Aliases for PTMA Gene

Aliases for PTMA Gene

  • Prothymosin Alpha 2 3 4 5
  • Gene Sequence 28 2 3
  • TMSA 3 4
  • Prothymosin, Alpha (Gene Sequence 28) 2
  • Prothymosin Alpha Protein 3
  • Prothymosin, Alpha 2
  • Prothymosin-I+/- 3
  • Prothymosin-Α 2
  • PTMA 5

External Ids for PTMA Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for PTMA Gene

  • TMSA

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PTMA Gene

  • GC02P230632
  • GC02P231306
  • GC02P232536
  • GC02P232775
  • GC02P232398
  • GC02P232281
  • GC02P232571

Summaries for PTMA Gene

GeneCards Summary for PTMA Gene

PTMA (Prothymosin Alpha) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PTMA include Hepatitis B and Invasive Malignant Thymoma. Among its related pathways are Validated targets of C-MYC transcriptional activation.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for PTMA Gene

  • Prothymosin alpha may mediate immune function by conferring resistance to certain opportunistic infections.

Gene Wiki entry for PTMA Gene

No data available for Entrez Gene Summary , CIViC Summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for PTMA Gene

Genomics for PTMA Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements Pubs

Promoters and enhancers for PTMA Gene
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around PTMA on the GeneHancer Hub at the UCSC Golden Path

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for PTMA

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the PTMA gene promoter:
  • Egr-3
  • FOXI1
  • HFH-3
  • HNF-3beta
  • Meis-1
  • p53
  • Pax-4a
  • Sp1
  • STAT3

Genomic Locations for PTMA Gene

Latest Assembly
6,657 bases
Plus strand

Previous Assembly
(GRCh37/hg19 by Entrez Gene)
5,027 bases
Plus strand

(GRCh37/hg19 by Ensembl)
6,647 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for PTMA Gene

Genes around PTMA on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PTMA Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PTMA Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PTMA Gene

Proteins for PTMA Gene

  • Protein details for PTMA Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Prothymosin alpha
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q15249
    • Q15592

    Protein attributes for PTMA Gene

    111 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    12203 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with NUPR1; regulates apoptotic process.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for PTMA Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for PTMA Gene


neXtProt entry for PTMA Gene

Post-translational modifications for PTMA Gene

  • Covalently linked to a small RNA of about 20 nucleotides.
  • Ubiquitination at Lys15 and Lys103
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for PTMA Gene

Domains & Families for PTMA Gene

Gene Families for PTMA Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Protein Domains for PTMA Gene

  • Prothymosin/parathymosin

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PTMA Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • Prothymosin alpha (PTMA_HUMAN)
  • Prothymosin alpha (Q15254_HUMAN)
  • PTMA protein (Q7KZ52_HUMAN)
  • Prothymosin, alpha (Q8TBK9_HUMAN)
  • Prothymosin alpha (Q9NYD3_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the pro/parathymosin family.
  • Belongs to the pro/parathymosin family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PTMA: view

Function for PTMA Gene

Molecular function for PTMA Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Prothymosin alpha may mediate immune function by conferring resistance to certain opportunistic infections.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
prothymosin alpha,widely expressed,abundant audic nuclear protein potential modulator of the interaction of histone 1 with chromatin

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for PTMA Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PTMA Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 15607035
GO:0033613 activating transcription factor binding IPI 11897665
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PTMA: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PTMA: view

miRNA for PTMA Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target PTMA

Inhibitory RNAs for research

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for PTMA

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PTMA Gene

Localization for PTMA Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PTMA Gene

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PTMA gene
Compartment Confidence
nucleus 5
cytosol 5
extracellular 2
plasma membrane 1
cytoskeleton 1
mitochondrion 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1
endosome 1
lysosome 1
golgi apparatus 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Nucleoplasm (4)
  • Cytosol (3)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PTMA Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus IDA 8485135
GO:0005654 nucleoplasm IDA --
GO:0005829 cytosol IDA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PTMA: view

Pathways & Interactions for PTMA Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PTMA: view

Pathways by source for PTMA Gene

1 BioSystems pathway for PTMA Gene

SIGNOR curated interactions for PTMA Gene


Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PTMA Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006351 transcription, DNA-templated TAS 10854063
GO:0043066 negative regulation of apoptotic process IMP 16478804
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PTMA: view

Drugs & Compounds for PTMA Gene

(19) Drugs for PTMA Gene - From: DGIdb and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Thymalfasin Investigational Pharma 36

(3) Additional Compounds for PTMA Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PTMA: view

Transcripts for PTMA Gene

mRNA/cDNA for PTMA Gene

21 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
12 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

