Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase (PTGS), also known as cyclooxygenase, is the key enzyme in prostaglandin biosynthesis, and acts both as a dioxygenase and as a peroxidase. There are two isozymes of PTGS: a constitutive PTGS1 and an inducible PTGS2, which differ in their regulation of expression and tissue distribution. This gene encodes the inducible isozyme. It is regulated... See more...

Aliases for PTGS2 Gene

Aliases for PTGS2 Gene

  • Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthase 2 2 3 4 5
  • Prostaglandin G/H Synthase 2 2 3 4
  • COX2 2 3 4
  • Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthase 2 (Prostaglandin G/H Synthase And Cyclooxygenase) 2 3
  • Prostaglandin H2 Synthase 2 3 4
  • Cyclooxygenase 2 2 3
  • PGH Synthase 2 3 4
  • EC 1.14.99.1 4 51
  • PGHS-2 3 4
  • PHS II 3 4
  • COX-2 3 4
  • Cyclooxygenase 2b 3
  • Cyclooxygenase-2 4
  • EC 1.14.99 51
  • GRIPGHS 3
  • PGG/HS 3
  • HCox-2 3
  • PHS-2 3
  • PTGS2 5

External Ids for PTGS2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PTGS2 Gene

  • GC01M184166
  • GC01M182068
  • GC01M183160
  • GC01M183879
  • GC01M183372
  • GC01M184907
  • GC01M157875

Summaries for PTGS2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PTGS2 Gene

  • Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase (PTGS), also known as cyclooxygenase, is the key enzyme in prostaglandin biosynthesis, and acts both as a dioxygenase and as a peroxidase. There are two isozymes of PTGS: a constitutive PTGS1 and an inducible PTGS2, which differ in their regulation of expression and tissue distribution. This gene encodes the inducible isozyme. It is regulated by specific stimulatory events, suggesting that it is responsible for the prostanoid biosynthesis involved in inflammation and mitogenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]

CIViC Summary for PTGS2 Gene

GeneCards Summary for PTGS2 Gene

PTGS2 (Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthase 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PTGS2 include Gastric Ulcer and Bursitis. Among its related pathways are Neuroscience and GABAergic synapse. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and lipid binding. An important paralog of this gene is PTGS1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for PTGS2 Gene

  • Dual cyclooxygenase and peroxidase in the biosynthesis pathway of prostanoids, a class of C20 oxylipins mainly derived from arachidonate, with a particular role in the inflammatory response (PubMed:7947975, PubMed:7592599, PubMed:9261177, PubMed:16373578, PubMed:22942274, PubMed:26859324, PubMed:27226593, PubMed:11939906, PubMed:19540099). The cyclooxygenase activity oxygenates arachidonate (AA, C20:4(n-6)) to the hydroperoxy endoperoxide prostaglandin G2 (PGG2), and the peroxidase activity reduces PGG2 to the hydroxy endoperoxide PGH2, the precursor of all 2-series prostaglandins and thromboxanes (PubMed:7947975, PubMed:7592599, PubMed:9261177, PubMed:16373578, PubMed:22942274, PubMed:26859324, PubMed:27226593). This complex transformation is initiated by abstraction of hydrogen at carbon 13 (with S-stereochemistry), followed by insertion of molecular O2 to form the endoperoxide bridge between carbon 9 and 11 that defines prostaglandins. The insertion of a second molecule of O2 (bis-oxygenase activity) yields a hydroperoxy group in PGG2 that is then reduced to PGH2 by two electrons (PubMed:7947975, PubMed:7592599, PubMed:9261177, PubMed:16373578, PubMed:22942274, PubMed:26859324, PubMed:27226593). Similarly catalyzes successive cyclooxygenation and peroxidation of dihomo-gamma-linoleate (DGLA, C20:3(n-6)) and eicosapentaenoate (EPA, C20:5(n-3)) to corresponding PGH1 and PGH3, the precursors of 1- and 3-series prostaglandins (PubMed:11939906, PubMed:19540099). In an alternative pathway of prostanoid biosynthesis, converts 2-arachidonoyl lysophopholipids to prostanoid lysophopholipids, which are then hydrolyzed by intracellular phospholipases to release free prostanoids (PubMed:27642067). Metabolizes 2-arachidonoyl glycerol yielding the glyceryl ester of PGH2, a process that can contribute to pain response (PubMed:22942274). Generates lipid mediators from n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) via a lipoxygenase-type mechanism. Oxygenates PUFAs to hydroperoxy compounds and then reduces them to corresponding alcohols (PubMed:11034610, PubMed:11192938, PubMed:9048568, PubMed:9261177). Plays a role in the generation of resolution phase interaction products (resolvins) during both sterile and infectious inflammation (PubMed:12391014). Metabolizes docosahexaenoate (DHA, C22:6(n-3)) to 17R-HDHA, a precursor of the D-series resolvins (RvDs) (PubMed:12391014). As a component of the biosynthetic pathway of E-series resolvins (RvEs), converts eicosapentaenoate (EPA, C20:5(n-3)) primarily to 18S-HEPE that is further metabolized by ALOX5 and LTA4H to generate 18S-RvE1 and 18S-RvE2 (PubMed:21206090). In vascular endothelial cells, converts docosapentaenoate (DPA, C22:5(n-3)) to 13R-HDPA, a precursor for 13-series resolvins (RvTs) shown to activate macrophage phagocytosis during bacterial infection (PubMed:26236990). In activated leukocytes, contributes to oxygenation of hydroxyeicosatetraenoates (HETE) to diHETES (5,15-diHETE and 5,11-diHETE) (PubMed:22068350, PubMed:26282205). During neuroinflammation, plays a role in neuronal secretion of specialized preresolving mediators (SPMs) 15R-lipoxin A4 that regulates phagocytic microglia (By similarity).

