The protein encoded by this gene is a secreted heparin-binding growth factor. The protein has significant roles in cell growth and survival, cell migration, angiogenesis and tumorigenesis. Alternative splicing and the use of alternative promoters results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2016] See more...

Aliases for PTN Gene

Aliases for PTN Gene

  • Pleiotrophin 2 3 4 5
  • HBNF 2 3 4
  • Heparin-Binding Neurite Outgrowth-Promoting Factor 1 3 4
  • Heparin-Binding Growth-Associated Molecule 3 4
  • Heparin-Binding Growth Factor 8 3 4
  • Heparin-Binding Brain Mitogen 3 4
  • Osteoblast-Specific Factor 1 3 4
  • HB-GAM 3 4
  • HBGF-8 3 4
  • HBNF-1 3 4
  • HBGF8 2 3
  • NEGF1 3 4
  • OSF-1 3 4
  • HBBM 3 4
  • Pleiotrophin (Heparin Binding Growth Factor 8, Neurite Growth-Promoting Factor 1) 3
  • Heparin-Binding Neurite Outgrowth Promoting Factor 3
  • Heparin-Binding Neurite Outgrowth-Promoting Factor 4
  • Neurite Growth-Promoting Factor 1 2
  • Heparin Affin Regulatory Protein 3
  • Heparin Binding Growth Factor 8 2
  • HBNF1 4
  • HARP 3
  • PTN 5

External Ids for PTN Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for PTN Gene

  • NEGF1

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PTN Gene

  • GC07M135254
  • GC07M136314
  • GC07M136328
  • GC07M136369
  • GC07M136562
  • GC07M136912
  • GC07M131217

Summaries for PTN Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PTN Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene is a secreted heparin-binding growth factor. The protein has significant roles in cell growth and survival, cell migration, angiogenesis and tumorigenesis. Alternative splicing and the use of alternative promoters results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2016]

GeneCards Summary for PTN Gene

PTN (Pleiotrophin) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PTN include Peyronie's Disease and Nasal Cavity Olfactory Neuroblastoma. Among its related pathways are NF-KappaB Family Pathway and Activation of cAMP-Dependent PKA. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include growth factor activity and protein phosphatase inhibitor activity. An important paralog of this gene is MDK.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for PTN Gene

  • Secreted growth factor that mediates its signal through cell-surface proteoglycan and non-proteoglycan receptors (PubMed:16814777, PubMed:11278720, PubMed:19141530). Binds cell-surface proteoglycan receptor via their chondroitin sulfate (CS) groups (PubMed:26896299, PubMed:27445335). Thereby regulates many processes like cell proliferation, cell survival, cell growth, cell differentiation and cell migration in several tissues namely neuron and bone (PubMed:1733956, PubMed:1768439, PubMed:11278720, PubMed:19141530, PubMed:27445335, PubMed:30667096, PubMed:19442624). Also plays a role in synaptic plasticity and learning-related behavior by inhibiting long-term synaptic potentiation (By similarity). Binds PTPRZ1, leading to neutralization of the negative charges of the CS chains of PTPRZ1, inducing PTPRZ1 clustering, thereby causing the dimerization and inactivation of its phosphatase activity leading to increased tyrosine phosphorylation of each of the PTPRZ1 substrates like ALK, CTNNB1 or AFAP1L2 in order to activate the PI3K-AKT pathway (PubMed:17681947, PubMed:27445335, PubMed:30667096, PubMed:16814777, PubMed:10706604). Through PTPRZ1 binding controls oligodendrocyte precursor cell differentiation by enhancing the phosphorylation of AFAP1L2 in order to activate the PI3K-AKT pathway (PubMed:27445335, PubMed:30667096). Forms a complex with PTPRZ1 and integrin alpha-V/beta-3 (ITGAV:ITGB3) that stimulates endothelial cell migration through SRC dephosphorylation and activation that consequently leads to ITGB3 'Tyr-773' phosphorylation (PubMed:19141530). In adult hippocampus promotes dendritic arborization, spine development, and functional integration and connectivity of newborn granule neurons through ALK by activating AKT signaling pathway (By similarity). Binds GPC2 and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) at the neuron surface, leading to abrogation of binding between PTPRS and CSPGs and neurite outgrowth promotion (By similarity). Binds SDC3 and mediates bone formation by recruiting and attaching osteoblasts/osteoblast precursors to the sites for new bone deposition (By similarity). Binds ALK and promotes cell survival and cell proliferation through MAPK pathway activation (PubMed:11278720). Inhibits proliferation and enhances differentiation of neural stem cells by inhibiting FGF2-induced fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling pathway (By similarity). Mediates regulatory mechanisms in normal hemostasis and in hematopoietic regeneration and in maintaining the balance of myeloid and lymphoid regeneration (By similarity). In addition may play a role in the female reproductive system, auditory response and the progesterone-induced decidualization pathway (By similarity).