Inhibitory RNAs for research

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for PTMA

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PTMA Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6 ^ 7
SP1: - - -
SP3: -
SP4: - -

Relevant External Links for PTMA Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for

Expression for PTMA Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for PTMA Gene

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PTMA Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Oral epithelium (12.7), Fetal Brain (11.4), and Nasal epithelium (6.3).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for PTMA Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for PTMA Gene

- Elite partner

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for PTMA

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PTMA Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for PTMA Gene

  • Nervous system(5)
  • Skin(4.9)
  • Liver(4.9)
  • Lung(4.9)
  • Eye(4.7)
  • Pancreas(4.4)
  • Intestine(4.3)
  • Blood(4)
  • Stomach(3.9)
  • Kidney(3.7)
  • Spleen(3.7)
  • Heart(3.2)
  • Lymph node(3.2)
  • Muscle(3.1)
  • Bone marrow(3)
  • Thyroid gland(2.9)
  • Bone(2.9)
  • Gall bladder(2.6)
  • Adrenal gland(2.6)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PTMA: view

Primer products for research

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for PTMA Gene

Orthologs for PTMA Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for PTMA Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PTMA 29
  • 99.09 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PTMA 30 30
  • 95 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Ptma 30
  • 95 (a)
Gm6625 30
  • 53 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PTMA 29 30
  • 92.42 (n)
-- 30
  • 88 (a)
-- 30
  • 64 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PTMA 30
  • 72 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PTMA 30
  • 91 (a)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia ptma-prov 29
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii ptma 29
Species where no ortholog for PTMA was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Eremothecium gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • Alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • Amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • Beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • Common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • Corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • Filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute Bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • Fission Yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • Fruit Fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • Green Algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. Lactis Yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • Loblloly Pine (Pinus taeda)
  • Malaria Parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • Medicago Trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • Moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • Oppossum (Monodelphis domestica)
  • Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • Pig (Sus scrofa)
  • Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • Rat (Rattus norvegicus)
  • Rice (Oryza sativa)
  • Rice Blast Fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • Schistosome Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • Sea Anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • Sea Vase (Ciona intestinalis)
  • Sea Squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • Soybean (Glycine max)
  • Stem Rust Fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • Thale Cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • Tropical Clawed Frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • Wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • Worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for PTMA Gene

Gene Tree for PTMA (if available)
Gene Tree for PTMA (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for PTMA: view image
Alliance of Genome Resources:
Additional Orthologs for PTMA

Paralogs for PTMA Gene

(1) SIMAP similar genes for PTMA Gene using alignment to 11 proteins:

  • H7C031_HUMAN
  • H7C2N1_HUMAN
  • Q15254_HUMAN
  • Q7KZ52_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PTMA: view

No data available for Paralogs for PTMA Gene

Variants for PTMA Gene

dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for variants without ClinVar clinical significance for PTMA Gene

All consequence types are included: molecular consequences (e.g. missense, synonymous), and location-based (e.g. intron, upstream).

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PTMA Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv2759117 CNV gain+loss 17122850
nsv3204 CNV deletion 18451855
nsv428408 CNV gain+loss 18775914
nsv834568 CNV loss 17160897
nsv979182 CNV duplication 23825009

Variation tolerance for PTMA Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 54.5% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for PTMA Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
Leiden Open Variation Database (LOVD)

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assays for research

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for PTMA Gene

Disorders for PTMA Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(5) MalaCards diseases for PTMA Gene - From: COP and GCD

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
hepatitis b
  • chronic hepatitis b
invasive malignant thymoma
  • infiltrating thymoma
  • thymus neoplasms
liver cirrhosis
  • cirrhosis
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search PTMA in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for PTMA

genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PTMA: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for PTMA Gene

Publications for PTMA Gene

  1. Many sequence variants affecting diversity of adult human height. (PMID: 18391951) Gudbjartsson DF … Stefansson K (Nature genetics 2008) 3 40
  2. Effects of zinc binding on the structure and dynamics of the intrinsically disordered protein prothymosin alpha: evidence for metalation as an entropic switch. (PMID: 17929838) Yi S … Choy WY (Biochemistry 2007) 3 22
  3. Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks. (PMID: 17081983) Olsen JV … Mann M (Cell 2006) 3 4
  4. Regulation of apoptosis by the p8/prothymosin alpha complex. (PMID: 16478804) Malicet C … Iovanna JL (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2006) 3 4
  5. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PMID: 15489334) Gerhard DS … MGC Project Team (Genome research 2004) 3 4

Products for PTMA Gene

Sources for PTMA Gene