Tocris Summary for PTGS2 Gene

  • Cyclooxygenase (also known as COX, Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase, Prostaglandin G/H synthase) is expressed in cells in three isoforms. COX-1 (constitutive) and COX-2 (inducible) isoforms catalyze the rate-limiting step of prostaglandin production.

Gene Wiki entry for PTGS2 Gene

PharmGKB "VIP" Summary for PTGS2 Gene

No data available for Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for PTGS2 Gene

Genomics for PTGS2 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements Pubs

Promoters and enhancers for PTGS2 Gene
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around PTGS2 on the GeneHancer Hub at the UCSC Golden Path

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for PTGS2

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the PTGS2 gene promoter:
  • AP-1
  • ATF-2
  • c-Jun
  • CREB
  • deltaCREB
  • FOXJ2
  • FOXJ2 (long isoform)
  • POU6F1 (c2)
  • STAT5A

Genomic Locations for PTGS2 Gene

Genomic Locations for PTGS2 Gene
chr1:186,671,791-186,680,423
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
8,633 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand
chr1:186,640,923-186,649,559
(GRCh37/hg19)
Size:
8,637 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for PTGS2 Gene

Genes around PTGS2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PTGS2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PTGS2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PTGS2 Gene

Proteins for PTGS2 Gene

  • Protein details for PTGS2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P35354-PGH2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Prostaglandin G/H synthase 2
    Protein Accession:
    P35354
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8K802
    • Q16876

    Protein attributes for PTGS2 Gene

    Size:
    604 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    68996 Da
    Cofactor:
    Name=heme b; Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:60344;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer.
    Miscellaneous:
    • The conversion of arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 is a 2 step reaction: a cyclooxygenase (COX) reaction which converts arachidonate to prostaglandin G2 (PGG2) and a peroxidase reaction in which PGG2 is reduced to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2). The cyclooxygenase reaction occurs in a hydrophobic channel in the core of the enzyme. The peroxidase reaction occurs at a heme-containing active site located near the protein surface. The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) binding site corresponds to the cyclooxygenase active site.
    • Conversion of arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 is mediated by 2 different isozymes: the constitutive PTGS1 and the inducible PTGS2. PGHS1 is expressed constitutively and generally produces prostanoids acutely in response to hormonal stimuli to fine-tune physiological processes requiring instantaneous, continuous regulation (e.g. hemostasis). PGHS2 is inducible and typically produces prostanoids that mediate responses to physiological stresses such as infection and inflammation.
    • PTGS1 and PTGS2 are the targets of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) including aspirin and ibuprofen (PubMed:27710942, PubMed:26859324, PubMed:27226593). Aspirin is able to produce an irreversible inactivation of the enzyme through a serine acetylation (PubMed:26859324). Inhibition of the PGHSs with NSAIDs acutely reduces inflammation, pain, and fever, and long-term use of these drugs reduces fatal thrombotic events, as well as the development of colon cancer and Alzheimer's disease. PTGS2 is the principal isozyme responsible for production of inflammatory prostaglandins. New generation PTGSs inhibitors strive to be selective for PTGS2, to avoid side effects such as gastrointestinal complications and ulceration.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for PTGS2 Gene

neXtProt entry for PTGS2 Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for PTGS2 Gene

P35354:
  • AIFGETMVE
  • MFAFFAQHFTHQFFKT
  • HLSGYHF
  • YNNSILLEHG
  • WLREHNRVCD
  • FNEYRKRF
  • YVQHLSGY
  • LYHWHPL
  • LGHGVDL
  • LLVEKPRP
  • CDCTRTG
  • LRLFKDGK
  • VGQEVFGL
  • AGRVAGG
  • RTGFYGENC
  • SFEELTGEKEM
  • IINTASI
  • RLFKDGKMKYQ
  • LYGDIDA
  • RLILIGETIKI
  • YWKPSTFGG
  • LKPTPNTVHYILTHFKG
  • ASIDQSR
  • PCQNRGVCMSVGFDQY
  • FIPDPQG
  • RLFKDGK
  • YKSWEAFSNLSYYTRALPPV
  • YPPTVKDTQ
  • LKFDPELLF
  • GAPFSLKGL

Post-translational modifications for PTGS2 Gene

  • S-nitrosylation by NOS2 (iNOS) activates enzyme activity. S-nitrosylation may take place on different Cys residues in addition to Cys-526.
  • Acetylated at Ser-565 by SPHK1. During neuroinflammation, acetylation by SPHK1 promotes neuronal secretion of specialized preresolving mediators (SPMs), especially 15-R-lipoxin A4, which results in an increase of phagocytic microglia.
  • Glycosylation at Asn53, Asn130, Asn396, and Asn580
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Glycosylation from GlyConnect

Other Protein References for PTGS2 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

Domains & Families for PTGS2 Gene

Gene Families for PTGS2 Gene

IUPHAR :
Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Cancer-related genes
  • Enzymes
  • FDA approved drug targets
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Protein Domains for PTGS2 Gene

InterPro:
Blocks:
  • Type I EGF
  • Animal haem peroxidase signature
  • Haem peroxidase
ProtoNet:

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PTGS2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • Prostaglandin-endoperoxidase synthase 2 (D9MWI3_HUMAN)
  • Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PGH2_HUMAN)
  • Putative cyclooxygenase-2 (Q6ZYK7_HUMAN)
  • Cyclooxygenase-2 (Q9NNY7_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P35354

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

PGH2_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the prostaglandin G/H synthase family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the prostaglandin G/H synthase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PTGS2: view