Gene Wiki entry for PTN Gene

No data available for CIViC Summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for PTN Gene

Genomics for PTN Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements Pubs

Promoters and enhancers for PTN Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
Score
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH07J137339 Promoter/Enhancer 1.7 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas dbSUPER 617.2 +1.7 1690 4.2 POLR2A EZH2 SP2 JUND FOS KLF17 SIN3A TAF1 TBP PTN ENSG00000202023 LOC105375527 CHRM2
GH07J137345 Promoter 0.3 EPDnew 600.7 -1.4 -1354 0.1 PTN ENSG00000202023 ENSG00000228031 DGKI
GH07J137439 Enhancer 0.4 Ensembl CraniofacialAtlas 31.3 -96.5 -96454 1.1 PKNOX1 PTN piR-39341-375 piR-52411-004 DGKI
GH07J137331 Enhancer 0.5 Ensembl dbSUPER 17 +12.2 12173 1.2 MAFF MAFK PTN ENSG00000202023 LOC105375527 CHRM2
GH07J137327 Enhancer 0.5 Ensembl CraniofacialAtlas dbSUPER 16.6 +15.1 15146 0.7 PTN ENSG00000202023 LOC105375527 CHRM2
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around PTN on the GeneHancer Hub at the UCSC Golden Path

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for PTN

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the PTN gene promoter:
  • HFH-1
  • Hlf
  • IRF-1
  • IRF-2
  • NF-1
  • NF-1/L
  • Nkx6-1
  • POU2F1
  • STAT1

Genomic Locations for PTN Gene

Genomic Locations for PTN Gene
chr7:137,227,341-137,343,774
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
116,434 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand
chr7:136,912,088-137,028,611
(GRCh37/hg19)
Size:
116,524 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for PTN Gene

Genes around PTN on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PTN Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PTN Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PTN Gene

Proteins for PTN Gene

  • Protein details for PTN Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P21246-PTN_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Pleiotrophin
    Protein Accession:
    P21246
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q5U0B0
    • Q6ICQ5
    • Q9UCC6

    Protein attributes for PTN Gene

    Size:
    168 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    18942 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with ALK and NEK6 (PubMed:11278720, PubMed:20873783). Interacts with PTPRZ1 (via chondroitin sulfate groups); promotes formation of homooligomers; oligomerization impairs tyrosine phosphatase activity (PubMed:16814777) (Probable). Forms a complex with PTPRZ1 and CTNNB1; this complex inactivates PTPRZ1 protein tyrosine phosphatase activity through PTN interaction and stimulates tyrosine phosphorylation of CTNNB1 (PubMed:10706604). Interacts with ITGB3 AND ITGA5 (PubMed:19141530). Forms a complex with PTPRZ1 and integrin alpha-V/beta-3 (ITGAV:ITGB3) that stimulates endothelial cell migration through ITGB3 'Tyr-773' phosphorylation (PubMed:19141530). Interacts with SDC3 (via heparan sulfate chains); this interaction mediates the neurite outgrowth-promoting signal from PTN to the cytoskeleton of growing neurites; this interaction mediates osteoblast recruitment. Interacts with GPC2 (via heparan sulfate); this interaction promotes neurite outgrowth through binding of PTN with chondroitin sulfate of proteoglycans, thereby releasing PTPRS of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) and leading to binding with heparan sulfate of GPC2 (By similarity).

