Aliases for PTPMT1 Gene

Aliases for PTPMT1 Gene

  • Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Mitochondrial 1 2 3 5
  • Phosphatidylglycerophosphatase And Protein-Tyrosine Phosphatase 1 2 3 4
  • PTEN-Like Phosphatase 2 3 4
  • Phosphoinositide Lipid Phosphatase 3 4
  • MOSP 3 4
  • PLIP 3 4
  • NB4 Apoptosis/Differentiation Related Protein 3
  • Protein-Tyrosine Phosphatase Mitochondrial 1 4
  • EC 3.1.3.27 4
  • EC 3.1.3.16 4
  • EC 3.1.3.48 4
  • PNAS-129 3
  • DUSP23 3

External Ids for PTPMT1 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PTPMT1 Gene

  • GC11P047532
  • GC11U900934
  • GC11P047586
  • GC11P047287

Summaries for PTPMT1 Gene

GeneCards Summary for PTPMT1 Gene

PTPMT1 (Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Mitochondrial 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PTPMT1 include Cogan Syndrome and Mitochondrial Complex Ii Deficiency. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Glycerophospholipid biosynthesis. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include phosphatase activity and protein tyrosine/serine/threonine phosphatase activity. An important paralog of this gene is SSH2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for PTPMT1 Gene

  • Lipid phosphatase which dephosphorylates phosphatidylglycerophosphate (PGP) to phosphatidylglycerol (PG) (By similarity). PGP is an essential intermediate in the biosynthetic pathway of cardiolipin, a mitochondrial-specific phospholipid regulating the membrane integrity and activities of the organelle (By similarity). Has also been shown to display phosphatase activity toward phosphoprotein substrates, specifically mediates dephosphorylation of mitochondrial proteins, thereby playing an essential role in ATP production (By similarity). Has probably a preference for proteins phosphorylated on Ser and/or Thr residues compared to proteins phosphorylated on Tyr residues (By similarity). Probably involved in regulation of insulin secretion in pancreatic beta cells (By similarity). May prevent intrinsic apoptosis, probably by regulating mitochondrial membrane integrity (PubMed:24709986).

Additional gene information for PTPMT1 Gene

No data available for Entrez Gene Summary , CIViC Summary , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for PTPMT1 Gene

Genomics for PTPMT1 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for PTPMT1 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for PTPMT1 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
Score
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH11J047564 Promoter/Enhancer 2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas 500.7 +0.5 471 3 ZNF217 TCF12 POLR2G PHF8 ZFX ZBTB5 POLR2A CLOCK ZBTB11 ZBTB26 CELF1 NDUFS3 PTPMT1 C1QTNF4 ENSG00000255197 PTPRJ piR-43104-006
GH11J047563 Enhancer 0.4 Ensembl 500.7 -1.9 -1929 1 FOSL1 MITF ATF3 JUND NDUFS3 PTPMT1 C1QTNF4 FNBP4 CELF1 FJ601666-013
GH11J047522 Promoter/Enhancer 1.7 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 12.6 -40.7 -40715 3.8 JUND FOS TRIM28 MYC JUN ZEB1 ZNF341 OSR2 NCOR1 DEK CELF1 C1QTNF4 NDUFS3 PTPMT1 FAM180B ENSG00000231880 RNU5E-10P C11orf49 HQ292159 ENSG00000270072
GH11J047506 Promoter/Enhancer 1.5 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 12.2 -56.6 -56618 4.9 ZNF623 RFX1 CTBP1 TRIM22 BCL11A NCOR1 ZNF384 MYNN CEBPB RBBP5 C1QTNF4 CELF1 NDUFS3 PTPMT1 FAM180B KBTBD4 ENSG00000231880 RNU5E-10P MTCH2 FNBP4
GH11J047511 Promoter/Enhancer 1.4 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 12 -50.9 -50876 5.5 JUND FOS RELA MYC SREBF2 OSR2 NFRKB ZNF316 ZBTB17 ZNF384 ENSG00000270072 C1QTNF4 CELF1 NDUFS3 PTPMT1 KBTBD4 FAM180B ENSG00000231880 RNU5E-10P MTCH2
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around PTPMT1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for PTPMT1

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the PTPMT1 gene promoter:
  • aMEF-2
  • AP-1
  • ATF-2
  • c-Jun
  • C/EBPbeta
  • MEF-2A

Genomic Locations for PTPMT1 Gene

Genomic Locations for PTPMT1 Gene
chr11:47,565,430-47,573,461
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
8,032 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand
chr11:47,586,982-47,595,013
(GRCh37/hg19)
Size:
8,032 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for PTPMT1 Gene

Genes around PTPMT1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PTPMT1 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PTPMT1 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PTPMT1 Gene

Proteins for PTPMT1 Gene

  • Protein details for PTPMT1 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q8WUK0-PTPM1_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Phosphatidylglycerophosphatase and protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1
    Protein Accession:
    Q8WUK0
    Secondary Accessions:
    • E9PAT8
    • Q7Z557
    • Q96CR2
    • Q9BXV8