Function for PTGS2 Gene

Molecular function for PTGS2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Dual cyclooxygenase and peroxidase in the biosynthesis pathway of prostanoids, a class of C20 oxylipins mainly derived from arachidonate, with a particular role in the inflammatory response (PubMed:7947975, PubMed:7592599, PubMed:9261177, PubMed:16373578, PubMed:22942274, PubMed:26859324, PubMed:27226593, PubMed:11939906, PubMed:19540099). The cyclooxygenase activity oxygenates arachidonate (AA, C20:4(n-6)) to the hydroperoxy endoperoxide prostaglandin G2 (PGG2), and the peroxidase activity reduces PGG2 to the hydroxy endoperoxide PGH2, the precursor of all 2-series prostaglandins and thromboxanes (PubMed:7947975, PubMed:7592599, PubMed:9261177, PubMed:16373578, PubMed:22942274, PubMed:26859324, PubMed:27226593). This complex transformation is initiated by abstraction of hydrogen at carbon 13 (with S-stereochemistry), followed by insertion of molecular O2 to form the endoperoxide bridge between carbon 9 and 11 that defines prostaglandins. The insertion of a second molecule of O2 (bis-oxygenase activity) yields a hydroperoxy group in PGG2 that is then reduced to PGH2 by two electrons (PubMed:7947975, PubMed:7592599, PubMed:9261177, PubMed:16373578, PubMed:22942274, PubMed:26859324, PubMed:27226593). Similarly catalyzes successive cyclooxygenation and peroxidation of dihomo-gamma-linoleate (DGLA, C20:3(n-6)) and eicosapentaenoate (EPA, C20:5(n-3)) to corresponding PGH1 and PGH3, the precursors of 1- and 3-series prostaglandins (PubMed:11939906, PubMed:19540099). In an alternative pathway of prostanoid biosynthesis, converts 2-arachidonoyl lysophopholipids to prostanoid lysophopholipids, which are then hydrolyzed by intracellular phospholipases to release free prostanoids (PubMed:27642067). Metabolizes 2-arachidonoyl glycerol yielding the glyceryl ester of PGH2, a process that can contribute to pain response (PubMed:22942274). Generates lipid mediators from n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) via a lipoxygenase-type mechanism. Oxygenates PUFAs to hydroperoxy compounds and then reduces them to corresponding alcohols (PubMed:11034610, PubMed:11192938, PubMed:9048568, PubMed:9261177). Plays a role in the generation of resolution phase interaction products (resolvins) during both sterile and infectious inflammation (PubMed:12391014). Metabolizes docosahexaenoate (DHA, C22:6(n-3)) to 17R-HDHA, a precursor of the D-series resolvins (RvDs) (PubMed:12391014). As a component of the biosynthetic pathway of E-series resolvins (RvEs), converts eicosapentaenoate (EPA, C20:5(n-3)) primarily to 18S-HEPE that is further metabolized by ALOX5 and LTA4H to generate 18S-RvE1 and 18S-RvE2 (PubMed:21206090). In vascular endothelial cells, converts docosapentaenoate (DPA, C22:5(n-3)) to 13R-HDPA, a precursor for 13-series resolvins (RvTs) shown to activate macrophage phagocytosis during bacterial infection (PubMed:26236990). In activated leukocytes, contributes to oxygenation of hydroxyeicosatetraenoates (HETE) to diHETES (5,15-diHETE and 5,11-diHETE) (PubMed:22068350, PubMed:26282205). During neuroinflammation, plays a role in neuronal secretion of specialized preresolving mediators (SPMs) 15R-lipoxin A4 that regulates phagocytic microglia (By similarity).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=(5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z)-eicosatetraenoate + AH2 + 2 O2 = A + H2O + prostaglandin H2; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:23728, ChEBI:CHEBI:13193, ChEBI:CHEBI:15377, ChEBI:CHEBI:15379, ChEBI:CHEBI:17499, ChEBI:CHEBI:32395, ChEBI:CHEBI:57405; EC=1.14.99.1; Evidence={ECO:0000269|PubMed:16373578, ECO:0000269|PubMed:22942274, ECO:0000269|PubMed:26859324, ECO:0000269|PubMed:27226593, ECO:0000269|PubMed:7592599, ECO:0000269|PubMed:7947975, ECO:0000269|PubMed:9261177};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=(5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z)-eicosatetraenoate + 2 O2 = prostaglandin G2; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:42596, ChEBI:CHEBI:15379, ChEBI:CHEBI:32395, ChEBI:CHEBI:82629; Evidence={ECO:0000269|PubMed:22942274, ECO:0000269|PubMed:7592599, ECO:0000269|PubMed:7947975, ECO:0000269|PubMed:9261177};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=AH2 + prostaglandin G2 = A + H2O + prostaglandin H2; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:42600, ChEBI:CHEBI:13193, ChEBI:CHEBI:15377, ChEBI:CHEBI:17499, ChEBI:CHEBI:57405, ChEBI:CHEBI:82629; Evidence={ECO:0000269|PubMed:22942274, ECO:0000269|PubMed:7592599, ECO:0000269|PubMed:7947975, ECO:0000269|PubMed:9261177};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=(5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z,17Z)-eicosapentaenoate + 2 O2 = prostaglandin G3; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:50444, ChEBI:CHEBI:15379, ChEBI:CHEBI:58562, ChEBI:CHEBI:133133; Evidence={ECO:0000303|PubMed:19540099};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=AH2 + prostaglandin G3 = A + H2O + prostaglandin H3; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:50448, ChEBI:CHEBI:13193, ChEBI:CHEBI:15377, ChEBI:CHEBI:17499, ChEBI:CHEBI:133133, ChEBI:CHEBI:133134; Evidence={ECO:0000303|PubMed:19540099};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=(8Z,11Z,14Z)-eicosatrienoate + 2 O2 = prostaglandin G1; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:50424, ChEBI:CHEBI:15379, ChEBI:CHEBI:71589, ChEBI:CHEBI:133084; Evidence={ECO:0000269|PubMed:11939906};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=AH2 + prostaglandin G1 = A + H2O + prostaglandin H1; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:50432, ChEBI:CHEBI:13193, ChEBI:CHEBI:15377, ChEBI:CHEBI:17499, ChEBI:CHEBI:90793, ChEBI:CHEBI:133084; Evidence={ECO:0000269|PubMed:11939906};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=2-(5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z)-eicosatetraenoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine + 2 O2 = 2-(prostaglandin G2)-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:54204, ChEBI:CHEBI:15379, ChEBI:CHEBI:76091, ChEBI:CHEBI:138098; Evidence={ECO:0000269|PubMed:27642067};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=2-(prostaglandin G2)-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine + AH2 = 2-(prostaglandin H2)-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine + A + H2O; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:54208, ChEBI:CHEBI:13193, ChEBI:CHEBI:15377, ChEBI:CHEBI:17499, ChEBI:CHEBI:138098, ChEBI:CHEBI:138099; Evidence={ECO:0000269|PubMed:27642067};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=2-(5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z)-eicosatetraenoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + 2 O2 = 2-(prostaglandin G2)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:54212, ChEBI:CHEBI:15379, ChEBI:CHEBI:76079, ChEBI:CHEBI:138100; Evidence={ECO:0000269|PubMed:27642067};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=2-(prostaglandin