Aliases for PTGS2 Gene
External Ids for PTGS2 Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PTGS2 Gene
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase (PTGS), also known as cyclooxygenase, is the key enzyme in prostaglandin biosynthesis, and acts both as a dioxygenase and as a peroxidase. There are two isozymes of PTGS: a constitutive PTGS1 and an inducible PTGS2, which differ in their regulation of expression and tissue distribution. This gene encodes the inducible isozyme. It is regulated by specific stimulatory events, suggesting that it is responsible for the prostanoid biosynthesis involved in inflammation and mitogenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]
GeneCards Summary for PTGS2 Gene
PTGS2 (Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthase 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PTGS2 include Familial Adenomatous Polyposis and Gastric Ulcer. Among its related pathways are Oxytocin signaling pathway and Immune response Fc epsilon RI pathway. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and lipid binding. An important paralog of this gene is PTGS1.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for PTGS2 Gene
Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis (PubMed:26859324, PubMed:27226593). Constitutively expressed in some tissues in physiological conditions, such as the endothelium, kidney and brain, and in pathological conditions, such as in cancer. PTGS2 is responsible for production of inflammatory prostaglandins. Up-regulation of PTGS2 is also associated with increased cell adhesion, phenotypic changes, resistance to apoptosis and tumor angiogenesis. In cancer cells, PTGS2 is a key step in the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which plays important roles in modulating motility, proliferation and resistance to apoptosis. During neuroinflammation, plays a role in neuronal secretion of specialized preresolving mediators (SPMs), especially 15-R-lipoxin A4, that regulates phagocytic microglia (By similarity).
Cyclooxygenase (also known as COX, Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase, Prostaglandin G/H synthase) is expressed in cells in three isoforms. COX-1 (constitutive) and COX-2 (inducible) isoforms catalyze the rate-limiting step of prostaglandin production.