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for PTN Gene

neXtProt entry for PTN Gene

Post-translational modifications for PTN Gene

Other Protein References for PTN Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for PTN Gene

Domains & Families for PTN Gene

Gene Families for PTN Gene

HGNC:
Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Cancer-related genes
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Protein Domains for PTN Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PTN Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • Osteoblast-specific factor 1 (PTN_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P21246

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

PTN_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the pleiotrophin family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the pleiotrophin family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PTN: view

Function for PTN Gene

Molecular function for PTN Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Secreted growth factor that mediates its signal through cell-surface proteoglycan and non-proteoglycan receptors (PubMed:16814777, PubMed:11278720, PubMed:19141530). Binds cell-surface proteoglycan receptor via their chondroitin sulfate (CS) groups (PubMed:26896299, PubMed:27445335). Thereby regulates many processes like cell proliferation, cell survival, cell growth, cell differentiation and cell migration in several tissues namely neuron and bone (PubMed:1733956, PubMed:1768439, PubMed:11278720, PubMed:19141530, PubMed:27445335, PubMed:30667096, PubMed:19442624). Also plays a role in synaptic plasticity and learning-related behavior by inhibiting long-term synaptic potentiation (By similarity). Binds PTPRZ1, leading to neutralization of the negative charges of the CS chains of PTPRZ1, inducing PTPRZ1 clustering, thereby causing the dimerization and inactivation of its phosphatase activity leading to increased tyrosine phosphorylation of each of the PTPRZ1 substrates like ALK, CTNNB1 or AFAP1L2 in order to activate the PI3K-AKT pathway (PubMed:17681947, PubMed:27445335, PubMed:30667096, PubMed:16814777, PubMed:10706604). Through PTPRZ1 binding controls oligodendrocyte precursor cell differentiation by enhancing the phosphorylation of AFAP1L2 in order to activate the PI3K-AKT pathway (PubMed:27445335, PubMed:30667096). Forms a complex with PTPRZ1 and integrin alpha-V/beta-3 (ITGAV:ITGB3) that stimulates endothelial cell migration through SRC dephosphorylation and activation that consequently leads to ITGB3 'Tyr-773' phosphorylation (PubMed:19141530). In adult hippocampus promotes dendritic arborization, spine development, and functional integration and connectivity of newborn granule neurons through ALK by activating AKT signaling pathway (By similarity). Binds GPC2 and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) at the neuron surface, leading to abrogation of binding between PTPRS and CSPGs and neurite outgrowth promotion (By similarity). Binds SDC3 and mediates bone formation by recruiting and attaching osteoblasts/osteoblast precursors to the sites for new bone deposition (By similarity). Binds ALK and promotes cell survival and cell proliferation through MAPK pathway activation (PubMed:11278720). Inhibits proliferation and enhances differentiation of neural stem cells by inhibiting FGF2-induced fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling pathway (By similarity). Mediates regulatory mechanisms in normal hemostasis and in hematopoietic regeneration and in maintaining the balance of myeloid and lymphoid regeneration (By similarity). In addition may play a role in the female reproductive system, auditory response and the progesterone-induced decidualization pathway (By similarity).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
By heparin and retinoic acid.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
pleiotrophin,18.9kDa,widely expressed and developmentally regulated,heparin-binding cytokine family,inducing neurite extension outgrow in osteoblasts and brain cells and in diverse other activities

LifeMap Function Summary for PTN Gene

PTN as growth factor is involved in stem cell differentiation protocols towards the derivation of the following cells:

