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Aliases for PTMA Gene

Aliases for PTMA Gene

  • Prothymosin Alpha 2 3 3 5
  • Gene Sequence 28 2 3
  • TMSA 3 4
  • Prothymosin, Alpha (Gene Sequence 28) 2
  • Prothymosin Alpha Protein 3
  • Prothymosin, Alpha 2
  • Prothymosin-I+/- 3
  • Prothymosin-α 2

External Ids for PTMA Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for PTMA Gene

  • TMSA

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PTMA Gene

  • GC02P230632
  • GC02P231306
  • GC02P232536
  • GC02P232775
  • GC02P232398
  • GC02P232281
  • GC02P232571

Summaries for PTMA Gene

GeneCards Summary for PTMA Gene

PTMA (Prothymosin Alpha) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PTMA include Hepatitis B and Invasive Malignant Thymoma. Among its related pathways are Validated targets of C-MYC transcriptional activation and Epstein-Barr virus infection.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PTMA Gene

  • Prothymosin alpha may mediate immune function by conferring resistance to certain opportunistic infections.

Gene Wiki entry for PTMA Gene

Additional gene information for PTMA Gene

No data available for Entrez Gene Summary , CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PTMA Gene

Genomics for PTMA Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for PTMA Gene

Promoters and enhancers for PTMA Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH02J231705 Promoter/Enhancer 2.3 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 650.7 +2.2 2188 7.7 MLX ZFP64 FEZF1 DMAP1 IRF4 YY1 SLC30A9 ZNF213 E2F8 ZNF143 PTMA GC02M231705 DIS3L2 RPL23AP26 RPL28P2 COPS7B GIGYF2 ENSG00000233538 ENSG00000251485 LOC100289360
GH02J231785 Promoter/Enhancer 2.1 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 10.8 +79.6 79578 1.9 CLOCK ZFP64 FEZF1 DMAP1 IRF4 YY1 ZNF213 ZNF416 ZNF143 ZNF548 COPS7B PDE6D DIS3L2 RPL28P2 NCL GIGYF2 RPL23AP26 ENSG00000233538 LOC100289360 ENSG00000241409
GH02J231611 Enhancer 1.8 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 3.6 -93.4 -93362 4.9 HDGF PKNOX1 CLOCK ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 YY1 ZNF766 E2F8 LOC105373928 TEX44 NMUR1 LINC00471 PTMA DIS3L2 RN7SL499P
GH02J231602 Enhancer 1.7 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 2.6 -101.9 -101938 4.1 HDGF PKNOX1 ATF1 FOXA2 ARNT ARID4B SIN3A BRCA1 GLIS2 ZNF143 GC02P231604 GC02M231602 RPL28P2 NMUR1 LINC00471 DIS3L2 PTMA PIR57970
GH02J231713 Enhancer 1.7 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 2.2 +8.9 8909 4.8 HDGF PKNOX1 FOXA2 SMAD1 MLX ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 DIS3L2 GIGYF2 NCL RPL28P2 COPS7B PTMA MIR1244-1 GC02M231725
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around PTMA on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the PTMA gene promoter:
  • STAT3
  • p53
  • Egr-3
  • FOXI1
  • HFH-3
  • Pax-4a
  • HNF-3beta
  • Sp1
  • Meis-1

Genomic Locations for PTMA Gene

Genomic Locations for PTMA Gene
6,647 bases
Plus strand
6,647 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for PTMA Gene

Genes around PTMA on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PTMA Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PTMA Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PTMA Gene

Proteins for PTMA Gene

  • Protein details for PTMA Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Prothymosin alpha
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q15249
    • Q15592

    Protein attributes for PTMA Gene

    111 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    12203 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for PTMA Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for PTMA Gene


neXtProt entry for PTMA Gene

Post-translational modifications for PTMA Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for PTMA Gene

Domains & Families for PTMA Gene

Gene Families for PTMA Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Protein Domains for PTMA Gene


Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the pro/parathymosin family.
  • Belongs to the pro/parathymosin family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PTMA: view

Function for PTMA Gene

Molecular function for PTMA Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Prothymosin alpha may mediate immune function by conferring resistance to certain opportunistic infections.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
prothymosin alpha,widely expressed,abundant audic nuclear protein potential modulator of the interaction of histone 1 with chromatin

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for PTMA Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PTMA Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 15556635
GO:0033613 activating transcription factor binding IPI 11897665
GO:0042393 histone binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PTMA: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PTMA: view

Animal Model Products

miRNA for PTMA Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target PTMA

Clone Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PTMA Gene

Localization for PTMA Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PTMA Gene

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PTMA gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
nucleus 5
cytosol 5