    Protein attributes for PTPMT1 Gene

    Size:
    201 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    22844 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with STYXL1; the interaction inhibits PTPMT1 catalytic activity.
    SequenceCaution:
    • Sequence=AAH14048.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=AAK07545.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Alternative splice isoforms for PTPMT1 Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for PTPMT1 Gene

Post-translational modifications for PTPMT1 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for PTPMT1 Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for PTPMT1 Gene

Domains & Families for PTPMT1 Gene

Gene Families for PTPMT1 Gene

HGNC:
Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Enzymes
  • Predicted intracellular proteins
  • Predicted membrane proteins

Protein Domains for PTPMT1 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PTPMT1 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • Phosphoinositide lipid phosphatase (PTPM1_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q8WUK0

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

PTPM1_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the protein-tyrosine phosphatase family. Non-receptor class dual specificity subfamily.
Family:
  • Belongs to the protein-tyrosine phosphatase family. Non-receptor class dual specificity subfamily.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PTPMT1: view

Function for PTPMT1 Gene

Molecular function for PTPMT1 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Lipid phosphatase which dephosphorylates phosphatidylglycerophosphate (PGP) to phosphatidylglycerol (PG) (By similarity). PGP is an essential intermediate in the biosynthetic pathway of cardiolipin, a mitochondrial-specific phospholipid regulating the membrane integrity and activities of the organelle (By similarity). Has also been shown to display phosphatase activity toward phosphoprotein substrates, specifically mediates dephosphorylation of mitochondrial proteins, thereby playing an essential role in ATP production (By similarity). Has probably a preference for proteins phosphorylated on Ser and/or Thr residues compared to proteins phosphorylated on Tyr residues (By similarity). Probably involved in regulation of insulin secretion in pancreatic beta cells (By similarity). May prevent intrinsic apoptosis, probably by regulating mitochondrial membrane integrity (PubMed:24709986).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=1,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-(1'-sn-glycero-3'-phosphate) + H2O = 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-(1'-sn-glycerol) + phosphate; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:33751, ChEBI:CHEBI:15377, ChEBI:CHEBI:43474, ChEBI:CHEBI:60110, ChEBI:CHEBI:64716; EC=3.1.3.27; Evidence=. ;.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=H2O + O-phospho-L-tyrosyl-[protein] = L-tyrosyl-[protein] + phosphate; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:10684, Rhea:RHEA-COMP:10136, Rhea:RHEA-COMP:10137, ChEBI:CHEBI:15377, ChEBI:CHEBI:43474, ChEBI:CHEBI:46858, ChEBI:CHEBI:82620; EC=3.1.3.48; Evidence=. ;.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=H2O + O-phospho-L-seryl-[protein] = L-seryl-[protein] + phosphate; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:20629, Rhea:RHEA-COMP:9863, Rhea:RHEA-COMP:11604, ChEBI:CHEBI:15377, ChEBI:CHEBI:29999, ChEBI:CHEBI:43474, ChEBI:CHEBI:83421; EC=3.1.3.16; Evidence=. ;.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=H2O + O-phospho-L-threonyl-[protein] = L-threonyl-[protein] + phosphate; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:47004, Rhea:RHEA-COMP:11060, Rhea:RHEA-COMP:11605, ChEBI:CHEBI:15377, ChEBI:CHEBI:30013, ChEBI:CHEBI:43474, ChEBI:CHEBI:61977; EC=3.1.3.16; Evidence=. ;.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for PTPMT1 Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for PTPMT1 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PTPMT1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004439 phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 5-phosphatase activity IBA 21873635
GO:0004721 phosphoprotein phosphatase activity IEA --
GO:0004725 protein tyrosine phosphatase activity IEA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 21516116
GO:0008138 protein tyrosine/serine/threonine phosphatase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PTPMT1: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PTPMT1: view

Animal Models for PTPMT1 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PTPMT1:

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for PTPMT1

CRISPR Products

miRNA for PTPMT1 Gene

Clone Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PTPMT1 Gene

Localization for PTPMT1 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PTPMT1 Gene

Mitochondrion inner membrane; Peripheral membrane protein; Matrix side.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PTPMT1 gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 4
cytosol 3
extracellular 2
plasma membrane 1
cytoskeleton 1
peroxisome 1
nucleus 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1
endosome 1
lysosome 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PTPMT1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus HDA 21630459
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IEA --
GO:0005743 mitochondrial inner membrane IEA --
GO:0016020 membrane IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PTPMT1: view

Pathways & Interactions for PTPMT1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PTPMT1: view

Pathways by source for PTPMT1 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Q8WUK0-PTPM1_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Phospholipid metabolism; phosphatidylglycerol biosynthesis; phosphatidylglycerol from CDP-diacylglycerol: step 2/2.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PTPMT1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006470 protein dephosphorylation IEA --
GO:0006629 lipid metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006655 phosphatidylglycerol biosynthetic process IEA --
GO:0008654 phospholipid biosynthetic process IEA --
GO:0016311 dephosphorylation IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PTPMT1: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for PTPMT1 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for PTPMT1 Gene