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for PTN Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PTN Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004864 protein phosphatase inhibitor activity TAS,IDA 27445335
GO:0005178 integrin binding IPI 19141530
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 10706604
GO:0005539 glycosaminoglycan binding IEA --
GO:0008083 growth factor activity IEA,IDA 1733956
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PTN: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PTN: view

Animal Models for PTN Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PTN:
  • Ptn Ptn<tm1Rau>
  • Ptn Ptn<tm1Tmu>

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for PTN

CRISPR Products

miRNA for PTN Gene

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for PTN

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PTN Gene

Localization for PTN Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PTN Gene

Secreted.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PTN gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
endoplasmic reticulum 4
plasma membrane 3
cytosol 3
cytoskeleton 2
mitochondrion 2
nucleus 2
endosome 1
lysosome 1
golgi apparatus 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Endoplasmic reticulum (3)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PTN Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region IBA 21873635
GO:0005604 basement membrane IEA --
GO:0005615 extracellular space TAS,IDA 1733956
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0005783 endoplasmic reticulum IDA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PTN: view

Pathways & Interactions for PTN Gene

PathCards logo

SuperPathways for PTN Gene

SuperPathway Contained pathways
1 Apoptotic Pathways in Synovial Fibroblasts
.85
.85
.84
.84
.74
.72
.66
.65
.64
.62
.61
.60
.57
.57
2 GPCR Pathway
.73
.73
.62
.59
.58
.58
.55
3 ERK Signaling
.61
.61
.58
.51
.49
4 Nanog in Mammalian ESC Pluripotency
.62
.62
.59
.48
5 CREB Pathway
.68
.68
.63
.50
genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PTN: view

Pathways by source for PTN Gene

1 BioSystems pathway for PTN Gene
1 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) pathway for PTN Gene
  • Neurophysiological process Receptor-mediated axon growth repulsion
54 Qiagen pathways for PTN Gene
  • 14-3-3 Induced Intracellular Signaling
  • Actin-Based Motility by Rho Family GTPases
  • Activation of cAMP-Dependent PKA
  • Activation of PKA through GPCR
  • Activation of PKC through GPCR

SIGNOR curated interactions for PTN Gene

Activates:
Is inactivated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PTN Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001503 ossification IEA --
GO:0001889 liver development IEA --
GO:0002232 leukocyte chemotaxis involved in inflammatory response ISS --
GO:0002690 positive regulation of leukocyte chemotaxis ISS --
GO:0007165 signal transduction IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PTN: view

Drugs & Compounds for PTN Gene

(10) Drugs for PTN Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Heparin Approved, Investigational Pharma Antagonist 1058

(13) Additional Compounds for PTN Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PTN: view

Transcripts for PTN Gene

mRNA/cDNA for PTN Gene

3 REFSEQ mRNAs :
15 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
2 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for PTN

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PTN Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for PTN Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
PTN

Expression for PTN Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for PTN Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PTN Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Testis (32.5), Spinal cord (10.2), and Cerebrospinal fluid (6.8).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for PTN Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for PTN Gene

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for PTN

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PTN Gene:

Hs.371249

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PTN Gene:

P21246-PTN_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Osteoblast and brain.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for PTN Gene

  • Heart(5)
  • Nervous system(4.9)
  • Bone marrow(4.3)
  • Muscle(3)
  • Kidney(2.6)
  • Skin(2.5)
  • Spleen(2.3)
  • Intestine(2.3)
  • Bone(2.3)
  • Adrenal gland(2.2)
  • Lung(2.2)
  • Liver(2.2)
  • Blood(2.1)
  • Eye(2.1)
  • Lymph node(2.1)
  • Thyroid gland(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PTN: view