G2)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + AH2 = 2-(prostaglandin H2)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + A + H2O; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:54216, ChEBI:CHEBI:13193, ChEBI:CHEBI:15377, ChEBI:CHEBI:17499, ChEBI:CHEBI:138100, ChEBI:CHEBI:138101; Evidence={ECO:0000269|PubMed:27642067};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=(15S)-hydroperoxy-(5Z,8Z,11Z,13E)-eicosatetraenoate + AH2 = (5Z,8Z,11Z,13E,15S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoate + A + H2O; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:48856, ChEBI:CHEBI:13193, ChEBI:CHEBI:15377, ChEBI:CHEBI:17499, ChEBI:CHEBI:57409, ChEBI:CHEBI:57446; Evidence={ECO:0000269|PubMed:9261177};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=2-(5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z)-eicosatetraenoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + AH2 + O2 = 2-[(15S)-hydroxy-(5Z,8Z,11Z,13E)-eicosatetraenoyl]-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + A + H2O; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:53684, ChEBI:CHEBI:13193, ChEBI:CHEBI:15377, ChEBI:CHEBI:15379, ChEBI:CHEBI:17499, ChEBI:CHEBI:76079, ChEBI:CHEBI:137584; Evidence={ECO:0000269|PubMed:27642067};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=2-(5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z)-eicosatetraenoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + AH2 + O2 = 2-[(15R)-hydroxy-(5Z,8Z,11Z,13E)-eicosatetraenoyl]-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + A + H2O; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:53680, ChEBI:CHEBI:13193, ChEBI:CHEBI:15377, ChEBI:CHEBI:15379, ChEBI:CHEBI:17499, ChEBI:CHEBI:76079, ChEBI:CHEBI:137583; Evidence={ECO:0000269|PubMed:27642067};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=2-(5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z)-eicosatetraenoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + AH2 + O2 = 2-[(11R)-hydroxy-(5Z,8Z,12E,14Z)-eicosatetraenoyl]-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + A + H2O; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:53676, ChEBI:CHEBI:13193, ChEBI:CHEBI:15377, ChEBI:CHEBI:15379, ChEBI:CHEBI:17499, ChEBI:CHEBI:76079, ChEBI:CHEBI:137582; Evidence={ECO:0000269|PubMed:27642067};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=(9Z,12Z)-octadecadienoate + AH2 + O2 = 9-hydroxy-(10E,12Z)-octadecadienoate + A + H2O; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:50864, ChEBI:CHEBI:13193, ChEBI:CHEBI:15377, ChEBI:CHEBI:15379, ChEBI:CHEBI:17499, ChEBI:CHEBI:30245, ChEBI:CHEBI:133820; Evidence={ECO:0000269|PubMed:11034610, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11192938};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=(9Z,12Z)-octadecadienoate + AH2 + O2 = 13-hydroxy-(9Z,11E)-octadecadienoate + A + H2O; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:50860, ChEBI:CHEBI:13193, ChEBI:CHEBI:15377, ChEBI:CHEBI:15379, ChEBI:CHEBI:17499, ChEBI:CHEBI:30245, ChEBI:CHEBI:133819; Evidence={ECO:0000269|PubMed:11034610, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11192938};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=(5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z)-eicosatetraenoate + AH2 + O2 = (15R)-hydroxy-(5Z,8Z,11Z,13E)-eicosatetraenoate + A + H2O; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:50856, ChEBI:CHEBI:13193, ChEBI:CHEBI:15377, ChEBI:CHEBI:15379, ChEBI:CHEBI:17499, ChEBI:CHEBI:32395, ChEBI:CHEBI:78837; Evidence={ECO:0000269|PubMed:11034610, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11192938};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=(5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z)-eicosatetraenoate + AH2 + O2 = (11R)-hydroxy-(5Z,8Z,12E,14Z)-eicosatetraenoate + A + H2O; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:50852, ChEBI:CHEBI:13193, ChEBI:CHEBI:15377, ChEBI:CHEBI:15379, ChEBI:CHEBI:17499, ChEBI:CHEBI:32395, ChEBI:CHEBI:78836; Evidence={ECO:0000269|PubMed:11034610, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11192938};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=(5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z,17Z)-eicosapentaenoate + AH2 + O2 = (11R)-hydroxy-(5Z,8Z,12E,14Z,17Z)-eicosapentaenoate + A + H2O; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:50848, ChEBI:CHEBI:13193, ChEBI:CHEBI:15377, ChEBI:CHEBI:15379, ChEBI:CHEBI:17499, ChEBI:CHEBI:58562, ChEBI:CHEBI:90820; Evidence={ECO:0000269|PubMed:11034610, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11192938};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=(5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z,17Z)-eicosapentaenoate + AH2 + O2 = (18S)-hydroxy-(5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z,16E)-eicosapentaenoate + A + H2O; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:50200, ChEBI:CHEBI:13193, ChEBI:CHEBI:15377, ChEBI:CHEBI:15379, ChEBI:CHEBI:17499, ChEBI:CHEBI:58562, ChEBI:CHEBI:132083; Evidence={ECO:0000269|PubMed:21206090};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=(5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z,17Z)-eicosapentaenoate + AH2 + O2 = (18R)-hydroxy-(5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z,16E)-eicosapentaenoate + A + H2O; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:48836, ChEBI:CHEBI:13193, ChEBI:CHEBI:15377, ChEBI:CHEBI:15379, ChEBI:CHEBI:17499, ChEBI:CHEBI:58562, ChEBI:CHEBI:90818; Evidence={ECO:0000269|PubMed:11034610, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11192938, ECO:0000269|PubMed:21206090};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=(5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z,17Z)-eicosapentaenoate + AH2 + O2 = (15R)-hydroxy-(5Z,8Z,11Z,13E,17Z)-eicosapentaenoate + A + H2O; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:48840, ChEBI:CHEBI:13193, ChEBI:CHEBI:15377, ChEBI:CHEBI:15379, ChEBI:CHEBI:17499, ChEBI:CHEBI:58562, ChEBI:CHEBI:90819; Evidence={ECO:0000269|PubMed:11034610, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11192938, ECO:0000269|PubMed:21206090};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=(5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z,17Z)-eicosapentaenoate + AH2 + O2 = (15S)-hydroxy-(5Z,8Z,11Z,13E,17Z)-eicosapentaenoate + A + H2O; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:50196, ChEBI:CHEBI:13193, ChEBI:CHEBI:15377, ChEBI:CHEBI:15379, ChEBI:CHEBI:17499, ChEBI:CHEBI:58562, ChEBI:CHEBI:132087; Evidence={ECO:0000269|PubMed:21206090};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=(7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z,19Z)-docosapentaenoate + AH2 + O2 = 13R-hydroxy-(7Z,10Z,14E,16Z,19Z)-docosapentaenoate + A + H2O; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:48852, ChEBI:CHEBI:13193, ChEBI:CHEBI:15377, ChEBI:CHEBI:15379, ChEBI:CHEBI:17499, ChEBI:CHEBI:77224, ChEBI:CHEBI:90824; Evidence={ECO:0000269|PubMed:26236990};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=(4Z,7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z,19Z)-docosahexaenoate + AH2 + O2 = 13-hydroxy-(4Z,7Z,10Z,14E,16Z,19Z)-docosahexaenoate + A + H2O; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:48820, ChEBI:CHEBI:13193, ChEBI:CHEBI:15377, ChEBI:CHEBI:15379, ChEBI:CHEBI:17499, ChEBI:CHEBI:77016, ChEBI:CHEBI:90815; Evidence={ECO:0000269|PubMed:12391014};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=(5S)-hydroxy-(6E,8Z,11Z,14Z)-eicosatetraenoate + AH2 + O2 = (5S,15R)-dihydroxy-(6E,8Z,11Z,13E)-eicosatetraenoate + A + H2O; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:48812, ChEBI:CHEBI:13193, ChEBI:CHEBI:15377, ChEBI:CHEBI:15379, ChEBI:CHEBI:17499, ChEBI:CHEBI:90632, ChEBI:CHEBI:90812; Evidence={ECO:0000269|PubMed:22068350};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=(4Z,7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z,19Z)-docosahexaenoate + AH2 + O2 = 17R-hydroxy-(4Z,7Z,10Z,13Z,15E,19Z)-docosahexaenoate + A + H2O; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:48816, ChEBI:CHEBI:13193, ChEBI:CHEBI:15377, ChEBI:CHEBI:15379, ChEBI:CHEBI:17499, ChEBI:CHEBI:77016, ChEBI:CHEBI:90814; Evidence={ECO:0000269|PubMed:12391014};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=(5S)-hydroxy-(6E,8Z,11Z,14Z)-eicosatetraenoate + AH2 + O2 = (5S,15S)-dihydroxy-(6E,8Z,11Z,13E)-eicosatetraenoate + A + H2O; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:48808, ChEBI:CHEBI:13193, ChEBI:CHEBI:15377, ChEBI:CHEBI:15379, ChEBI:CHEBI:17499, ChEBI:CHEBI:90632, ChEBI:CHEBI:90813; Evidence={ECO:0000269|PubMed:22068350};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=(5S)-hydroxy-(6E,8Z,11Z,14Z)-eicosatetraenoate + AH2 + O2 = (5S,11R)-dihydroxy-(6E,8Z,12E,14Z)-eicosatetraenoate + A + H2O; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:48804, ChEBI:CHEBI:13193, ChEBI:CHEBI:15377, ChEBI:CHEBI:15379, ChEBI:CHEBI:17499, ChEBI:CHEBI:90632, ChEBI:CHEBI:90810; Evidence={ECO:0000269|PubMed:22068350, ECO:0000269|PubMed:26282205};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=2-(5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatetraenoyl)-glycerol + 2 O2 = 2-glyceryl-prostaglandin G2; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:45288, ChEBI:CHEBI:15379, ChEBI:CHEBI:52392, ChEBI:CHEBI:85165; Evidence={ECO:0000269|PubMed:22942274};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=2-glyceryl-prostaglandin G2 + AH2 = 2-glyceryl-prostaglandin H2 + A + H2O; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:45292, ChEBI:CHEBI:13193, ChEBI:CHEBI:15377, ChEBI:CHEBI:17499, ChEBI:CHEBI:85165, ChEBI:CHEBI:85166; Evidence={ECO:0000269|PubMed:22942274};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=(5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z)-eicosatetraenoate + O2 = (15R)-hydroperoxy-(5Z,8Z,11Z,13E)-eicosatetraenoate; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:42284, ChEBI:CHEBI:15379, ChEBI:CHEBI:32395, ChEBI:CHEBI:82626; Evidence={ECO:0000269|PubMed:9048568};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=(5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z)-eicosatetraenoate + O2 = (5Z,8Z,11R,12E,14Z)-11-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoate; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:42280, ChEBI:CHEBI:15379, ChEBI:CHEBI:32395, ChEBI:CHEBI:82628; Evidence={ECO:0000269|PubMed:9048568};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
By cytokines and mitogens. Up-regulated by IL1B (PubMed:26282205, PubMed:9545330). Up-regulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (PubMed:9545330).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot BiophysicochemicalProperties:
Kinetic parameters: KM=16.2 uM for (5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z)-eicosatetraenoate (in absence of sodium nitroprusside NO donor) {ECO:0000269|PubMed:16373578}; KM=12 uM for (5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z)-eicosatetraenoate {ECO:0000269|PubMed:26859324}; KM=17.0 uM for (5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z)-eicosatetraenoate (in presence of sodium nitroprusside NO donor) {ECO:0000269|PubMed:16373578}; KM=5.1 uM for (5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z)-eicosatetraenoate (cyclooxygenase and peroxidase activities) {ECO:0000269|PubMed:7947975}; KM=3.1 uM for (7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z,19Z)-docosapentaenoate {ECO:0000269|PubMed:26236990}; KM=0.93 uM for (5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z)-eicosatetraenoate (cyclooxygenase activity) {ECO:0000269|PubMed:9048568}; KM=13 uM for (5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z)-eicosatetraenoate (cyclooxygenase activity in presence of aspirin) {ECO:0000269|PubMed:9048568}; KM=41 uM for (5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z)-eicosatetraenoate (lipoxygenase activity) {ECO:0000269|PubMed:9048568}; KM=15 uM for (5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z)-eicosatetraenoate (lipoxygenase activity in presence of aspirin) {ECO:0000269|PubMed:9048568}; KM=12.3 uM for 2-(5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z)-eicosatetraenoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (oxidation to 11-HETE-LPC) {ECO:0000269|PubMed:27642067}; KM=30 uM for 2-(5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z)-eicosatetraenoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (oxidation to 15-HETE-LPC) {ECO:0000269|PubMed:27642067}; Vmax=81.3 nmol/min/mg enzyme (in absence of sodium nitroprusside NO donor) {ECO:0000269|PubMed:16373578}; Vmax=132 nmol/min/mg enzyme (in absence of sodium nitroprusside NO donor) {ECO:0000269|PubMed:16373578};
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
The cyclooxygenase activity is inhibited by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) including aspirin, ibuprofen, flurbiprofen, celecoxib, flufenamic, mefenamic and tolfenamic acids as well as by hydroperoxide scavenger erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase GPX1 (PubMed:26859324, PubMed:27226593, PubMed:7592599, PubMed:9048568). Aspirin triggers enzyme acetylation turning off its ability to generate proinflammatory prostaglandins, but switches on its capacity to produce anti-inflammatory lipid mediators involved in inflammation resolution (PubMed:11034610, PubMed:12391014). Aspirin enhances lipoxygenase-type activity toward production of epimers with R stereochemistry such as 15R-HETE, 18R-HEPE, 15R-HEPE and 17R-HDHA (PubMed:11034610, PubMed:11192938, PubMed:22068350, PubMed:12391014, PubMed:9048568, PubMed:21206090). Atorvastatin, a cholesterol-lowering drug, triggers enzyme S-nitrosylation increasing production of 13-series resolvins (RvTs) (PubMed:26236990).
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
prostaglandin G/H synthase 2,mitogen and cytokine inducible form (lipocalin family,Kernel group),monomer,potent mediator of inflammation,playing a minor role in colorectal carcinogenesis,overexpressed in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck,putatively involved in the tumor tissue response to necrosis