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Cytosol (4)
  • Nucleus (4)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PTMA Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus IDA 8485135
GO:0005654 nucleoplasm IDA --
GO:0005829 cytosol IDA --
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome HDA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PTMA: view

Pathways & Interactions for PTMA Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PTMA: view

Pathways by source for PTMA Gene

1 BioSystems pathway for PTMA Gene
1 KEGG pathway for PTMA Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PTMA Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006351 transcription, DNA-templated TAS 10854063
GO:0043486 histone exchange IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PTMA: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for PTMA Gene

Drugs & Compounds for PTMA Gene

(19) Drugs for PTMA Gene - From: DGIdb and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Thymalfasin Approved, Investigational Pharma 27

(3) Additional Compounds for PTMA Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PTMA: view

Transcripts for PTMA Gene

Unigene Clusters for PTMA Gene

Prothymosin, alpha:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PTMA Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6 ^ 7
SP1: - - -
SP3: -
SP4: - -

Relevant External Links for PTMA Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for PTMA Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for PTMA Gene

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PTMA Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Oral epithelium (12.7), Fetal Brain (11.4), and Nasal epithelium (6.3).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for PTMA Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for PTMA Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of PTMA Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PTMA Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for PTMA Gene

  • Nervous system(5)
  • Liver(4.9)
  • Lung(4.9)
  • Skin(4.9)
  • Eye(4.6)
  • Pancreas(4.3)
  • Intestine(4.1)
  • Blood(3.9)
  • Spleen(3.7)
  • Stomach(3.7)
  • Kidney(3.6)
  • Lymph node(2.9)
  • Heart(2.8)
  • Thyroid gland(2.8)
  • Bone marrow(2.7)
  • Muscle(2.6)
  • Bone(2.4)
  • Gall bladder(2.3)
  • Adrenal gland(2.2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PTMA: view

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for PTMA Gene

Orthologs for PTMA Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for PTMA Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PTMA 33
  • 99.09 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PTMA 34 34
  • 98 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Ptma 34
  • 95 (a)
Gm6625 34
  • 53 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PTMA 34 33
  • 92.42 (n)
-- 34
  • 88 (a)
-- 34
  • 64 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PTMA 34
  • 72 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PTMA 34
  • 91 (a)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia ptma-prov 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii ptma 33
Species where no ortholog for PTMA was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • oppossum (Monodelphis domestica)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rat (Rattus norvegicus)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for PTMA Gene

Gene Tree for PTMA (if available)
Gene Tree for PTMA (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for PTMA: view image

Paralogs for PTMA Gene

(1) SIMAP similar genes for PTMA Gene using alignment to 11 proteins:

  • H7C031_HUMAN
  • H7C2N1_HUMAN
  • Q15254_HUMAN
  • Q7KZ52_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PTMA: view

No data available for Paralogs for PTMA Gene

Variants for PTMA Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PTMA Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 02 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000544796 -- 231,711,495(+) C/T intron_variant
rs1000848774 -- 231,713,827(+) T/G downstream_transcript_variant
rs1000990007 -- 231,709,737(+) G/A/C 5_prime_UTR_variant, genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant, upstream_transcript_variant
rs1001024214 -- 231,709,858(+) C/T 5_prime_UTR_variant, intron_variant
rs1001218985 -- 231,713,642(+) G/C downstream_transcript_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PTMA Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv2759117 CNV gain+loss 17122850
nsv3204 CNV deletion 18451855
nsv428408 CNV gain+loss 18775914
nsv834568 CNV loss 17160897
nsv979182 CNV duplication 23825009

Variation tolerance for PTMA Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 54.5% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for PTMA Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PTMA Gene

Disorders for PTMA Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(2) MalaCards diseases for PTMA Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
hepatitis b
  • chronic hepatitis b
invasive malignant thymoma
  • infiltrating thymoma
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search PTMA in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for PTMA

genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PTMA: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for PTMA Gene

Publications for PTMA Gene

  1. Many sequence variants affecting diversity of adult human height. (PMID: 18391951) Gudbjartsson DF … Stefansson K (Nature genetics 2008) 3 44 58
  2. Effects of zinc binding on the structure and dynamics of the intrinsically disordered protein prothymosin alpha: evidence for metalation as an entropic switch. (PMID: 17929838) Yi S … Choy WY (Biochemistry 2007) 3 22 58
  3. Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks. (PMID: 17081983) Olsen JV … Mann M (Cell 2006) 3 4 58
  4. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PMID: 15489334) Gerhard DS … MGC Project Team (Genome research 2004) 3 4 58
  5. Prothymosin alpha gene in humans: organization of its promoter region and localization to chromosome 2. (PMID: 7916742) Szabo P … Horecker BL (Human genetics 1993) 3 4 58

Products for PTMA Gene

Sources for PTMA Gene

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