyperphenylalaninemia,malignant phenylketonuria with neurologic deterioration

Additional Disease Information for QDPR

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with QDPR: view

Publications for QDPR Gene

  1. Molecular analysis of 16 Turkish families with DHPR deficiency using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). (PMID: 11153907) Romstad A … Güttler F (Human genetics 2000) 3 4 22 58
  2. A series of mutations in the dihydropteridine reductase gene resulting in either abnormal RNA splicing or DHPR protein defects. Mutations in brief no. 244. Online. (PMID: 10408783) Smooker PM … Dianzani I (Human mutation 1999) 3 4 22 58
  3. Dihydropteridine reductase deficiency: physical structure of the QDPR gene, identification of two new mutations and genotype-phenotype correlations. (PMID: 9744478) Dianzani I … Cotton RG (Human mutation 1998) 3 4 22 58
  4. Molecular basis of dihydropteridine reductase deficiency. (PMID: 7627180) Smooker PM … Cotton RG (Human mutation 1995) 3 4 22 58
  5. The crystallographic structure of a human dihydropteridine reductase NADH binary complex expressed in Escherichia coli by a cDNA constructed from its rat homologue. (PMID: 8262916) Su Y … Whiteley JM (The Journal of biological chemistry 1993) 3 4 22 58

Products for QDPR Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for QDPR

Sources for QDPR Gene

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