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for PTGS2 Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for PTGS2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PTGS2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004601 peroxidase activity IEA,NAS 14511332
GO:0004666 prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity IEA,IDA 1380156
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 24089527
GO:0016491 oxidoreductase activity IEA --
GO:0016702 oxidoreductase activity, acting on single donors with incorporation of molecular oxygen, incorporation of two atoms of oxygen IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PTGS2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PTGS2: view

Animal Models for PTGS2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PTGS2:

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for PTGS2

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PTGS2 Gene

Localization for PTGS2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PTGS2 Gene

Microsome membrane. Peripheral membrane protein. Endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Peripheral membrane protein. Nucleus inner membrane. Peripheral membrane protein. Nucleus outer membrane. Peripheral membrane protein. Note=Detected on the lumenal side of the endoplasmic reticulum and nuclear envelope. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:9545330}.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PTGS2 gene
Compartment Confidence
nucleus 5
endoplasmic reticulum 5
plasma membrane 4
extracellular 4
cytoskeleton 3
mitochondrion 3
peroxisome 3
cytosol 3
endosome 2
lysosome 2
golgi apparatus 2

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Endoplasmic reticulum (3)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PTGS2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005637 nuclear inner membrane IEA,IDA 9545330
GO:0005640 nuclear outer membrane IDA 9545330
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA,ISS --
GO:0005783 endoplasmic reticulum IEA,IDA 24089527
GO:0005788 endoplasmic reticulum lumen TAS 24089527
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PTGS2: view

Pathways & Interactions for PTGS2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PTGS2: view

Pathways by source for PTGS2 Gene

10 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) pathways for PTGS2 Gene
  • Apoptosis and survival APRIL and BAFF signaling
  • Development HGF signaling pathway
  • Development VEGF signaling via VEGFR2 - generic cascades
  • HETE and HPETE biosynthesis and metabolism
  • Immune response IL-1 signaling pathway
13 Qiagen pathways for PTGS2 Gene
  • all-trans-Retinoic Acid Signaling in Brain
  • Colorectal Cancer Metastasis
  • CRHR Pathway
  • Endothelin-1 Signaling Pathway
  • HGF Pathway
3 Cell Signaling Technology pathways for PTGS2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot P35354-PGH2_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Lipid metabolism; prostaglandin biosynthesis.

