Aliases for PTGS2 Gene
External Ids for PTGS2 Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PTGS2 Gene
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase (PTGS), also known as cyclooxygenase, is the key enzyme in prostaglandin biosynthesis, and acts both as a dioxygenase and as a peroxidase. There are two isozymes of PTGS: a constitutive PTGS1 and an inducible PTGS2, which differ in their regulation of expression and tissue distribution. This gene encodes the inducible isozyme. It is regulated by specific stimulatory events, suggesting that it is responsible for the prostanoid biosynthesis involved in inflammation and mitogenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]
GeneCards Summary for PTGS2 Gene
PTGS2 (Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthase 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PTGS2 include Familial Adenomatous Polyposis and Gastric Ulcer. Among its related pathways are Arachidonic acid metabolism and Prostaglandin Synthesis and Regulation. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and lipid binding. An important paralog of this gene is PTGS1.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for PTGS2 Gene
Dual cyclooxygenase and peroxidase in the biosynthesis pathway of prostanoids, a class of C20 oxylipins mainly derived from arachidonate, with a particular role in the inflammatory response (PubMed:7947975, PubMed:7592599, PubMed:9261177, PubMed:16373578, PubMed:22942274, PubMed:26859324, PubMed:27226593, PubMed:11939906, PubMed:19540099). The cyclooxygenase activity oxygenates arachidonate (AA, C20:4(n-6)) to the hydroperoxy endoperoxide prostaglandin G2 (PGG2), and the peroxidase activity reduces PGG2 to the hydroxy endoperoxide PGH2, the precursor of all 2-series prostaglandins and thromboxanes (PubMed:7947975, PubMed:7592599, PubMed:9261177, PubMed:16373578, PubMed:22942274, PubMed:26859324, PubMed:27226593). This complex transformation is initiated by abstraction of hydrogen at carbon 13 (with S-stereochemistry), followed by insertion of molecular O2 to form the endoperoxide bridge between carbon 9 and 11 that defines prostaglandins. The insertion of a second molecule of O2 (bis-oxygenase activity) yields a hydroperoxy group in PGG2 that is then reduced to PGH2 by two electrons (PubMed:7947975, PubMed:7592599, PubMed:9261177, PubMed:16373578, PubMed:22942274, PubMed:26859324, PubMed:27226593). Similarly catalyzes successive cyclooxygenation and peroxidation of dihomo-gamma-linoleate (DGLA, C20:3(n-6)) and eicosapentaenoate (EPA, C20:5(n-3)) to corresponding PGH1 and PGH3, the precursors of 1- and 3-series prostaglandins (PubMed:11939906, PubMed:19540099). In an alternative pathway of prostanoid biosynthesis, converts 2-arachidonoyl lysophopholipids to prostanoid lysophopholipids, which are then hydrolyzed by intracellular phospholipases to release free prostanoids (PubMed:27642067). Metabolizes 2-arachidonoyl glycerol yielding the glyceryl ester of PGH2, a process that can contribute to pain response (PubMed:22942274). Generates lipid mediators from n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) via a lipoxygenase-type mechanism. Oxygenates PUFAs to hydroperoxy compounds and then reduces them to corresponding alcohols (PubMed:11034610, PubMed:11192938, PubMed:9048568, PubMed:9261177). Plays a role in the generation of resolution phase interaction products (resolvins) during both sterile and infectious inflammation (PubMed:12391014). Metabolizes docosahexaenoate (DHA, C22:6(n-3)) to 17R-HDHA, a precursor of the D-series resolvins (RvDs) (PubMed:12391014). As a component of the biosynthetic pathway of E-series resolvins (RvEs), converts eicosapentaenoate (EPA, C20:5(n-3)) primarily to 18S-HEPE that is further metabolized by ALOX5 and LTA4H to generate 18S-RvE1 and 18S-RvE2 (PubMed:21206090). In vascular endothelial cells, converts docosapentaenoate (DPA, C22:5(n-3)) to 13R-HDPA, a precursor for 13-series resolvins (RvTs) shown to activate macrophage phagocytosis during bacterial infection (PubMed:26236990). In activated leukocytes, contributes to oxygenation of hydroxyeicosatetraenoates (HETE) to diHETES (5,15-diHETE and 5,11-diHETE) (PubMed:22068350, PubMed:26282205). During neuroinflammation, plays a role in neuronal secretion of specialized preresolving mediators (SPMs) 15R-lipoxin A4 that regulates phagocytic microglia (By similarity).
Cyclooxygenase (also known as COX, Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase, Prostaglandin G/H synthase) is expressed in cells in three isoforms. COX-1 (constitutive) and COX-2 (inducible) isoforms catalyze the rate-limiting step of prostaglandin production.