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for PTN Gene

Orthologs for PTN Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for PTN Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
Chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PTN 30 31
  • 99.6 (n)
OneToOne
Cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PTN 31
  • 97 (a)
OneToOne
Oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PTN 31
  • 96 (a)
OneToOne
Dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PTN 30 31
  • 93.85 (n)
OneToOne
Rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Ptn 30
  • 90.08 (n)
Mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Ptn 30 17 31
  • 89.09 (n)
OneToOne
Platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PTN 31
  • 85 (a)
OneToOne
Chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PTN 30 31
  • 85.75 (n)
OneToOne
Lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PTN 31
  • 75 (a)
OneToOne
Tropical Clawed Frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia ptn 30
  • 78.82 (n)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.901 30
Zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii ptn 30 31
  • 73.1 (n)
OneToOne
-- 30
Rainbow Trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.10432 30
Species where no ortholog for PTN was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Eremothecium gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • Alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • Amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • Beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • Common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • Corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • Filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute Bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • Fission Yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • Fruit Fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • Green Algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. Lactis Yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • Loblloly Pine (Pinus taeda)
  • Malaria Parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • Medicago Trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • Moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • Pig (Sus scrofa)
  • Rice (Oryza sativa)
  • Rice Blast Fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • Schistosome Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • Sea Anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • Sea Vase (Ciona intestinalis)
  • Sea Squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • Soybean (Glycine max)
  • Stem Rust Fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • Thale Cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • Wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • Worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for PTN Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for PTN (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for PTN (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for PTN: view image

Paralogs for PTN Gene

Paralogs for PTN Gene

(1) SIMAP similar genes for PTN Gene using alignment to 2 proteins:

  • PTN_HUMAN
  • C9JR52_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PTN: view

Variants for PTN Gene

Additional dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for PTN Gene

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PTN Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv11620n54 CNV loss 21841781
esv2166281 CNV deletion 18987734
esv24450 CNV loss 19812545
esv2668149 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2669214 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2735205 CNV deletion 23290073
esv33947 CNV gain 17666407
esv3615165 CNV loss 21293372
nsv524262 CNV loss 19592680
nsv831149 CNV gain 17160897

Variation tolerance for PTN Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 42.8% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.64; 13.63% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for PTN Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
PTN

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for PTN Gene

Disorders for PTN Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(10) MalaCards diseases for PTN Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
peyronie's disease
  • peyronie disease
nasal cavity olfactory neuroblastoma
  • olfactory neuroblastoma of the nasal cavity
bronchus cancer
  • malignant neoplasm of bronchus and lung
benign meningioma
  • meningioma, benign
common peroneal nerve lesion
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search PTN in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for PTN

Genetic Association Database
(GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
(HuGE)
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
Open Targets Platform
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PTN: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for PTN Gene

Publications for PTN Gene

  1. Cloning, nucleotide sequence, and chromosome localization of the human pleiotrophin gene. (PMID: 1457401) Milner PG … Kumar BV (Biochemistry 1992) 2 3 4 23
  2. Cloning, characterization and developmental regulation of two members of a novel human gene family of neurite outgrowth-promoting proteins. (PMID: 1768439) Kretschmer PJ … Kovesdi I (Growth factors (Chur, Switzerland) 1991) 2 3 4 23
  3. Integrin alpha(v)beta(3) is a pleiotrophin receptor required for pleiotrophin-induced endothelial cell migration through receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase beta/zeta. (PMID: 19141530) Mikelis C … Papadimitriou E (FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 2009) 3 4 23
  4. Osteocyte-derived HB-GAM (pleiotrophin) is associated with bone formation and mechanical loading. (PMID: 19442624) Imai S … Rauvala H (Bone 2009) 3 4 23
  5. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase is activated through the pleiotrophin/receptor protein-tyrosine phosphatase beta/zeta signaling pathway: an alternative mechanism of receptor tyrosine kinase activation. (PMID: 17681947) Perez-Pinera P … Deuel TF (The Journal of biological chemistry 2007) 3 4 23

Products for PTN Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for PTN

Sources for PTN Gene