Aliases for PTPRN Gene
External Ids for PTPRN Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PTPRN Gene
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP possesses an extracellular region, a single transmembrane region, and a single catalytic domain, and thus represents a receptor-type PTP. This PTP was found to be an autoantigen that is reactive with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) patient sera, and thus may be a potential target of autoimmunity in diabetes mellitus. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]
GeneCards Summary for PTPRN Gene
PTPRN (Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Receptor Type N) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PTPRN include Insulinoma and Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. Among its related pathways are PAK Pathway and Allograft rejection. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include phosphatase activity and spectrin binding. An important paralog of this gene is PTPRN2.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for PTPRN Gene
Plays a role in vesicle-mediated secretory processes (PubMed:24843546). Required for normal accumulation of secretory vesicles in hippocampus, pituitary and pancreatic islets (By similarity). Required for the accumulation of normal levels of insulin-containing vesicles and preventing their degradation (PubMed:24843546). Plays a role in insulin secretion in response to glucose stimuli (PubMed:24843546). Required for normal accumulation of the neurotransmitters norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin in the brain (By similarity). In females, but not in males, required for normal accumulation and secretion of pituitary hormones, such as luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) (By similarity). Required to maintain normal levels of renin expression and renin release (By similarity). Seems to lack intrinsic enzyme activity (By similarity). May regulate catalytic active protein-tyrosine phosphatases such as PTPRA through dimerization (By similarity).
[ICA512-transmembrane fragment]: ICA512-TMF regulates dynamics and exocytosis of insulin secretory granules (SGs); binding of ICA512-TMF to SNTB2/beta-2-syntrophin is proposed to restrain SGs mobility and exocytosis by tethering them to the actin cytoskeleton depending on UTRN; the function is inhibited by cytoplasmic ICA512-CFF dimerizing with ICA512-TMF and displacing SNTB2.
[ICA512-cleaved cytosolic fragment]: ICA512-CCF translocated to the nucleus promotes expression of insulin and other granule-related genes; the function implicates binding to and regulating activity of STAT5B probably by preventing its dephosphorylation and potentially by inducing its sumoylation by recruiting PIAS4 (PubMed:15596545, PubMed:16622421, PubMed:18178618). Enhances pancreatic beta-cell proliferation by converging with signaling by STAT5B and STAT3 (PubMed:15596545, PubMed:16622421, PubMed:18178618). ICA512-CCF located in the cytoplasm regulates dynamics and exocytosis of insulin secretory granules (SGs) by dimerizing with ICA512-TMF and displacing SNTB2 thus enhancing SGs mobility and exocytosis (PubMed:18824546, PubMed:20886068).