Aliases for PTHLH Gene
External Ids for PTHLH Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PTHLH Gene
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the parathyroid hormone family. This hormone, via its receptor, PTHR1, regulates endochondral bone development and epithelial-mesenchymal interactions during the formation of the mammary glands and teeth. It is responsible for most cases of humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy, and mutations in this gene are associated with brachydactyly type E2 (BDE2). Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. There is also evidence for alternative translation initiation from non-AUG (CUG and GUG) start sites, downstream of the initiator AUG codon, resulting in nuclear forms of this hormone. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2013]
GeneCards Summary for PTHLH Gene
PTHLH (Parathyroid Hormone Like Hormone) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PTHLH include Brachydactyly, Type E2 and Brachydactyly, Type E1. Among its related pathways are Development_Hedgehog and PTH signaling pathways in bone and cartilage development and Signaling by GPCR. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include hormone activity and peptide hormone receptor binding.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for PTHLH Gene
Neuroendocrine peptide which is a critical regulator of cellular and organ growth, development, migration, differentiation and survival and of epithelial calcium ion transport. Regulates endochondral bone development and epithelial-mesenchymal interactions during the formation of the mammary glands and teeth. Required for skeletal homeostasis. Promotes mammary mesenchyme differentiation and bud outgrowth by modulating mesenchymal cell responsiveness to BMPs. Upregulates BMPR1A expression in the mammary mesenchyme and this increases the sensitivity of these cells to BMPs and allows them to respond to BMP4 in a paracrine and/or autocrine fashion. BMP4 signaling in the mesenchyme, in turn, triggers epithelial outgrowth and augments MSX2 expression, which causes the mammary mesenchyme to inhibit hair follicle formation within the nipple sheath (By similarity). Promotes colon cancer cell migration and invasion in an integrin alpha-6/beta-1-dependent manner through activation of Rac1.
Osteostatin is a potent inhibitor of osteoclastic bone resorption.