SIGNOR curated interactions for PTGS2 Gene

Activates:
Inactivates:
Is activated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PTGS2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001516 prostaglandin biosynthetic process IEA,NAS 20448152
GO:0001525 angiogenesis IEA --
GO:0006629 lipid metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006631 fatty acid metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006633 fatty acid biosynthetic process IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PTGS2: view

Drugs & Compounds for PTGS2 Gene

(202) Drugs for PTGS2 Gene - From: DrugBank, PharmGKB, ApexBio, DGIdb, IUPHAR, HMDB, Tocris, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Rofecoxib Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn Pharma Inhibitor, Inhibition, Target, inhibitor COX-2 inhibitor 31
Celecoxib Approved, Investigational Pharma Inhibitor, Inhibition, Target, inhibitor Selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor 536
Lumiracoxib Approved, Investigational Pharma Inhibitor, Inhibition, Target, inhibitor 17
Valdecoxib Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn Pharma Inhibitor, Inhibition, Target, inhibitor COX-2 inhibitor 31
Ibuprofen Approved Pharma Channel blocker, Inhibitor, Inhibition, Target, inhibitor 716

(46) Additional Compounds for PTGS2 Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
3-Hydroxymethylantipyrine
  • 3-HMAP
18125-49-0
4'-Hydroxydiclofenac
  • (O-(2,6-dichloro-4-hydroxyanilino)Phenyl)acetic acid
  • 4'-Hydroxy diclofenac
  • 4'-OH DCF
  • (O-(2,6-dichloro-4-hydroxyanilino)Phenyl)acetate
  • {2-[(2,6-dichloro-4-hydroxyphenyl)amino]phenyl}acetic acid
64118-84-9
5'-Hydroxylornoxicam
5'-Hydroxypiroxicam
  • 5-Hydroxypiroxicam
77459-78-0
6-Hydroxymethyletoricoxib

(4) Tocris Compounds for PTGS2 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
NCX 4040 NO-donating aspirin; anti-inflammatory and antitumor 287118-97-2
NCX 466 Cyclooxygenase-inhibiting nitric oxide donor 1262956-64-8
Niflumic acid Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor; GPR35 agonist 4394-00-7
Resveratrol Cyclooxygenase inhibitor 501-36-0

(61) ApexBio Compounds for PTGS2 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
(R)-(-)-Ibuprofen 51146-57-7
(S)-(+)-Ibuprofen 51146-56-6
Aceclofenac 89796-99-6
Acemetacin 53164-05-9
Acetaminophen 103-90-2
Amfenac Sodium Monohydrate 61618-27-7
Ampiroxicam 99464-64-9
Asaraldehyde 4460-86-0
Aspirin (Acetylsalicylic acid) Cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor 50-78-2
ATB-346 Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug 1226895-20-0
Bismuth Subsalicylate 14882-18-9
Bromfenac Sodium 91714-93-1
Bufexamac 2438-72-4
Carprofen 53716-49-7
Celecoxib Selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor 169590-42-5
Deracoxib 169590-41-4
Diclofenac 15307-86-5
Diclofenac Sodium COX inhibitor 15307-79-6
Diosgenin 512-04-9
DuP 697 88149-94-4
Etodolac COX-2 inhibitor 41340-25-4
Etoricoxib Specific COX-2 inhibitor 202409-33-4
Firocoxib 189954-96-9
FK 3311 Selective COX-2 inhibitor 116686-15-8
Flunixin Meglumin 42461-84-7
FR 122047 hydrochloride 130717-51-0
Ibuprofen 15687-27-1
Ibuprofen Lysine COX inhibitor 57469-77-9
Iguratimod COX-2 inhibitor,inhibits IL-1,IL-6,IL-8 and tumour necrosis factor. 123663-49-0
Indomethacin Cox inhibitor 53-86-1
Ketoprofen 22071-15-4
Ketorolac 74103-06-3
Ketorolac tromethamine salt 74103-07-4
Licofelone 156897-06-2
Lornoxicam COX-1/COX-2 inhibitor 70374-39-9
Lumiracoxib 220991-20-8
Meclofenamate Sodium 6385-02-0
Mefenamic Acid Anti-inflammatory agent 61-68-7
Meloxicam (Mobic) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug 71125-38-7
MF63 MPGES-1 inhibitor 892549-43-8
Nabumetone 42924-53-8
Naproxen Sodium cyclooxygenase inhibitor 26159-34-2
NCX 4040 287118-97-2
NCX 466 1262956-64-8
Nimesulide Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug 51803-78-2
NS 398 COX-2 inhibitor and anti-inflammatory agent 123653-11-2
Oxaprozin Anti-inflammatory drug 21256-18-8
Parecoxib Sodium 198470-85-8
Phenacetin Non-opioid analgesic 62-44-2
Piroxicam Prostaglandin synthesis/Coxinhibitor 36322-90-4
Rofecoxib COX-2 inhibitor 162011-90-7
Saikosaponin A COX-2 and iNOS inhibitor 20736-09-8
Salicylic acid 69-72-7
SC 236 170569-86-5
SC 58125 162054-19-5
Sulindac Anti-inflammatory agent;COX inhibitor 38194-50-2
Tolfenamic Acid Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug 13710-19-5
Triflusal 322-79-2
Valdecoxib COX-2 inhibitor 181695-72-7
Wogonin COX-2 inhibitor,anti-inflammatory agent 632-85-9
Zaltoprofen Cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor 74711-43-6
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PTGS2: view

Drug Products

Transcripts for PTGS2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for PTGS2 Gene

1 REFSEQ mRNAs :
10 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
5 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for PTGS2

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PTGS2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b ^ 10a · 10b
SP1: -
SP2: - -
SP3: -
SP4:
SP5:

Relevant External Links for PTGS2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
PTGS2