(5) Drugs for PTPMT1 Gene - From: ApexBio, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Phosphoric acid Approved Pharma 0
Water Approved Pharma 0
Alexidine dihydrochloride Pharma PTPMT1 inhibitor 0

(4) Additional Compounds for PTPMT1 Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
1-Phosphatidyl-D-myo-inositol
  • (3-Phosphatidyl)-1-D-inositol
  • 1,2-Diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoinositol
  • 1-Phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol
  • 1-Phosphatidyl-myo-inositol
  • Phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol
Phosphate
  • [po(OH)3]
  • Acide phosphorique
  • Acidum phosphoricum
  • H3PO4
  • Orthophosphoric acid
14066-19-4, 14265-44-2

(1) ApexBio Compounds for PTPMT1 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Alexidine dihydrochloride PTPMT1 inhibitor 1715-30-6
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PTPMT1: view

Transcripts for PTPMT1 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for PTPMT1 Gene

2 REFSEQ mRNAs :
13 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
5 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

CRISPR Products

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PTPMT1 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b · 4c · 4d ^ 5a · 5b · 5c · 5d ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7 ^ 8a · 8b · 8c ^ 9 ^ 10a · 10b ^ 11a · 11b
SP1: - -
SP2: - -
SP3:
SP4: -
SP5:
SP6: -
SP7:
SP8: -
SP9:
SP10: -

Relevant External Links for PTPMT1 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
PTPMT1

Expression for PTPMT1 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for PTPMT1 Gene

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PTPMT1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Bone (22.8).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for PTPMT1 Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for PTPMT1 Gene

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for PTPMT1

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PTPMT1 Gene:

Hs.656205

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for PTPMT1 Gene

  • Kidney(4.3)
  • Nervous system(2.8)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PTPMT1: view

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for PTPMT1 Gene

Orthologs for PTPMT1 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for PTPMT1 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PTPMT1 31 30
  • 99.67 (n)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PTPMT1 31 30
  • 90.82 (n)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Ptpmt1 17 30
  • 87.05 (n)
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PTPMT1 31 30
  • 86.98 (n)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Ptpmt1 30
  • 86.7 (n)
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PTPMT1 31
  • 58 (a)
OneToOne
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PTPMT1 31
  • 33 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PTPMT1 31 30
  • 69.47 (n)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PTPMT1 31
  • 56 (a)
OneToOne
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii ptpmt1 31 30
  • 59.7 (n)
OneToOne
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Plip 31 30
  • 56.98 (n)
OneToOne
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP000617 30
  • 56 (n)
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea F28C6.8 31 30
  • 45.54 (n)
OneToOne
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons AT5G56610 30
  • 46.78 (n)
rice
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os05g0524200 30
  • 49.43 (n)
Species where no ortholog for PTPMT1 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for PTPMT1 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for PTPMT1 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for PTPMT1 (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for PTPMT1: view image

Paralogs for PTPMT1 Gene

Variants for PTPMT1 Gene

Additional dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for PTPMT1 Gene

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PTPMT1 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv314 CNV deletion 18451855
nsv509405 CNV insertion 20534489
nsv825872 CNV gain 20364138
nsv832142 CNV loss 17160897

Variation tolerance for PTPMT1 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 74.2% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.73; 15.54% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for PTPMT1 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
PTPMT1

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for PTPMT1 Gene

Disorders for PTPMT1 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(5) MalaCards diseases for PTPMT1 Gene - From: DISEASES and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
cogan syndrome
  • cogan's syndrome
mitochondrial complex ii deficiency
  • succinate coq reductase deficiency
cone-rod dystrophy 1
  • retinitis pigmentosa 1
barth syndrome
  • bths
syndromic x-linked intellectual disability snyder type
  • srs
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards

Additional Disease Information for PTPMT1

genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PTPMT1: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for PTPMT1 Gene

Publications for PTPMT1 Gene

  1. The pseudophosphatase MK-STYX physically and genetically interacts with the mitochondrial phosphatase PTPMT1. (PMID: 24709986) Niemi NM … MacKeigan JP (PloS one 2014) 3 4 54
  2. Structural and functional analysis of PTPMT1, a phosphatase required for cardiolipin synthesis. (PMID: 21730175) Xiao J … Dixon JE (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2011) 2 3 54
  3. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PMID: 15489334) Gerhard DS … MGC Project Team (Genome research 2004) 3 4 54
  4. VIRMA mediates preferential m6A mRNA methylation in 3'UTR and near stop codon and associates with alternative polyadenylation. (PMID: 29507755) Yue Y … Liu J (Cell discovery 2018) 3 54
  5. SRSF1 modulates PTPMT1 alternative splicing to regulate lung cancer cell radioresistance. (PMID: 30429088) Sheng J … Wang Y (EBioMedicine 2018) 3 54

Products for PTPMT1 Gene

Sources for PTPMT1 Gene