Expression for PTGS2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for PTGS2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for PTGS2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Whole Blood (x5.5) and Stomach (x4.3).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PTGS2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Plasma (26.6), Islet of Langerhans (21.1), and Seminal vesicle (16.8).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for PTGS2 Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for PTGS2 Gene

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for PTGS2

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PTGS2 Gene:

Hs.196384

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for PTGS2 Gene

  • Blood(4.8)
  • Lung(4.6)
  • Heart(4.6)
  • Intestine(3.7)
  • Nervous system(3.6)
  • Bone marrow(3.4)
  • Liver(3.4)
  • Kidney(3.2)
  • Muscle(3.2)
  • Lymph node(3.1)
  • Stomach(3.1)
  • Pancreas(3.1)
  • Skin(2.9)
  • Adrenal gland(2.8)
  • Spleen(2.8)
  • Bone(2.7)
  • Gall bladder(2.7)
  • Urine(2.4)
  • Eye(2.3)
  • Thyroid gland(2.3)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PTGS2: view

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for PTGS2 Gene

Orthologs for PTGS2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for PTGS2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
Chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PTGS2 30 31
  • 99.56 (n)
OneToOne
Dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia COX-2 31
  • 90 (a)
OneToOne
PTGS2 30
  • 88.36 (n)
Cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PGHS-2 31
  • 89 (a)
OneToOne
PTGS2 30
  • 87.74 (n)
Platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PTGS2 31
  • 85 (a)
OneToOne
Mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Ptgs2 30 17 31
  • 84.92 (n)
OneToOne
Rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Ptgs2 30
  • 84.07 (n)
Oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PTGS2 31
  • 83 (a)
OneToOne
Chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PTGS2 30 31
  • 78.23 (n)
OneToOne
Lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PTGS2 31
  • 79 (a)
OneToOne
Tropical Clawed Frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia ptgs2 30
  • 71.19 (n)
Str.16299 30
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.33329 30
Zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii ptgs2b 30 31
  • 70.93 (n)
OneToMany
ptgs2a 31
  • 68 (a)
OneToMany
ptgs2 30
Rainbow Trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.11687 30
Sea Squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 31
  • 46 (a)
ManyToMany
CSA.3689 31
  • 45 (a)
ManyToMany
Species where no ortholog for PTGS2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Eremothecium gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • Alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • Amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • Beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • Common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • Corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • Filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute Bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • Fission Yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • Fruit Fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • Green Algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. Lactis Yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • Loblloly Pine (Pinus taeda)
  • Malaria Parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • Medicago Trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • Moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • Pig (Sus scrofa)
  • Rice (Oryza sativa)
  • Rice Blast Fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • Schistosome Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • Sea Anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • Sea Vase (Ciona intestinalis)
  • Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • Soybean (Glycine max)
  • Stem Rust Fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • Thale Cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • Wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • Worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for PTGS2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for PTGS2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for PTGS2 (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for PTGS2: view image

Paralogs for PTGS2 Gene

Paralogs for PTGS2 Gene

(2) SIMAP similar genes for PTGS2 Gene using alignment to 3 proteins:

  • PGH2_HUMAN
  • D9MWI3_HUMAN
  • Q9NNY7_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PTGS2: view

Variants for PTGS2 Gene

Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for PTGS2 Gene

SNP ID Clinical significance and condition Chr 01 pos Variation AA Info Type
717675 Likely Benign: not provided 186,674,671(-) C/T SYNONYMOUS_VARIANT
720903 Benign: not provided 186,674,413(-) G/T SYNONYMOUS_VARIANT
736161 Likely Benign: not provided 186,674,401(-) A/G SYNONYMOUS_VARIANT
749381 Likely Benign: not provided 186,676,057(-) T/C SYNONYMOUS_VARIANT
750088 Likely Benign: not provided 186,675,890(-) A/G INTRON_VARIANT

Additional dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for PTGS2 Gene

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PTGS2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv666n54 CNV loss 21841781
esv2762854 CNV gain 21179565
nsv470750 CNV loss 18288195
nsv548400 CNV loss 21841781
nsv548403 CNV loss 21841781
nsv548404 CNV loss 21841781

Variation tolerance for PTGS2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 24.6% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 2.39; 42.27% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for PTGS2 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
PTGS2
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
PTGS2

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PTGS2 Gene

Disorders for PTGS2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(143) MalaCards diseases for PTGS2 Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
gastric ulcer
  • acute gastric ulcer with haemorrhage and perforation
bursitis
stomach disease
  • gastric disease
familial adenomatous polyposis
  • fap
peptic ulcer disease
  • acute peptic ulcer with hemorrhage
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search PTGS2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for PTGS2

Genetic Association Database
(GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
(HuGE)
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
Open Targets Platform
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PTGS2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for PTGS2 Gene

Publications for PTGS2 Gene

  1. Genetic polymorphisms in the cyclooxygenase-2 gene, use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and breast cancer risk. (PMID: 17181859) Shen J … Santella RM (Breast cancer research : BCR 2006) 3 23 26 41
  2. Role of cyclooxygenase-2 and 5-lipoxygenase polymorphisms in Alzheimer's disease in a population from northern Italy: implication for pharmacogenomics. (PMID: 20110601) Listì F … Candore G (Journal of Alzheimer's disease : JAD 2010) 3 23 41
  3. Variation in eicosanoid genes, non-fatal myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke. (PMID: 19046748) Lemaitre RN … Psaty BM (Atherosclerosis 2009) 3 23 41
  4. Common polymorphisms in the prostaglandin pathway genes and their association with breast cancer susceptibility and survival. (PMID: 19276290) Abraham JE … Pharoah PD (Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research 2009) 3 23 41
  5. Association of polymorphisms of PTGS2 and CYP8A1 with myocardial infarction. (PMID: 19327107) Xie X … Liu F (Clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine 2009) 3 23 41

Products for PTGS2 Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for PTGS2